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                 EDUCATIONAL THEORY IN THE PARADIGM OF BEHAVIOURISM

                                        OR 'BEHAVIOURAL PARADIGM'

 

theme: Educational theory and the educational system has been dominated by behavioural science as 'behavioural psychology' i.e. behavioural paradigm.

theme: Behavioural science as behavioural 'psychology' or behaviourism has dominated educational theory and the educational system. "There is emerging awareness that our current educational psychology is not so much wrong as so very limited." (Thomas Roberts. Education and Transpersonal Relations. Walsh, editor.) Beyond Ego: Transpersonal Dimensions in Psychology 228)

behavioural paradigm as the 'tradtional paradigm'...

conditioned learning or 'conditioning'...  rote learning...

 

Behavioural paradigm is the 'traditional paradigm' The traditional worldview or 'paradigm' of education is based on institutionalisation of theories of John Watson, founder of the science of human behaviour known as behavioural science or 'behavioral psychology' and popularised as 'behaviourism'. Behaviourism has been regarded as a reliable source of explanation of the learning process and consequently has had a profound influence on the field of educational theory. In the behavioural paradigm, the learning process is perceived in terms of conditioned behaviour or 'conditioning'.

Behavioural psychology is less than a hundred years old and a product of European and American cultures. John B. Watson (1878-1958) was the founder of the new psychology and science of the human psyche or 'mind' and behaviour i.e. 'behavioural psychology'... 'behavioural science' i.e. 'behaviourism'. Watson represented the expressioof the American reaction against German Nazi rationalism. According to the principles of behaviourism human behaviours are learned through a mental process which substitutes one stimulus for another in conditioned responses i.e. 'conditioned learning' or 'conditioning'. The notion of conditioning was the basic premise of behaviourism which recognizes a limited number of normal 'consciousness states': the ordinary 'waking state' considered to be the most satisfactory for perception of reality and two 'sleeping states' - the 'dreaming state' and the 'non-dreaming state'. Watson promoted  behaviourism as the most objective science of human behaviour and described it as a "...a purely objective science of the mind which is an experimental branch of natural science. Its theoretical goal is the prediction and control of behaviour. Introspection forms no part of its methods." (Psychological Review 1913)   

Learning theory in the traditional behavioural paradigm: conditioned learning or 'conditioning'

BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES AND LEARNING THEORY: 'CONDITIONING'

In the behavioural paradigm, the teaching function is based on the premise that learning is a matter of conscious conditioning ... 'rote memorisation'.

During the twentieth century, educational research has been based on the mechanistic and objective approach of scientific reductionism. The field of educational psychology and the so-called 'traditional' educational theories have been influenced primarily by behavioural psychology, the so-called 'science' of mind and behaviour known as 'behavioural science'. Less than a hundred years old and a product of European and American cultures, the behavioural sciences have shown little concern for the active participation of the learner in the learning process. The psychological theories of behavioural science ignores the inner life thus severely restricting its scope.

 In ignoring the individual's inner life, behavioural science imposes severe limitations on the perception of the psychology of the individual. Behavioural science has produced a behavioural 'psychology' and numerous psychotherapies for the treatment of non-adaptive behaviour problems supposedly originating from personality 'deficiencies' which are observable in the individual's overt behaviour. Behavioural psychology recognizes only a limited number of normal consciousness states - dreaming sleep, nondreaming sleep, and the waking state.

 The ordinary waking state of consciousness is considered to be the most desirable dimension of the personality and the most satisfactory for an individual's perception of reality.

Consequently it is believed that all psychological functioning and phenomena can be understood through objective analysis and that they can be codified and communicated through language. The limitations which are inherent in the 'science' of behaviour and behavioural psychology have dominated educational theory and the educational system.

 Educational theories have been formulated on the basis of the worldview of the behavioural sciences. For the past century, educational aims have been formulated in the mechanical framework of industrialism and the objective framework of behaviourism.The aims of education and learning theory have been expressed in terms of establishing those behaviour patterns which are considered desirable for social and political purposes. In the paradigm of behavioural science, the 'behavioural paradigm' - also known as the 'traditional' paradigm - research methods of behavioural science have been applied to the study of the learning process.

 

The behavioural paradigm is based on a set of assumptions which are based on an understanding of the learning process in terms of the principles of behaviourism. The learning process is described in terms of the behavioural concepts of 'conditioning' and 'conditioned behaviour'. The process of learning is assumed to be a function of conscious conditioning. Learning is thought to take place through a process of conditioning in the exercise of repetition and rote memorization. On the basis of the assumption that learning is a function of conditioning, it is believed possible to shape human behaviour to any desired form. Educational aims are formulated in terms of conditioning human beings for desired purposes and behavioral outcomes. In the behavioural paradigm, education has been institutionalized within the limited framework of behavioural science and its ignorance of the learner's inner life. Emphasis is placed on the mechanics of learning and learning strategies such as competition, static and rigid processes, fragmentation of content, learning for content, authoritarian teaching, departmentalized learning, cultural uniformity and conformity, isolated teaching and learning environments, technologies of learning, behavioural outcomes, assessment of learner 'performance' on objective tests and so on.

 Teaching methods are devised with a view to rewarding desirable learning behaviour and punishing undesirable learning behaviour by means of a reward and punishment system of evaluation using grades and grade averages. Teachers are made to believe that they are the primary authorities and judges in the assessment of learning. They decide what children should learn and how much. They emphasize specified 'learning outcomes' in predetermined 'lesson plans'. They promote learner evaluation on the basis of performance in 'objective tests'. They emphasize the mechanics of textbook knowledge and encourage rote memorization. They encourage learners to depend on extrinsic motivation in their pursuit of good 'grades' for good learning behaviors. Institutionalization of education within the limited behavioural paradigm imposes severe limitations on the learner's educational experience. Teaching methods are formulated with a view to condition the learner for desired purposes. Learners are encouraged to learn for someone else - parents, teachers, schools and the 'society'.

 Teaching methods which are formulated in the behavioural paradigm with its ignorance of the learner's inner life offer an education which is limited in its scope. There is little or no concern for the learner's active participation in the learning process. Behavioural science is disqualified from making valid conclusions about an individual's potential for attaining optimal positive health and well-being because they fail to recognize the most important aspects of human nature. Behavioural science and behavioural psychology ignore the other psychologies which seem to be impossible to study objectively. Consequently they ignore those dimensions of consciousness which originate in the individual's thoughts and feelings. They fail to recognize the validity of the individual's subjective experience. They do not acknowledge the individual's potential for attaining a level of awareness which is needed for the educational benefits of consciousness.

  During the twentieth century, educational research, educational psychology and educational theory of the so-called 'traditional' paradigm have been influenced primarily by the mechanistic and objective approach of scientific reductionism as applied to behavioural science ie. 'behaviourism'. The behavioural paradigm of education or  is based on  In the traditional behavioural paradigm, the teaching function is based on the premise that learning is a matter of replacement of one stimulus by another i.e. conditioned learning or 'conditioning'... assumed to be based on the separate functioning of the 'emotions' and the 'intellect'.

The 'behavioural paradigm'  has produced numerous psychotherapies for the treatment of non-adaptive behaviour problems supposedly originating from 'personality deficiencies' observable in the individual's overt behaviour. 

Biology of conditioned learning ...the mechanism of the classical conditioning reflex, the simplest example of learning to associate two events called the 'mechanism of associative learning' or the 'pre-modulatory' mechanism. ...synaptic connection between two neurons is strengthened with the involvement of a third neuron - the 'modulatory' neuron. ...coincident electrical impulses in the pre-synaptic neuron and the modulatory neuron enhances transmitter release from the terminals of the presynaptic neuron without involving activity of the postsynaptic cell.

Mechanistic approach of behavioural paradigm: influence on educational theory In the behavioural paradigm of education, educational methodology has been directly influenced by the scientific methodology ...scientific process ...of logical empiricism with its bias towards completely 'objective' knowledge i.e. 'scientism' . In the paradigm of scientism educational research has been based on the mechanistic and objective approach of scientific reductionism. The value of knowledge is measured in terms of its objectives and its usefulness.  The 'objectives' of classwork and coursework are described in terms of the acquisition and measurement of 'objective' cognitive knowledge which can only be measured with the use of test-taking skills and test performance.  Behaviourism has influenced the field of educational psychology and the so-called 'traditional' educational theories...  formulated on the basis of the worldview of behavioural science... in the mechanical framework of industrialism and the objective framework of behaviourism.

Understanding of learning in terms of behavioural concepts  The behavioural paradigm is based on a set of assumptions which are based on an understanding of the learning process in terms of the principles of behaviourism. Research methods of behavioural science have been applied to the study of the learning process which is described in terms of behavioural concepts such as the replacement of one stimulus with another i.e. conditioned learning behaviouor 'conditioning'.  Conditioning is the basis for the exercise of learning by repetition and memorization i.e. 'rote learing'

      Brain antagonistic methods: rote memorisation or 'rote learning'                                                         

Theme: In the framework of the traditional teaching paradigm, most teaching is done with a view to predetermined outcomes such as successful 'performance' on tests which emphasize the acquisition of data through memorization of factual material and isolated information i.e. 'rote learning'. Rote learning is conditioned learning... programmed learning... not necessarily with understanding.  Rote learning develops dependent personalities...

"Much of the problem in leading a child to effective cognitive activity is to free him from the immediate control of environmental rewards and punishments. Learning that starts in response to the rewards of parental or teacher approval or to the avoidance of failure can too readily develop a pattern in which the child is seeking cues as to how to conform to what is expected of him. We know from studies of children who tend to be early overachievers in school that they are likely to be seekers after the 'right way to do it' and that their capacity for transforming learning into viable thought structures tends to be lower than that of children achieving at levels predicted by intelligence tests ...They develop rote abilities and depend on being able to 'give back' what is expected rather than to make it into something that relates to the rest of their cognitive life. Their learning is not their own." (Jerome Bruner. On Knowing: Essays for the Left Hand, Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1962, 88)

Rote learning is 'route' or 'taxon' learning   Rote learning is 'route' learning or 'taxon' learning (from 'taxonomies' meaning lists, prototypes and categories which refer to generic terms such as 'dog', 'school' etc.) As taxon learning, rote learning is based on the brain's 'taxon memory systems'. Retention of taxon memories depends on repeated rehearsals. Lack of rehearsal results in loss of memoryor 'forgetting. Rote learning is inefficient because it activates only part of the brain's potential. Route learning is the traditional textbook learning for test-taking and grades. It involves specified 'routes' for acquisiton of knowledge

  When the brain is activated largely for the purposes of rote learning, a relatively small number of neurons are fired repeatedly resulting in rapid brain fatigue and inhibiting the formation of synaptic connections.

Traditional paradigm  Pedagogies based on methods of rote learning have been evident for centuries. In the relatively recent 'traditional' or 'behavioural paradigm' of education the fragmented and assembly line approach is based on the confusion of learning with school and 'schooling'. Learning as schooling places the emphasis almost entirely on the mechanics of knowledge - the knowledge that something is the case as in a 'fact' i.e. 'declarative knowledge', and knowledge of how something is done as in a 'procedure' i.e. 'procedural knowledge'. Declarative and procedural knowledge or 'data' which on its own does not  necessarily make sense is 'inert knowledge' or 'surface knowledge'. Surface knowledge which is unrelated to life experience is meaningless.

In the traditional paradigm of education emphasis is placed on  surface knowledge which is often  for the learners concerned.

  Traditional teaching methods are detrimental to brain function... 'brain- antagonistic' methods of learning  Teaching methods which impose meaningless patterns on the brain are met with its resistance to learning... are known as 'brain-antagonistic' pedagogies. Brain-antagonistic methods involve the processing of meaningless stimuli which are forced ]and meet with its natural resistance. The brain naturally resists the imposition of meaningless patterns and isolated facts which become meaningless when unrelated to meaningful experience. Brain-antagonistic pedagogies antagonize the learning process. The brain naturally resists rote learning of fragmented information which has no meaning in experience. Rote learning is a form of learning which is very tiring and taxing. With rote learning the brain is rapidly fatigued. When the brain is activated largely for the purposes of memorization, a relatively small number of neurons fire repeatedly and this is what leads to rapid brain fatigue. When the brain is used largely for the purposes of rote learning, only part of its potential is activated.

Pedagogies based on methods of rote learning have been evident for centuries... evident in the sixteenth century at the time of Montaigne. "'Tis the custom of pedagogues to be eternally thundering in their pupils' ears, as they were pouring into a funnel, whilst the business of the pupil is only to repeat what the others have said: now I would have a tutor to correct this error, and that at the very first he should, according to the capacity he has to deal with, put it to the test, permitting his pupil himself to taste things, and of himself to discern and choose them, sometimes opening the way to him, and sometimes leaving him to open it for himself. ... Cubs of bears and puppies readily discover their natural inclination; but men, so soon as ever they are grown up, applying themselves to certain habits, engaging themselves in certain opinions, and conforming themselves to particular laws and customs, easily alter, or at least disguise, their true and real disposition; and yet it is hard to force the propension of nature. Whence it comes to pass, that for not having chosen the right course, we often take very great pains, and consume a good part of our time in training up children to things for which, by their natural constitution, they are totally unfit." (Michel Eyquem de Montaigne (1533-1592) "Of the Education of Children", The Essays, The Great Books of the Western World, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1952 volume 25:64)

Teacher's role in the traditional paradigm  In the traditional paradigm of 'banking education', the teacher is an authority who decides what and how their students should learn through lecture and textbook. Lessons are designed with a view to specific 'learning outcomes' which are outlined in structured 'lesson plans'. Evaluation of learning is based on student 'performance' on 'objective tests'. And even though much is forgotten after testing, performance is measured in terms of a reward/punishment system of 'scores', 'grades' and 'grade averages'. These methods are characteristic of the 'student/teacher contradiction'  in which naturally protective ethical barriers are spontaneously set up between learner and teacher and the learner is prevented from engaging in natural learning. Teaching practice is based on the assumption that learning is a mental process which substitutes one stimulus for another in conditioned responses i.e. 'conditioned learning' or 'conditioning'. Conditioning is 'programming. Programming without understanding involves the separate functioning of 'emotions' and 'intellect' and its retention depends on the repetition of rote learning.

 Emphasis on conditioning and rote learning involves the unnatural imposition of meaningless stimuli on the brain.

Brain-antagonistic methods of teaching (teaching for 'rote learning' or 'conditioned learning' actually inhibit 'real learning' as experiential learning because they inhibit the formation of new synaptic connections in the cortex of the brain.

Traditional teaching methods are 'brain-antagonistic'  The traditional teaching methods which emphasize facts and outcomes are ineffective in the development of the human potential for intelligence required for social adaptability - rational, spiritual, emotional, aesthetic, creative i.e.  'social intelligence'. Development of social intelligence depends on a learning environment characterised by respect for the individual's 'freedom' and their instinctive capacity for 'self-evaluation'. Since authoritarian methods teach to behavioural objectives, they can actually prevent real understanding of meaningful learning and are described as 'brain-antagonistic'. Brain-antagonistic teaching  ignores the role of the unconscious or 'emotion' in the process of learning. Meaningful learning engages personal initiative based on instinctive motivations or 'emotional drives' i.e. 'intrinsic motivation'. The various types of intrinsic motivation - 'motivational types' - are determined by a range of human motives for learning or 'human needs'. Human needs include the so-called 'higher needs' or 'spiritual needs' i.e. 'metaneeds' for 'ego-transcendance' as well as the basic psychological 'ego needs' for security and self-esteem. The motivational type depends on the individual's level of psychological development or 'sociocognitive stage'. Hence the importance of intrinsic motivated learning which engages personality development to maturity or 'self-actualisation'.

 "Route learning is the traditional textbook learning for test-taking and grades. It involves specified 'routes' for acquisiton of knowledge. Map learning involves the whole brain.... "Maps allow for the whole brain - feelings included... The brain is designed to deal with complex stimuli." (Nummela, R., and T. Rosengren. "The Brain's Routes and Maps: Vital Connections in Learning." NAASP National Association American Society of Principals Bulletin 72: 507 83-86 April 1988)

Emphasis on rote learning inhibits the development of 'conscience' and 'social intelligence'  The brain's  natural function is to detect patterns, find relationships and make connections as quickly as possible in order to adapt to the complexities of changing conditions i.e. 'adaptability'. Adaptability depends on the brain's ability to make meaning of experience or 'learn'. Natural learning involves the brain's ability to integrate isolated facts with experience and to resist fragmentation of information. Teaching methods which depend on rote learning of fragmented knowledge naturally meet with the brain's resistance and antagonize the learning process. So-called 'brain-antagonistic' methods inhibit the brain's natural capacity for making connections and reduce its capacities for understanding relationships. This leads to brain deficiencies such as inability to process complex stimuli and connect with the emotional or 'inner life' which is the basis for social life. Brain-antagonistic methods interfere with the brain's natural development - intellectual or 'cognitive' development, emotional or 'psychological' development, and spiritual or 'ethical' development i.e. 'moral development'. Moral development is a function of development of 'moral consciousness' or 'conscience'. Alienation from conscience leads to imprisonment of mind and lack of 'freedom'. Development of conscience is a function of development of 'morality' and occurs in a series of age related stages i.e. 'socio-cognitive stages'.

Overemphasis on the rote learning capacity of the brain is an inefficient use of its potential. Learning by rote inhibits the brain's natural capacities for making connections and reduces its capacities for understanding relationships. As a result, the brain can become deficient in carrying out the natural functions which are essential to complex learning ...in the natural processing of complex stimuli. With deficiencies in the brain's capacity to process complex stimuli, there is little connectedness with other knowledge, or with the learner's emotional or 'inner life'.

Developed conscience is the source of human values for living or 'social intelligence'.

'Brain-compatible' pedagogies  Social intelligence which depends on the brain's ability to see links between learning and life is fostered by educational methods based on the brain's rules for complex learning i.e. 'brain-based learning'. So-called brain-compatible pedagogies enhance learning because they stimulate the brain's natural capacity for making connections between nerve cells or 'neurons'. They strengthen existing connections or 'synapses' and stimulate the formation of new ones. Brain-compatible pedagogies are based on recognition and respect for the learner's intrinsic motives for learning i.e. 'intrinsic motivation'.

Intrinsic motivation determines the extent to which rote learning is meaningful.

Implications for education  Overemphasis on predetermined outcomes, taxon memory and rote learning is an inefficient use of brain potential unless it is part of a larger pattern which is intrinsically motivating... a product of 'intrinsic motivation'.The inefficiency of rote learning deprives the learner of experiencing the real joys of learning and inhibits development of their natural capacity for personal creativity and intellectual growth and effective decision making i.e. 'adaptability'. It prevents the full functioning of the brain i.e. 'optimal learning' or 'optimalearning'. Optimalearning is effective because it involves the efficient use of brain potential...  involves understanding through expression and dialogue i.e. 'dialogical knowledge' - an outcome of teaching methods which are based on the resolution of the traditional 'teacher/student contradiction' i.e. 'humanisation' of education. Humane education is education of the whole person or 'holistic education'. Holistic education is education for the freedom to develop human potentialities... education for 'freedom' or 'libratory pedagogy'.

BRAIN-COMPATIBLE METHODOLOGIES Teaching methodologies are based on the integration of subject matter with life experience... respect for children's innate intelligence. Teaching for brain-based learning acknowledges the brain's ability to relate vast amounts of information to what has already been learned... allows for the learner's unique contribution. Learning takes place in different contexts. Brain-compatible methodologies encourage holistic thinking and a global perspective or 'wholistic perception'. Good pedagogical method is based on sound theoretical foundations. Teaching for the enhancement of learning... Brain-compatible pedagogies... They teach for learning which is meaningful in contextual frameworks. They provide for the individual's needs as well as for cultural differences and commonalities.

 

 

 On the basis of the assumption that learning is a function of conditioning, it is believed possible to shape human behaviour to any desired form. The aims of education are formulated in terms of conditioning human beings... establishing those behaviour patterns or 'behavioral outcomes' which are considered desirable for social and political purposes.

No concern for learner participation   Institutionalization of education within the behavioural paradigm imposes severe limitations on the learner's educational experience.  Little concern is shown for the active participation of the learner in the learning process. The psychological theories of behavioural science ignores the inner life thus severely restricting its scope.

In ignoring the individual's inner life, behavioural science imposes severe limitations on the perception of the psychology of the individual.

Limitations of behaviourism have dominated educational theory The limitations inherent in the 'science of behaviour' or 'behavioural psychology' have dominated educational theory. In the behavioural paradigm, education has been institutionalized within the limited framework of behavioural science and its ignorance of the learner's inner life. Emphasis is placed on the mechanics of learning and learning strategies such as competition, static and rigid processes, fragmentation of content, learning for content, authoritarian teaching, departmentalized learning, cultural uniformity and conformity, isolated teaching and learning environments, technologies of learning, behavioural outcomes, assessment of learner 'performance' on objective tests and so on.

Teaching methods in the behavioural paradigm  Teaching methods which are formulated in the behavioural paradigm with its ignorance of the learner's inner life offer an education which is limited in its scope. There is little or no concern for the learner's active participation in the learning process.

Teaching methods are devised with a view to rewarding desirable learning behaviour and punishing undesirable learning behaviour by means of a reward and punishment system of evaluation using  averages of points or 'grades'.

Teachers are made to believe that they are the primary authorities and judges in the assessment of learning. They decide what children should learn and how much. They emphasize specified 'learning outcomes' in predetermined 'lesson plans'. They promote learner evaluation on the basis of performance in 'objective tests'. They emphasize the mechanics of textbook knowledge and encourage rote memorization. They encourage learners to depend on extrinsic motivation in their pursuit of good grades for good learning behaviors.

Teaching methods are formulated with a view to condition the learner for desired purposes.

 Learners are encouraged to learn for someone else - parents, teachers, schools and the 'society'.

Implications for education Behavioural science is disqualified from making valid conclusions about an individual's potential for attaining optimal positive health and well-being because they fail to recognize learner's needs i.e. 'human needs'.

Behavioural science and behavioural psychology ignore the validity of other Eastern psychologies or 'consciousness disciplines'... which seem to be impossible to study objectively. They ignore those dimensions of consciousness which originate in the individual's thoughts and feelings. They fail to recognize the validity of the individual's subjective experience. They do not acknowledge the individual's potential for attaining a level of awareness which is needed for the educational benefits of all levels of consciousness...   science of connectedness or wholeness i.e. 'holistic science'.   'holistic education'...

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notes:

BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES AND THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM In the behavioural paradigm, the teaching function is based on the premise that learning is a matter of  conditioning.

 The psychological theories of behavioural science ignores the inner life thus severely restricting its scope. In ignoring the individual's inner life, behavioural science imposes severe limitations on the perception of the psychology of the individual. Behavioural science has produced a behavioural 'psychology' and numerous psychotherapies for the treatment of non-adaptive behaviour problems supposedly originating from personality 'deficiencies' which are observable in the individual's overt behaviour. Behavioural psychology recognizes only a limited number of normal consciousness states - dreaming sleep, nondreaming sleep, and the waking state.

 The ordinary waking state of consciousness is considered to be the most desirable dimension of the personality and the most satisfactory for an individual's perception of reality. Consequently it is believed that all psychological functioning and phenomena can be understood through objective analysis and that they can be codified and communicated through language. The limitations which are inherent in the 'science' of behaviour and behavioural psychology have dominated educational theory and the educational system. Educational theories have been formulated on the basis of the worldview of the behavioural sciences. For the past century, educational aims have been formulated in the mechanical framework of industrialism and the objective framework of behaviourism.

The aims of education and learning theory have been expressed in terms of establishing those behaviour patterns which are considered desirable for social and political purposes. In the paradigm of behavioural science, the 'behavioural paradigm' - also known as the 'traditional' paradigm - research methods of behavioural science have been applied to the study of the learning process. The behavioural paradigm is based on a set of assumptions which are based on an understanding of the learning process in terms of the principles of behaviourism. The learning process is described in terms of the behavioural concepts of 'conditioning' and 'conditioned behaviour'. The process of learning is assumed to be a function of conscious conditioning.

 Learning is thought to take place through a process of conditioning in the exercise of repetition and rote memorization.

On the basis of the assumption that learning is a function of conditioning, it is believed possible to shape human behaviour to any desired form. Educational aims are formulated in terms of conditioning human beings for desired purposes and behavioral outcomes. In the behavioural paradigm, education has been institutionalized within the limited framework of behavioural science and its ignorance of the learner's inner life. Emphasis is placed on the mechanics of learning and learning strategies such as competition, static and rigid processes, fragmentation of content, learning for content, authoritarian teaching, departmentalized learning, cultural uniformity and conformity, isolated teaching and learning environments, technologies of learning, behavioural outcomes, assessment of learner 'performance' on objective tests and so on.

Teaching methods are devised with a view to rewarding desirable learning behaviour and punishing undesirable learning behaviour by means of a reward and punishment system of evaluation using grades and grade averages.

 Teachers are made to believe that they are the primary authorities and judges in the assessment of learning. They decide what children should learn and how much. They emphasize specified 'learning outcomes' in predetermined 'lesson plans'. They promote learner evaluation on the basis of performance in 'objective tests'. They emphasize the mechanics of textbook knowledge and encourage rote memorization.

They encourage learners to depend on extrinsic motivation in their pursuit of good 'grades' for good learning behaviors.

Institutionalization of education within the limited behavioural paradigm imposes severe limitations on the learner's educational experience. Teaching methods are formulated with a view to condition the learner for desired purposes..

 Learners are encouraged to learn for someone else - parents, teachers, schools and the 'society'. Teaching methods which are formulated in the behavioural paradigm with its ignorance of the learner's inner life offer an education which is limited in its scope. There is little or no concern for the learner's active participation in the learning process. Behavioural science is disqualified from making valid conclusions about an individual's potential for attaining optimal positive health and well-being because they fail to recognize the most important aspects of human nature. Behavioural science and behavioural psychology ignore the other psychologies which seem to be impossible to study objectively. Consequently they ignore those dimensions of consciousness which originate in the individual's thoughts and feelings. They fail to recognize the validity of the individual's subjective experience.  They do not acknowledge the individual's potential for attaining a level of awareness which is needed for the educational benefits of consciousness.

 On the basis of the assumption that learning is a function of conditioning, it is believed possible to shape human behaviour to any desired form. Educational aims are formulated in terms of conditioning human beings for desired purposes and behavioral outcomes.

 In the behavioural paradigm, education has been institutionalized within the limited framework of behavioural science and its ignorance of the learner's inner life. Emphasis is placed on the mechanics of learning and learning strategies such as competition, static and rigid processes, fragmentation of content, learning for content, authoritarian teaching, departmentalized learning, cultural uniformity and conformity, isolated teaching and learning environments, technologies of learning, behavioural outcomes, assessment of learner 'performance' on objective tests and so on. Teaching methods are devised with a view to rewarding desirable learning behaviour and punishing undesirable learning behaviour by means of a reward and punishment system of evaluation using grades and grade averages

 

Successful learning is considered to be the result of successful conditioning. The results of conditioning or learning outcomes' are evaluated and measured in terms of reward and punishment by way of a points or 'grades'.

 Learning theory in the behavioural paradigm BEHAVIOURISM AND THEORY OF LEARNING

  Educational principles are formulated in terms of conditioned learning behaviour

 In the behavioural paradigm of education, educational methodology has been directly influenced by the scientific methodology ...scientific process ...of logical empiricism with its bias towards completely 'objective' knowledge i.e. 'scientism' . In the paradigm of scientism the value of knowledge is measured in terms of its objectives and its usefulness. The 'objectives' of classwork and coursework are described in terms of the acquisition and measurement of 'objective' cognitive knowledge which can only be measured with the use of test-taking skills and test performance.

The explanation for the learning process is shaped by the assumption that the learner is detached in the learning process. Pedagogocal principles are formulated on the basis of the notion that cognitive knowledge can only be measured with 'objective' testing methods. They place the emphasis almost entirely on predetermined outcomes and on the learner's acquisition of factual data.

LIMITATIONS OF THE BEHAVIOURAL PARADIGM Principles of educational methodology which are formulated within the context of the behavioural paradigm fail to recognize the scientific reality of the human inner life. They understand the concept of 'change' as the addition of new habits like external possessions. Consequently the learner is deprived of opportunities to develop their personal capacity for decision making. For these reasons they impose severe limitations on the individual's educational experience as well as on the field of psychology. The behavioural explanation of the learning process or 'psychology of learning' is a limited body of knowledge which is based on the concern for the acquisition from the outside world of satisfactions of motivational deficiencies i.e. learning the best way to satisfy a need.'deficit motivation'. Motivation for learning is based on goal objects which are external to the organism - extrinsic motivation. Extrinsic motivation is based on concern for the perfection of techniques for the repeated satisfaction of the deficiency needs.

     The limited view of learning as a matter of conditioning forms the basis of the belief that  human behaviour can be shaped to any desired form... educational aims are expressed in terms of establishing those behaviour patterns and outcomes which are considered suitable for desired social and political purposes. Pedagogical methods formulated in this context focus on surface knowledge which does not necessarily make sense to the learner. Pedagogical methods ... rote memorization.

     The perception of human learning as human conditioning is based on the belief that learning involves only the conscious dimension of thinking or 'cognition'. Teaching methods of the traditional behavioural paradigm ignore the unconscious aspect of learning. They ignore the individual's need to bring to their own awareness ...to raise their own consciousness .... those motivating emotional forces of the unconscious which are the source of their intrinsic motivation for learning.

 

Teaching methods of the traditional behavioural paradigm ignore the unconscious aspect of learning. They ignore the individual's need to bring to their own awareness ...to raise their own consciousness .... those motivating emotional forces of the unconscious which are the source of their intrinsic motivation for learning. They fail to acknowledge the brain's rules for learning... they ignore its natural functioning and its natural function of learning... of searching for meaning in experience... of detecting patterns in its search for meaning... they reduce the brain's capacity to understand relationships... they deprive the brain of the opportunity for its own natural development. They impose meaningless patterns on the brain and as a result they are met with its resistance to learning. Teaching methods in the behavioural paradigm ignore the learner's inner life... they inhibit the learner's natural capacity for personal creativity... for complete psychological, emotional intellectual and spiritual growth. Education for complete development means that it must be geared to the child's psychic needs and capacities. Sound psychic development is adversely affected by fear of extensive punishment, external discipline and the overemphasis of enforced learning. Fear creates hostility and hypocrisy. Fear paralyzes endeavor and authenticity of feeling. Fear prevents proper emotional development. Fear of an inhumane environment prevents the proper development of children. A humane environment which is supportive of the individual's intrinsic needs is conducive to their development into mature individuals with self-discipline, self-confidence and self-responsibility. With a shift in paradigm to a systems approach, it becomes possible to view the learning process in all its complexity. links: ...behavioural science ...extrinsic motivation ...intrinsic motivation ...brain ...self-actualization ...systems approach

THE BRAIN They fail to acknowledge the brain's rules for learning.. they ignore its natural functioning of searching for meaning in experience... of detecting patterns in its search for meaning... they reduce the brain's capacity to understand relationships... they deprive the brain of the opportunity for its own natural development. They impose meaningless patterns on the brain and as a result they are met with its resistance to learning.

IMPLICATIONS FOR EDUCATION Teaching methods in the behavioural paradigm ignore the learner's inner life... they inhibit the learner's natural capacity for personal creativity... for complete psychological, emotional intellectual and spiritual growth to maturity or 'self-actualisation'.  Self-actualisation engages the individual's perception of the whole... interconnectedness of reality i.e. 'holistic perception'.  Holistic perception is a natural outcome of education for the whole person... for self-actualisation i.e. 'holistic education'.

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American behavioral psychology has not been interested in a definition of human nature

The behavioral sciences ignore those 'psychologies' which present too many difficulties for objective study. The individual who lives within the context of the paradigm of Western psychology is unaware of its limitations and of the mental distortions which affect his perception of 'reality'. Matter is considered to be the primary constituent of 'reality' and consciousness the product of material brain processes. By defining 'psychology' as the 'mental or behavioural characteristics of an individual or group,' behavioural science becomes only one of the many 'psychologies' described by different peoples and cultures of the world

Justification for the traditional pragmatic function of education was found in the principles of behavioral psychology and its emphasis on conditioned learning. Less than a hundred years old and a product of European and American cultures, our formal Western 'psychology' is a science of mind and behaviour known as 'behavioural science.' According to the tenets of this 'psychology' only a limted number of normal consciousness states are recognized: dreaming and nondreaming sleep, and waking. The most desirable dimension of the personality and the most satisfactory for an individual's perception of 'reality' is considered to be the ordinary waking state of consciousness. The behavioural scientists consider that essentially all psychological functioning and phenomena can be codified and communicated through language. Consequently it is through intellectual analysis that they can be understood

 With a very limited worldview, the behavioral sciences have dominated educational theory and the educational system. By ignoring the individual's inner life, they have imposed severe limitations on the individual's psychology and educational experience. They have determined the specification of learning outcomes in predetermined lesson plans. They have promoted the method of student 'evaluation' on the basis of their 'performance' in objective testing. They have produced teachers who believe that they are the primary authority and judge in the evaluation and assessment of learning. They have encouraged students to be motivated extrinsically, pursuing good grades for good learning behaviors. The behavioral sciences have emphasized the mechanics of textbook knowledge - facts, procedures, and behaviors. The have shown little concern for the student's active participation in the learning process.

 In the traditional paradigm of behavioural psychology, education has been institutionalized within the framework - worldview or 'paradigm' - of behavioral science or 'behaviorism'. As the science of human behaviour, behaviourism has had a profound influence on the field of educational theory because it has been regarded as the most reliable source for a valid explanation of the learning process. In the behavioural paradigm, the learning process is perceived in terms of behavioural concepts such as  and conditioned behaviour... conditioning... reward and punishment evaluation...'grades' behavioural learning outcomes and so on.

Principles of behavioural psychology are based on the belief that the learning process is a matter of conditioning - a belief which stems from the notion that behaviourism provides a valid explanation for the learning process. As a result, educational principles are formulated in terms of conditioned learning behaviour. And educational theory is based on the assumption that learning is a result of conditioned behaviour and that successful learning is a result of successful conditioning.

In the behavioural paradigm, methods of teaching imply that learning must take place through techniques of conditioned learning such as rote memorization. Educational methodology has been directly influenced by the scientific methodology ...scientific process ...of logical empiricism with its bias towards completely 'objective' knowledge. The value of knowledge is measured in terms of its objectives and its usefulness. The explanation for the learning process is shaped by the assumption that the learner is detached in the learning process. Pedagogocal principles are formulated on the basis of the notion that cognitive knowledge can only be measured with 'objective' testing methods. They place the emphasis almost entirely on predetermined outcomes and on the learner's acquisition of factual data. The 'objectives' of classwork and coursework are described in terms of the acquisition and measurement of 'objective' cognitive knowledge which can only be measured with the use of test-taking skills and test performance. Principles of educational methodology which are formulated within the context of the behavioural paradigm - the paradigm of behavioural psychology - fail to recognize the scientific reality of the human inner life. They understand the concept of 'change' as the addition of new habits like external possessions. Consequently they deprive the learner of opportunities to develop their personal capacity for decision making. For these reasons they impose severe limitations on the individual's educational experience as well as on the field of psychology. The behavioural explanation of the learning process or 'psychology of learning' is a limited body of knowledge which is based on the concern for the acquisition from the outside world of satisfactions of motivational deficiencies i.e. learning the best way to satisfy a need.

Motivation for learning is based on goal objects which are external to the organism - extrinsic motivation. ...'deficit-motivation' is the concern with the perfection of techniques for the repeated satisfaction of the deficiency needs. The limited view of learning as a matter of conditioning forms the basis of the belief that human nature and human behaviour can be shaped to any desired form. On the basis of this belief, educational aims are expressed in terms of establishing those behaviour patterns and outcomes which are considered suitable for desired social and political purposes. Pedagogical methods formulated in this context focus on surface knowledge which does not necessarily make sense to the learner. The emphasis on the possession of knowledge obscures the real purpose of teaching which is to bring about effective learning - learning which is driven by the need for self-initiated development toward 'self-actualization. Effective learning results from the optimal functioning of the brain - both the conscious and the unconscious aspects of brain functioning. The perception of human learning as human conditioning is based on the belief that learning involves only the conscious part of the brain.