link: creative intelligence
HUMAN NATURE AS DEFINED BY NATURAL HUMAN INTELLIGENCE OR
The aim of education is to cultivate intelligence – not only mechanical intelligence based on conditioned learning but also creative intelligence based on experience. Creative intelligence is natural human intelligence which is a function of moral intelligence... moral consciousness or 'conscience'... as developed or 'rational conscience'. Development of conscience is a function of moral development as a cognitive process... moral growth is 'spiritual growth' involving three interrelated functions: the conscious desire to understand one's environment i.e. 'curiosity', the ability to process environmental stimuli i.e. 'cognition' or 'reason' and the subconscious ability to know i.e. 'intuition' a function of the wisdom of 'compassion'. Creative intelligence is required for effective adaptation to changing environmental conditions... 'adaptability'.
."Like other sciences, the 'science' of creative intelligence (science of human nature) makes us aware of an aspect of nature which already exists." (Jack Forem "Transcendental Meditation" Maharishi Mahesh Yogi and the Science of Creative Intelligence. New York: E.P. Dutton & Co., Inc. l974)
Painting in the Lasceaux caves home
"Since all human intelligences are part of the human genetic heritage, at some basic level each intellgence is manifested universally, independent of education and cultural support. Exceptional populations aside, all humans possess certain core abilities in each of the intelligences. The natural trajectory of development in each intellignce begins with raw patterning ability." (Howard Gardner Multiple Intelligences: The Theory in Practice 28)
meaning of 'intelligence'... intelligence as a function of state of consciousness... natural intelligence as creative intelligence... creative intelligence as heightened intelligence involving intuition... what is intuition?... biology of intuition... .. cultivation of intuition: consciousness disciplines... social intelligence...
moral intelligence or 'morality' "A moral situation is one in which judgement and choice are required antecedently to overt action. The practical meaning of the situation - that is to say the action needed to satisfy it - is not self-evident. It has to be searched for. There are conflicting desires and alternative apparent goods. What is needed is to find the right course of action, the right good. Hence inquiry is exacted...This inquiry is intelligence". (Dewey The Quest for Certainty. 255)
Meanings of the word 'intelligence' . The word 'intelligence' has different meanings for different people. In Industrialised societies as 'postindustrial' societies including American society the word tends to be used in connection with achievement in school.
"In postindustrial societies, the notion that intelligence is a 'trait' of individuals may be tied to the innovations in psychological testing that took place at the beginning of this century. Binet (1905) devised intelligence scales to identify children who were performing poorly in school and who might benefit from special education. Binet never intended to reify intelligence and he did not maintain that intelligence was a unitary trait. The fact that his test results could be summarized by a single score led to the belief that intelligence was a unitary attribute with which only certain individuals were endowed. Though Binet never intended to reify intelligence, and though he did not maintain intelligence was a unitary trait, the fact that his test results could be summarized by a single score fostered visions of intelligence as a unitary attribute situated in the heads of individuals". (Gardner Multiple Intelligences: The Theory in Practice 235-236)
In the more traditional societies or 'pre-industrial societies' the word is used in connection with the wisdom of morality required for maintaining the social linkages which mean long term security i.e. 'social intelligence'. Social intelligence is a human characteristic which evolved because it had survival value for the human species as a social species.
"In traditional societies, intelligence involves the ability to maintain the community's social ties... 'intelligence' is used in connection with wisdom, morality and virtue."(235)
"Though people in traditional societies may admire literacy, intelligence is not especially defined by skills associated with it... If you are intelligent, you behave according to the moral norms of the community because to do otherwise would antagonize those with whom you are permanently connected - which no intelligent adult would want to do... Those who behave in accordance with social convention are asssumed to be intelligent in the way that counts the most i.e. in their maintenance of the social linkages that mean longterm security, though this implies normal rather than exceptional intelligence. Those in the community who are most respected for their moral virtue are credited with being wisest and most intelligent." (Levine, R.A. and Whyte, M.I. Human Conditions New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1986. pp 39-40)
Intelligence is a function of the individual's 'consciousness state'... There is a spectrum of mental states or 'states of consciousness':the existential level, the ego level, the shadow level, the mind level. The existential level represents the individual's level of identity as a psychophysical organism existing in space and time. This level is influenced by the familial and cultural context of experience and is the source of rational thought processes and personal will or 'motivation'. The ego level represents the individual's identification with a self-image and is the source of self-interest and egocentric desires. The shadow level represents those facets of the personality which the individual judges negatively because they are inconsistent with the self-image of the ego level. The shadow level is the product of thwarted human development i.e. neurotic growth or 'neurosis' - the source of human wickedness or 'evil'. The highest consciousness state is the mind level which represents the transpersonal dimension of the human personality... consciousness operating beyond the usual limits of awareness of the ego level it 'transcends' the identity of the self. The 'mind is also known as the level of expanded awareness i.e. 'self-transcendance' or 'ego-transcendance'.
The mind level is the most profound state of consciousness and represents the innermost consciousness of the individual as the 'supreme identity of humanness'. It is the source of knowledge of the total self as representative of the human personality or 'human nature' i.e. 'self-knowledge'. Self-knowledge is the meaningful appreciation of one's own 'human values... humanity and the humanity of others. For this reason the mind level is the basis for 'social intelligence' and the most efficient for social adaptability. Mind level is more adaptive because it produces a perception of the social reality which is more objective... global or 'holistic' i.e. 'holistic perception'. Holistic perception is free of the contaminating and distorting effects of subjective prejudices, fears, wishes, and calculations i.e. 'inner freedom'. On the transpersonal level, the individual lives by values which preserve the interconnectedness of human beings: justice, truth, beauty, freedom, generosity, love and compassion. The mind level is the source of'natural intelligence' or 'creative intelligence'.
'Creative intelligence' evolved because it had survival value for the species.Survival of the organism and evolution of the human species depends on the development of intelligence. "Preparation for possible action in situation is an essential condition etc.and factor in, all intelligent behavior." (Dewey, J. Logic: The Theory of Inquiry: New York, London: Holt Rinehat and Winston, 1938)
Creative intelligence is the set of mental skills which enable the individual to make sense of the environment and then to use the information creatively in order to solve life's problems... to make accurate evaluations leading to adaptive behaviour. Intelligence is a function of the natural learning function of the brain... the ability to learn from experience... 'experiential learning' or 'meaningful learning'.
The human organism depends for survival on the natural capacity for learning and contemplation.With the natural capacity for learning, the human organism instinctively perceives 'reality' with a natural wholistic perception of the environment. To the degree that the individual is open to all aspects of his experience, and has available to his awareness all the varied sensings and perceivings which are going on within his organism, then the novel products of his interaction with his environment will tend to be constructive both for himself and others.
Human development to maturity and intelligence depends on the individual's need for unconditional love. Respect for the potential intelligence of the human organism and for children as they mature results in the capacity of proper evaluation, adjustment and decision making on personal, social and political levels.
Survival of the species depends on intelligent behaviour coupled with the ability for speech and language. See discussions of the origins of language and ability for speech as a human characteristic of survival value. "Preparation for future possible action in situations not as yet existent in actuality" was necessary for survival of a species not endowed with the other physical characteristics of other animals which they used for self protection. Man survived as a species because of the specialized brain functions, ability for speech and tool making etc. Intelligent behavior was necessary for survival.
"...the human mind is capable of transcending apparent empirical 'facts' and can penetrate to the 'world of formative ideas'. Through the power of imagination, we are able to integrate the empirical with the ideal, to place the concrete facts of our experience into a larger context of meaning, evolution and purpose. Physicist David Bohm calls this context 'undivided wholeness in flowing movement'. Gregory Bateson called it the 'pattern which connects'. Spiritual traditions have called it the Absolute, the Tao, or God. It is the infinitely creative source of Being." (Miller 16)
'Creative intelligence'as heightened intelligence... a function of personality integration... completeness or 'wholeness' of the mind which is totally free from distortion of perception arisng from fears and conflicts...
… integrated understanding of the significance of life which will enable the individual to with the ever increasing complexities of life… The aim of education is for the integration of the human mind which is intelligent and free. Education in the true sense is helping the individual to be mature and free… to flower, to bloom, to blossom… in love and goodness… to become fully ‘human’.
"Intelligence is discernment of the essential … highly awakened intelligence is intuition, the true guide in life.”(Jiddu Krishnamurti. Education and the Significance of Life)
Creative intelligence involvesthree interrelated functions: curiosity, cognition and 'intuition'. The relaxed brain is alert to incoming environmental stimuli or 'information' which affects the senses ('relaxed alertness') Environmental information arouses... awakens the brain's instinctive drive... need... to search for meaning... to inquire ...arouses the desire for inquiry and understanding i.e. the learning emotion of 'curiosity'; curiosity stimulates or awakens the brain's capacity to process the information i.e. thinking or 'cognition'; cognition activates intelligent decision making for responsive action which is creative and adaptive i.e. wholistic cognition of 'creative intelligence' i.e. 'intuition'.
Creative intelligence can be defined in terms of three interrelated functions: first, alertness to the complexity of incoming environmental stimuli or 'information' which arouses the desire for inquiry and understanding i.e. 'curiosity'; second, the process of gaining knowledge through the processing of information i.e. thinking or 'cognition'; third, inner perception of the essential... perceptual intelligence... 'clarity of perception'... 'perceptual sensitivity' ... i.e. 'intuition'. Intuition combines the understanding of reason with the wisdom of compassion... a function of the highest state of moral consciousness or 'conscience'. Conscience is a function of moral development i.e. 'moral intelligence' or 'morality'. Curiosity stimulates... awakens cognition and cognition activates intuition.
Motivation for formulation of intellectual concepts results from the brain's instinctive need for novelty, complexity, challenge and discovery or 'curiosity'. Curiosity is the brain's natural capacity for observation and inquiry. Combined with intelligence curiosity produces understanding and evaluation of environmental stimuli.
What is intuition? The insight of 'intuition' or the 'intuitive process' is immediate information processing by the whole brain: perception of the whole brain... global or holistic functioning of the brain... 'holistic perception'... 'holistic cognition' of 'perceptive intelligence'.
Intuition is the capacity to make adaptive and creative evaluation and effective decisions without conscious awareness of all the facts...Intuition Intuition is knowing without the conscious use of reason... 'perceptive intelligence'... the 'power of knowing'. In the intuitive process, the brain reaches a sudden conclusion... makes an adaptive and creative evaluation... decision without conscious awareness of all the facts. Intuition is the ability to reach the correct solution without necessarily knowing all the facts. Enhanced intuition improves the individual's capacity for decision-making... an advantage in process of adaptation to changing conditions... to live adaptively i.e. 'adaptability'. Adaptability depends on the ability to solve life’s problems… only possible with an integrated understanding of life…'holistic understanding'... understanding of the significance of the whole of life in terms of the interconnectedness between the parts and the whole Intuition is instinctive intelligence... based on inner vision for survival... related to instinct for self-preservation... preservation of the species... instinctual intelligence which is related to instinct for socialisation i.e. 'compassion'. Intuition is the highest spiritual faculty.
Intuition is the brain's natural capacity to integrate complex environmental stimuli by comparing, categorizing, detecting patterns and creating connections... in order to make accurate evaluations and reach conclusions quickly and effectively... the brain's pattern seeking capacity. In its effort to detect patterns the brain automatically responds as a whole i.e. 'holistic perception'. The instinctive holistic response of the brain to incoming stimuli results in the creative process of 'intuition'... making connections between parts and wholes... reaching a conclusion and making a decision without conscious awareness of all the facts. Intuition is an act of imagination... of creativity... involves the emotions as well as the intellect. The intuitive process involves the immediate processing by the whole brain... is influenced by emotional interpretations of environmental stimuli. Intuition involves the subconscious 'emotional' level of brain functioning ('emotional intelligence') as well as the conscious 'intellectual' level ('intellectual intelligence'). Intuition is enhanced with the integration of the 'ego-self' with the 'spiritual self' ('personality integration') ... 'holiness'... 'health' or 'wholeness' i.e. 'wellness'. The result is learning which is meaningful, effective, creative and adaptive. In the absence of personality integration the individual can see all there is to be seen of the surface features of phenomena... the sum total of what has already materialized... but is incapable of penetrating below the surface to the essential...of visualizing what is not apparent. Such an individual can see the details but not the whole; can see the trees but not the forest. Their limited perception leads to limited recognition of 'reality'... lack of intuition or 'vision' and limited cognition or 'incomplete cognition' which requires the imagination to calculate and combine the existing elements of their reality and to infer their future operation i.e. 'non-holistic learning'. The result of non-holistic learning can be meaningless, non-effective, destructive and therefore 'non-adaptive'... the source of 'evil'.
Intuition is sense perception (not to be confused with feeling emotions which are the product of thoughts)... happens in the present moment. Function of contemplation or 'meditation' is to connect with one's intuiton.Intuition is laguage of the 'soul'.
Intuition is a function of the integration of the ego-self with the spiritual self... 'holiness'.. 'health' or 'wholeness'.Must trust yourself to develop trust in your intuition... See Sufism...
The 'intuitive process' involves the immediate processing by the whole brain... 'global cognition'...
Creative intelligence is creative understanding... intuition is cognition of the whole mind.. required for discovery of the 'what is' of the living reality... true reality or 'truth' which is needed to make proper evaluation of the environment to produce creative and adaptive behavior.
"Intuition is the capacity to reach a sudden conclusion, letting the learning just happen. The intuitive process involves the immediate processing by the whole brain. It is possible to cultivate one's ability for intuitive thinking... Learning just happens and a conclusion is suddenly reached. Intuition can be cultivated with a serendipitous attitude to new experiences and new opportunities". (Carl Rogers Freedom to Learn Charles Merrill Publishing Company, Columbus Ohio l966
Intuition is stifled when doctrine becomes dogma. Intuition is hindered with 'unclean subconscious'... hence the importance of scrupulous ethicality.Intuition comes from the practice of altruism.
Biology of intuition... limbic system (see BethColeman.net/brainwaves... See Penrose Shadows of the Mind see Franquemont on intuition, hyatt carter.com/intuition)) As an instinctive intelligence which evolved before language... seat of intuition... theta brainwave state ... 'daydreaming state' in which there is a flow of ideas... state in which tasks become so automatic that one becomes mentally disengaged from them. Theta brainwave state engages the intuitive subconscious.
The power of intuition arises out of silence... hence the value of mditation. Intuition is manifest in images rather than words. (Watson intuitively glimpsed the spiral shape of DNA while he was walking down a spiral staircase at Oxford). The intuition is verified and then formulated into words... expressed verbally... through reason. Intuition is followed by reason. Reason and intuition work together (see Abdruschin)
Meditation brainwave pattern is a combination of theta and alpha. Theta provides the depth and profundity to the meditation experience... the subconscious inner space which gives rise to creativity and insight of intuition... and healing. Alpha provides the link to the conscious hinking mind allowing for the memory of the contents of the meditation experience. In the meditation experience one is are of one's emotional state... one is in the 'here and now'...
See Tibetan Exercise of Paradox to activate the four brainwave states at the same time.
Intuition is an 'emergent property' of the brain... The brain's natural wholistic perspective is a function of the interactivity of the two cerebral hemispheres.
Description of the state of mind in moments of insight of creative intelligence... 'relaxed alertness': the mind is still, calm and spacious... remains in a state of non-distraction, conscious vigilance, awareness of the present and beyond (always in the 'now' is 'immortality'), ... the movement of thought recognises thought but the mind remains still and is not distracted by the movement of thought.; the mind is focused on the thought in the same way that a camera is focused on a subject; this integration of movement and stillness can be referred to as 'one-pointedness'... or 'wholeness' of wisdom/compassion which provides clarity. With this positive state of mind (mind over matter) much more is accomplished than with negative feelings of impatience and frustration. Too much concentration of a thought becomes 'fixation'. The still and alert mind is like a teflon non-stick pan - it recognises negative thoughts and feelings but is not affected by them.(See chapter 5 of book Tibetan Book of Living and Dying (Sogyal Rinpoche)
(photo Dalai Lama) Cultivation of intuition: Eastern psychologies or 'consciousness disciplines'.
The Eastern 'psychologies' are psycho-spiritual systems which emphasize the more profound and more adaptive 'mind level' of consciousness. There are various 'psychologies' which differ according to the emphasis on a level of consciousness which is emphasized. Traditional Western psychologies of the behavioural sciences emphasize the ego level (the Western definition of 'psychosis' is itself psychotic) The Eastern psychologies or 'consciousness disciplines' emphasize the so-called 'higher' mind level. They encourage the individual to train or 'discipline' the mind in an effort to raise their consciousness from the ego level to the mind level, thus altering their perception of reality and transcending the limitations of social conditioning. In the practice of meditation and self-exploration, the socially conditioned individual is committed to experiencing directly the deeper nature of their being i.e. their humanness ('intuition'). Their task is to bring all aspects of their life into increasingly conscious and harmonious alignment with the changing web of relationships which makes up their environment. Only then can they be responsible and live in harmony with their own human nature and with that of others. The human capacity to transcend the limitations of social conditioning and to take responsibility for living in harmony with nature and others becomes increasingly apparent to those individuals who commit themselves to the self-exploration necessary for direct experience of the deeper nature of their being i.e. 'human nature'. Human nature involves a broad spectrum of mental states which represent the different levels of expression of the human consciousness such as the 'rational waking state', the 'creative state', the 'meditative state', the 'dream state'... i.e. 'states of consciousness'. Mental processes of the various consciousness are explainable in terms of biological processes and emergent properties of the brain. They are influenced by the organism's state of physical and emotional wellbeing or extent of 'wellness'.
Harmonious living as source of happiness... 'flow learning' Harmonious human relatedness is the source of 'happiness'. Happiness does not depend on a 'high standard of living' and 'wealth'. Material wealth which is in excess of the amount sufficient for one's needs is not a source of happiness. The person who has prudence and foresight and who is able to reject immediate gratification for the sake of permanent and tranquil satisfaction is happy. Happiness is the productive realisation of human potential. The true source of happiness is productiveness and creativity which derives from harmonious living. Productiveness and creativity are the source of the strength and freedom from which happiness is derived. Happiness is the greatest human achievement because it means that one has resolved the dilemma of the 'human condition'. Happiness is the response of the total personality to a productive orientation toward oneself and the world. It is preserving the integrity of the self and being one with the world. Happiness is peace of mind and absence of fear or 'serenity'. Happiness as serenity has a biological function which is connected with the evolution of the human organism as a social organism. Whereas pain results from actions which are injurious to the organism pleasure and happiness result from actions which are conducive to the welfare of the organism.
"Man has never yet ceased striving to produce and to create because productiveness is the source of strength, freedom and happiness." (Fromm Man For Himself 149)
FLOW LEARNING Flow learning is learning which is intrinsically motivated or learning in the 'flow state'. The term 'flow learning' was coined by pioneer research in the field of happiness, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi (pronounced Chick-SENT-mehi) head of the Department of Behavioural Sciences at the University of Chicago and author of ' Biochemical function of 'happiness': the opiates of the body called 'endorphins', influence the immune system.
The 'pursuit of happiness' is learning. "Flow experiences arise naturally from intrinsic motivation by virtue of the fact that we have a human mind which processes information." (Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi. Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experiences)
Make connection with high level wellness... holistic health and spiritual well being.
"Learning is time invested in yourself, in the growth and development of your own unique experience."
"Happiness is the indication that man has found the answer to the problem of human existence: the productive realization of his potentialities and thus simultaneously, being one with the world and preserving the integrity of his self; (Fromm, Man For Himself 189)
"Happiness is man's greatest achievement; it is the response of his total personality to a productive orientation toward himself and the world outside."(Fromm, Man For Himself 191)
The ultimate goal of human life is happiness. "Happiness is not the reward of virtue, but is virtue itself; nor do we delight in happiness because we restrain our lusts; but on the contrary, because we delight in it, therefore are we able to restrain them." (Spinoza, Ethic)
Social intelligence depends on fulfillment of spiritual needs i.e. 'metaneeds' The expanded awareness of the transcendant level is reflected in a quality of life which is based on seeking harmony with nature - inner harmony with one's human nature and outer harmony of socialization in which the individual lives by the spiritual values which preserve the integrity of the self and at the same time the interconnectedness with other human beings - freedom, truth, goodness, justice, beauty, love, compassion etc. The spiritual values are biological needs for the value life i.e. spiritual needs or 'metaneeds'. As human needs, the metaneeds describe the ultimate nature of humanity i.e. 'human nature'.
Perception of reality which is devoid of distortion is objective. Objective perception of the absolute or 'ultimate reality' is described in terms of spiritual values - the same as those described by philosophers, scientists, artists, spiritual leaders and the religions. Wholistic consciousness of the mind level involves the total and integrated functioning of the brain as a whole.
The wholistic functioning of the brain involves the 'higher' mental or neural processes which lead to profound insights. It is these insights of brain-based wholistic perception which form the basis for creative and adaptive human behaviour. According to the consciousness disciplines, the primary constituent of 'reality' is the consciousness and the material world is its reflection. This complements the view of behavioural science whilch holds the view that the primary constituent of reality is the material world and consciousness is its reflection.
Self-actualisation The need to live on the transpersonal level is instinctively realised in a growth process of self-realisation or 'self-actualisation'. The self-actualised person engages life consciously and directly, experiencing the connections with all of life. Feeling responsible for the larger community, they find it impossible to withdraw from worldly responsibility. The person experiences the 'other' as 'self' and has no desire to impose their will on others but acknowledges their responsibility for morality and service. They prefer a life of simplicity and experience life and living as an unbroken pattern of interconnection even in the minutest details of daily existence. They have few desires and are immune to the pressures of advertising and consumerism.
Implications for education Education for adaptability is education for realization of human potential and happiness or 'enlightenment'. Education for enlightenment is education for complete personality development beyond the ego level of self-interest and egocentric desires to include the wholistic perspective of the mind level. Integration of the various 'psychologies' would allow for a new vision of the social interaction which is fundamental to education of the whole person i.e. 'holistic education'
Learning is enhanced by an alternation of the different states of consciousness.
Intelligence is the brain's natural capacity to integrate complex environmental stimuli by comparing, categorizing, detecting patterns and creating connections... in order to make accurate evaluations and reach conclusions quickly and effectively... the brain's pattern seeking capacity. In its effort to detect patterns the brain automatically responds as a whole i.e. 'holistic perception'. The instinctive holistic response of the brain to incoming stimuli results in the creative process of 'intuition'... making connections between parts and wholes... reaching a conclusion and making a decision without conscious awareness of all the facts. Intuition is an act of imagination... of creativity... involves the emotions as well as the intellect. The intuitive process involves the immediate processing by the whole brain... is influenced by emotional interpretations of environmental stimuli. Intuition involves the subconscious 'emotional' level of brain functioning ('emotional intelligence') as well as the conscious 'intellectual' level ('intellectual intelligence'). Intuition is enhanced with the integration of the 'ego-self' with the 'spiritual self' ('personality integration') ... 'holiness'... 'health' or 'wholeness' i.e. 'wellness'. The result is learning which is meaningful, effective, creative and adaptive. In the absence of personality integration the individual can see all there is to be seen of the surface features of phenomena... the sum total of what has already materialized... but is incapable of penetrating below the surface to the essential...of visualizing what is not apparent. Such an individual can see the details but not the whole; can see the trees but not the forest. Their limited perception leads to limited recognition of 'reality'... lack of intuition or 'vision' and limited cognition or 'incomplete cognition' which requires the imagination to calculate and combine the existing elements of their reality and to infer their future operation i.e. 'non-holistic learning'. The result of non-holistic learning can be meaningless, non-effective, destructive and therefore 'non-adaptive'.
"An individual's way of thinking or 'cognitive style' depends on the cognitive environment in which they grow up. Cognitive environment is the main social influence which shapes cognitive development."The view of cognition that has come from the cognitive style work is that cognitive functioning is embedded in a personal life and its development is embedded in a personal history." (Witkin, H.A. Social Influences in the Development of Cognitive Style. In D.A. Goslin (ed.) Handbook of Socialization Theory and Research.Chicago: Rand McNally 1969, 687)
Education is for the natural unfolding... development of the 'mind'. The mind is a manifestation of the workings of the brain.... a biological system. The mental processes of the mind are a product of the biological processes ...natural wholistic functioning of the brain. The aim of brain research is to describe the biological functioning of the brain and the biological basis of the mind and the learning process.
Maharishi Mahesh Yogi (science of creative intelligence) graduated from Allahabad University as a physics major. In his first book "The Science of Being and Art of Living." International SRM Publications, l966) he defines human nature and the purpose of education... the aim of education is to unfold the potential of every human being.
Imagination is turned into reality... Information is turned into inspiration... awareness is turned into preparedness...
"The supreme task... is to arrive at those universal elementary laws from which the cosmos can be built up by pure deduction. There is no logical path to these laws; only intuition, resting on sympathetic understanding of exprience, can reach them" (Carl Rogers Freedom To Learn)
The mind's perception of reality is a function of its 'level of consciousness'... which in turn is a function of psychological development based on the biological mechanisms of brain functioning... a product of millions of years of evolution. The brain functions wholistically.
"The business of intelligence is not merely to adapt to circumstances, but to change them as well. The knower is more than a mirror passively reflecting the world he comes upon... the knower is an actor who helps transform the world of which he is a part." (William James)
Creative intelligence combines the understanding of reason with the wisdom of compassion.
Holistic perception of life results from integration of knowledge.
Development of 'structures of intelligence': 'operational structures':
... the lattice is constructed in the process of the development of intelligence, i.e. through the actions of the child on the environment and the interiorization of these actions to form 'operational structures'...the child acts upon the world and builds internal models of the nature of reality on the basis of these actions and their results.
Interaction with the environment is both verbal and nonverbal. ... the development of thought in the child... 'primacy of cognitive maturation, guided by various sorts of experience'. The human organism is a biological organism which learns and contemplates.
Creative intelligence required for adaptability depends on perception of the whole ... 'holistic perception' Critical practice allows for the complete cognition which comes from perception of the whole i.e. ‘holistic perception’. Holistic perception leads to thought and behaviour which is productive and creative or 'adaptive' i.e. 'adaptability'. The individual's capacity for adaptability depends on their ability to recognize their situation as a social reality which they have the power to change. This depends on their capacity to penetrate below the surface features and to perceive the essential aspects of the reality. Perception of the essence of reality defines creative intelligence or 'intuition'. Development of intuition is inhibited with emphasis on extrinsic motivation. The individual is prevented from recognizing the social reality for what it 'is' rather than the way they are taught to expect that it 'ought to be'. Emphasis on extrinsic motivation is aleinating and demotivating because it prevents development of ‘social intelligence’. Social intelligence results from moral consciousness or 'conscience'. Conscience is the 'soul'.
Implications for education: Human adaptability depends on creative intelligence... 'holistic education' as socially responsible education.
Traditional education for conformity: Traditional education is education for conformity to ideals… imposing ideals encourages conformity… The concern is with idea of what the individual should be. There is no concern for the individual’s humanity i.e. no ‘love’. Education for conformity is education for personal motive and gain not awakening of intelligence. Is based on conditioned learning or ‘conditioning’
. (Being afraid of the unknown - the future - we establish for ourselves psychological zones of safety… in the form of systems, techniques, beliefs) the ‘should be’ becomes more important than seeing the individual in the context of the complexities of their own life - the ‘what is’. then it brings about confusion …creates in the individual psychological barriers which separate them and hold them apart from others. This breeds fear and produces inner conflict between what they are and what they are made to think they should be. The inner conflicts are manifest outwardly and this hinders the understanding of the child as well as the child’s understanding of themselves.
Ideals have no place in education...because they prevent understanding of present reality.
Concern for the ideal indicates sluggishness of mind which wants to avoid the present. Aim of education is not based on any ideology … not a means of conditioning the individual in some special way. When one is pursuing an ideal pattern of action there can be no integration of personality. This is not understanding the full significance of life. The idealist , like the specialist, is only concerned with part of life... not the whole of life.
Mental events can be explained by patterns of nerve impulses in the brain. The aim of brain research is to describe the functioning of the mind and the learning process... to describe the neural basis of mental phenomena including urges and desires emotions and affect of subconscious forms of learning, as well as imagination and creativity of conscious thought. Brain research is based on the assumption that this is possible once there is sufficient explanation for the specific functions of individual neurons and their connections.
The aim of education is to cultivate or awaken ‘creative intelligence’ for creative living. Education is for the natural unfolding... development of the 'mind'. The mind is a manifestation of the workings of the brain.... a biological system. The mental processes of the mind are a product of the biological processes ...natural wholistic functioning of the brain as a system. The aim of brain research (neuroscience) is to describe the biological functioning of the brain and the biological basis of the mind and the learning process.
The aim of education is to produce integrated individuals… individuals… who are free of fear… able to solve life’s problems…is to cultivate integration of personality cultivate integration of the personality … to develop integrated human beings… creative human beings… human beings who are creatively intelligent… enabling the person to deal with life as a whole …Integration of personality leads to intelligent thinking ..being able to meet life as a whole… that is to solve life’s problems… so adaptability.
top of page / introduction / homepage
Witkin, H.A. Social Influences in the Development of Cognitive Style. In D.A. Goslin (ed.) Handbook of Socialization Theory and Research.Chicago Rand McNally 1969
Levine, R.A. and Whyte, M.I. Human Conditions New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1986
Development of intuition: 1) 'attentional training' train the attention 2) 'scrupulous ethicality'
Fear inhibits development of intuition. Fear and desire get in the way of intuition.(Zen Buddhism)
Pay attention to dreams...
See www.LeadershipNow.com Hare Brain, Tortoise Mind by Guy Claxton of Bristol University, England
Maharishi Science of Creative Intelligence www.maharishi.org/sci/sci.html
Creative Intelligence is superconscious insight or 'pure consciousness' state is content-free - transcends all mental activity... the 'mind level'... silent state of awareness... .state of deepened and heightened alertness -'relaxed alertness'... In this stae the knower, the known and the process of knowing converge in a unified field of consciousness... one is aware of awareness itself... one is a witness of the mental process...
Curiosity as the basis of experiential learning: natural disposition "Every living creature, while it is awake, is in constant interaction with its surroundings. It is engaged in a process of give and take- of doing something to objects around it and receiving back something from them-impressions, stimuli. This process of interacting constitutes the framework of experience."
IMPORTANCE OF RESPECT FOR HUMAN NEEDS...
The need for safety is the most basic and prepotent need for children. Safety needs are prepotent to the growth needs and curiosity. A child will give up growth to retain approval from significant adults. Fear and anxiety inhibit curiosity and growth. Freedom from anxiety and fear is the pre-requisite to curiosity required for exploration and growth through knowledge. See "the Science of Value' Robert Hartman in Maslow A.H. ed. 'New Knowledge in Human Values' Harper, 1959
HUMAN NEEDS GIVE RISE TO THE DIFFERENT 'LEARNING EMOTIONS' "The purest act of cognition relies upon interest from the affective side to energize it. An emotion generated from within the moral sphere will derive its meaning to the individual from the sociocognitive stage of moral development that he is at." (Rosen) Human needs determine the nature of the different types of motivation or 'motivational types' which give rise to different 'learning emotions'. Motivational type depends on the individual's level of psychological or 'moral development' i.e. 'sociocognitive stage' of 'personality development'. If personality development is encouraged then the individual is motivated by the 'positive learning emotions' characteristic of self-actualisation - curiosity, wonder and reverential fear or 'awe'. Natural curiosity is the source of 'intrinsic motivation' for learning.
If personality development is thwarted then the individual is motivated by 'negative learning emotions' - fear, frustration, confusion, disorientation and agony. Motivation by negative learning emotions is characteristic of thwarted growth i.e. 'neurotic evelopment' or 'neurosis'.
"Arrested curiosity stays on the plane of interest in local gossip and prying inquisitiveness into other peoples' business". (John Dewey. How We Think: A Restatement of the Relation of Refelective Thinking to the Educative Process. Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath and Company , 1933 40)
LEARNING WITH PERSONAL MEANING Learning of personal involvement is self-initiated, is pervasive, is evaluated by the learner and has meaning as its essence. "When is one free from tests or other types of institutional press?..... only when one submits oneself to them and rises above them." (41) "Changingness, a reliance on process rather than upon static knowledge, is the only thing that makes sense as a goal for education in the modern world."(104) The facilitation oflearning is the aim of education." (105) "The facilitation of significant learning rests upon certain attitudinal qualities which exist in the personal relationship between the facilitator and the learner."(106) The attitudinal qualities: the most important is 'genuineness,' congruent. - to be real about oneself. He is a vital person, with feelings and convictions. He can be authentic, expressing feelings of enthusiasm, boredom, anger, sensitivity, sympathy - accepting these feelings as his own without needing to impose them on the students; able to share feelings of anger and frustration as well as feelings of sweetness and light. An important attitude: having a basic trust, 'prizing' the learner, his feelings, his opinions, his person; caring without being possessive. "The facilitator's prizing or acceptance of the learner is an operational expression of his essential confidence and trust of the human organism." Another important attitude: 'empathic understanding' - understand what's it is like to in the other's shoes. (157- 165)
IMPLICATIONS FOR EDUCATION "...It is in fact nothing short of a miracle that the modern methods of instruction have not yet entirely strangled the holy curiostiy of inquiry; for this delicate little plant, aside from stimulation, stands mainly in need of freedom; without this it goes to rack and ruin without fail." (Einstein)
decline in motivation...'educational crisis'... due to lack of recognition for needs... (wholistic education: increased motivation due to recognition and respect for needs)
"...It is in fact nothing short of a miracle that the modern methods of instruction have not yet entirely strangled the holy curiosity of inquiry; for this delicate little plant, aside from stimulation, stands mainly in need of freedom; without this it goes to wrack and ruin without fail." (Albert Einstein cited in Carl Rogers. Freedom To Learn: Some Efforts to Permit Freedom in Education Columbus, Ohio: Charles Merrill Publishing Co. 1969)
'Education' is futile if it involves the learning of material which has no personal meaning. Learning which does not involve the learner's feelings has no relevance for the whole person and is insignificant. Significant learning involves thought and feelings. Left to his own devices a child learns rapidly and effectively he learns from experience. Learning with a quality of personal involvement - This is called 'experiential learning.'(Carl Rogers "Freedom to Learn" Charles Merrill Publishing Company, Columbus Ohio l969)
The educational process for the child means the instinctive development of his individuality and so must allow for the complete emotional and psychic as well as intellectual maturation into an adult personality with self-determination, self-respect, and self discipline. The educational process becomes effective when a child enjoys learning for learning's sake. He can enjoy learning in the framework of creation which comes from his own powers of imagination and natural curiosity in the world around him. The teacher is a resource and provider of resources. And the educator, whether in the administrative or instructional capacities of school or government, has the very great responsibility of leading students to use their own minds - to learn to think.
"Real freedom is a consequence of development; it is the consequence of latent guides, aided by education. It is the construction of the personality, reached by effort and one's own experiences; it is the long road which every child must take to reach maturity... Development cannot be taught." (Montessori Absorbent Mind)
The source of intrinsic motivation is natural curiosity. Curiosity stimulates intrinsic motivation - motivation which comes from within... Intrinsically motivated by curiosity and natural interest, children depend for their continued motivation on adult approval and adult support. The supportive attitude of an effective teacher is one which conveys a genuine interest in the motivation of each student.... Depending on their reasons for learning, the degree of intrinsic motivation varies from one student to another. With a view to enhancing their intrinsic motivation to learn the teacher uses methods of teaching which are appropriately flexible. The best methods stress the importance of intrinsic motivation as the key to effective learning. Emphasizing intrinsic motivation, the teacher focuses on the need to stimulate the students' own interests. The teacher selects a variety of teaching and learning materials, depending on the students' motives for learning. Their motives for learning determine whether their goals are short-term or long-term. Short term goals imply short term achievement. Long term goals imply long-term achievement. Long term goals stimulate greater intrinsic motivation and call for a more consistent method of teaching. Lessons are prepared in order to stimulate and maintain their interest
aim of education for freedom The individual's perception of the social environment is based on the accuracy of interpretation of environmental stimuli in a social context. Accurate knowledge and understanding of the environment depends on the driving force for learning and the source of intrinsic motivation which is the instinctive need to search for meaning in the complexity of the environment. The driving force for intrinsic motivation and learning is 'curiosity'. Curiosity - expressed in the capacities for observation and inquiry - is the basis for learning which is necessary for adaptive behaviour and survival of the organism and the species. Survival of the human species depends on knowledge of the environment and of human nature.
The aim of education is to cultivate open-mindedness and the aptitude for acquiring knowledge i.e. 'intelligence'. Intelligence depends upon an alert curiosity. The cultivation of intelligence depends on freedom to exercies curiosity.
Curiosity is "the basic factor in enlargement of experience and therefore a prime ingredient in the germs that are to be developed into reflective thinking." "A major purpose of education is to cultivate open-mindedness and intelligence. Defined in terms of the aptitude for acquiring knowledge, intelligence depends upon an alert curiosity. The cultivation of intelligence depends on freedom to exercies curiosity.... The crucial problem for the educator...is to utilize for intellectual purposes the organic curiosity of physical exploration and lingusitic interrogation..
HUMANIZING EDUCATION ENCOURAGES INQUIRY ...ENCOURAGES CURIOSITY... problem-posing method presents the situation as one with limitations - as a problem which he is challenged to solve. ....Deepening the individual's consciousness about his situation, The process of inquiry is stimulated.
Preventing INQUIRY IS DEHUMANIZING...the individual from inquiring is preventing him from bedoming fully human, reducing him to an object and therefore is dehumanizing. It is an act of violence because it alienates the individual from his own brain-based function to think critically in order to make the decisions necessary for his own survival.
Man's historical vocation is humanization. Becoming fully human is dependent on critical thought, inquiry and dialogue with his world. Humanization and dialogue requires the mediation of fellow human beings and therefore fellowship and solidarity with other human beings. Solidarity and dialogue are required for humanization. Problem-posing education , humanist and liberating - the individual must fight for freedom. It requires the elimination of teacher authoritarianism and alienating 'intellectualism.' It depends on the dialogue- dialogical relations- and is considered 'revolutionary' because the 'oppressed' individual (student of banking education) is not permitted by the oppreessor to ask "why?"
Wholistic education is knowledge through self-knolwedge. "If man is to have confidence in values, he must know himself and the capacity of his nature for goodness and productiveness ...Improved self-knowledge - and clarity of one's values - is coincident with improved knowledge of others and clarity of their values."
Learning is a dynamic process involving the engagement of the personality as a whole. "There is only one problem, and it is human development in its totality; once this is achieved in any unit - child or nation - everything else follows spontaneously and harmoniously."
WHOLISTIC EDUCATION AS PURSUIT OF SELF-KNOWLEDGE RESULTS IN THE INDIVIDUAL'S TRANSCENDANCE OF LIMITED SELF-INTEREST.
The wholistic perspective eliminates the so-called 'dichotomy' between individual freedom and social responsibility.
EDUCATION AND BRAIN-BASED LEARNING Education for human self-development and self-fulfillment is based on the natural wholistic functioning of the human brain. Methodologies of so-called 'brain-based' learning teach to the brain's natural functioning. They teach to the brain's natural capacity for making associations. They teach with a view to the optimal use of the brain's capacity to organize information and perceive relationships. They teach to the learner's ability to perceive relationships between new experiences and previous experiences. They teach for meaningful learning in contextual frameworks. They formulate contextual frameworks in terms of unifying themes which connect different ideas and different knowledge areas or 'subjects'. Pedagogies based on the natural functioning of the brain are described as 'brain-compatible'.
"Curiosity on the intellectual plane is wonder. Arrested curiosity stays on the plane of interest in local gossip and "prying inquisitiveness into other peoples' business.
education for self-knowledge ... pursuit of self-knowledge is the pursuit of knowledge of one's humanity. A major purpose of education is to cultivate open-mindedness and intelligence.... depends upon an alert curiosity. The cultivation of intelligence depends on freedom to exercies curiosity.
Curiosity is basic to the enlargement of experience and of primary importance in the development of reflective thinking... for intellectual development... the educator should utilize the human instincts for curiosity and lingusitic interrogation. Curiosity on the intellectual plane is wonder...the pursuit of self-knowledge is not inherently a selfish goal which detracts from an involvement with, and contribution to society...the product of pursuit of self-knowledge involves the transcendence of limited self-interest ...intrinsic to the work of pursuit of self-knowledge is the concern for the general good of one's fellow beings and a desire for harmony with the broader universe. The person who pursues self-knowledge cannot be accused of turning their back on 'society.' On the contrary, the person who fails to pursue self-knowledge tends to misunderstand everything that other people say or do... remains blissfully unaware of the significance of his own acts and words... turns their back on society and becomes a danger to society...
Systems thinking involves shift in thinking from parts to the whole, from objects to relationships, from structures to processes, from hierarchies to networks; involves shift in emphasis from rationality to intuition, from analysis to synthesis, from linear thinking to non-linear thinking
Concept of wholeness... "the whole is more than the sum of its parts". This refers to the fact that whole systems have emergent properties that cannot be deduced by studying their components the 'parts' To understand the emergent property one has to understand the interconnectedness between the parts and the wholes.
INTELLIGENCE: WHY IS IT NECESSARY TO MAKE A CASE FOR MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES? "In postindustrial societies, the notion that intelligence is a 'trait' of individuals may be tied to the innovations in psychological testing that took plce at the beginning of this century. Binet's (1905) intelligence scales were developed to identify children who were performing poorly in school, and who might benefit from special education. Though Binet never intended to reify intelligence, and though he did not maintain intelligence was a unitary trait, the fact that his test results could be summarized by a single score fostered visions of intellgence as a unitary attribute situated in the heads of individuals. (Multiple Intelligences: The Theory in Practice 235-236) "Since all human intelligences are part of the human genetic heritage, at some basic level each intellgence is manifested universally, independent of education and cultural support. Exceptional populations aside, all humans possess certain core abilities in each of the intelligences. The natural trajectory of development inn each intellignce begins with raw patterning ability." (Multiple Intelligences: The Theory in Practice 28) "In industrialized societies the word 'intelligence' is used in connection with achievement in school. In traditional societies, 'intelligence' is used in connection with wisdom, morality and virtue."(235) "In traditional societies, intelligence involves the ability to maintain the community's social ties." (234) Originally inteelligence was social intelligence (Tie in with Decroly and development of social intelligence) Howard Gardner The Theory of Multiple Intelligences: The Theory in Practice. New York: Harper Collins Publishers 1993 "Though people in traditional societies may admire literacy, intelligence is not especieally defined by skills associated with it." "If you are intelligent, you behave according to the morla norms of the community because to do otherwise would antagonize those with whom you are permanently connectied- which no intelligent adult would want to do...Those who behave in accordance with social convention are asssumed to be intelligent in the way that counts the most i.e. in their maintenance of the social linkages that mean longterm security, though this implies normal rather than exceptional intelligence. Those in the community who are most respected for their moral virtue are credited with being wisest and most intelligent...(LEVINE, R.A. and WHYTE, M.I. HUMAN CONDITIONS, New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1986. pp 39-40)
SCIENCE OF CREATIVE INTELLIGENCE Science of creative intelligence: (science: systematic investigation; creativity: cause of change which is always present; intelligence: basic quality of existence exemplified in the purpose and order of change; creative intelligence: flow of creative and directed energy; science of creative intelligence: study of the nature, origin, range, growth, and application of creative intelligence (science of human nature)
The inner field of intelligence and creativity can be experienced in transcendental meditation. Knowledge has subjective and objective aspects. The objective aspect of knowledge is experience. The subjective aspect of knowledge is understanding. With both aspects -experience and understanding knowldege is complete. Experience (objective knowledge) is incomplete without understanding (subjective knowledge) which comes from meditation and thought in the mind of the fully developed human being. The individual in the modern technological society must be acquainted with an increasing amount of objective knowledge. He must be able to make responsible decisions for himself in order to survive and adapt to the demands of the society. Therefore his need for subjective development must be acknowledged, respected and prioritized in the educational institution which is responsible for his 'education.' True 'knowledge' is based on the union of the 'knower' and the 'known.' In the process of 'knowing' the 'knower' is connected with the 'known.' Without the 'knowledge' of the 'knower,' the 'knowledge is incomplete. Locating he object of the 'knowing' is much easier than locating the knowledge of the subjective 'knower'. The science of creative intelligence is the study of the location of the subjective 'knower,' the source of the thought process. The extent of awareness of the 'knower,' the state of consciousness, determines the extent of comprehension of the 'known.' "Knowledge is structured in consciousness." In order for the 'known' to be fully comprehended in all its aspects, wholistically, the knower' must be fully developed in his humanness and therefore creatively intelligent when experiencing the objective 'known.' As knowledge of experience, the 'known,' is incomplete without understanding on the part of the fully developed, creatively intelligent 'knower,' so education is incomplete if it does not foster the full development of the individual, his creatiuve intelligence. Action based on incomplete knowledge, in the absence of creative intelligence, is non-creative and even destructive. Action based on complete knowledge, in the presence of creative intelligence, is creative and gains fulfillment. (See Maharishi Mahesh Yogi "The Science of Being and Art of Living." International SRM Publications, l966)