link: extrinsic motivation  

            MOTIVATION FOR EXTRINSIC GOALS: 'EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION'   

theme: In the behavioural paradigm of traditional education, the teacher teaches to behavioural objectives and students are motivated by external motivating devices i.e. 'extrinsic motivation'. Extrinsic motivation which alienates the learner from the learning process is ineffective in development of conscience or 'soul' required for growth and integrity - living by authentic human values. Extrinsic motivtion tends to erode intrinsic motivation.     

"The dominant curriculum treats motivation as outside the action of study. Tests, discipline, punishment, rewards, the promise of future jobs etc. are considerable motivating devices as alienated from the act of learning now." (Paulo Freire Politics of Education) 

The carrot and stick approach to education "first learn the skills then you can get the education and then you can get the job." Students do not cooperate because they are not encouraged to experience motivation while learning. (Education for Human Development. Mario Montessori. Schocken Books, New York. 1967

The traditional paradigm of education and the task oriented perception of education Education is offered in the context of the culture or 'cultural context'. In the context of a capitalist consumerist culture the individual learns to perceive... is encouraged to perceive the (social) environment in terms of - what is 'threatening' and what is 'useful'... forms the basis for value system... 'economic values'... replace authentic 'human values'.

The economic values of the culture are translated into educational 'policy'.

This task-oriented perception of the environment is reflected in the task-oriented approach to education or 'carrot and stick' approach... first learn the skills... get the education... get the grades and then you can get the job which means money and material comfort. With task-oriented education the individual works towards external goals... learns to depend on motivating devices  which are external or 'extrinsic' to the action of learning and study - tests, exams and rewards expressed as grades, scores, grade averages, credentials and diplomas and the promise of future jobs as well as the avoidance of disciplinary measures in the form of low grades and punishment i.e. 'extrinsic motivation'. Extrinsic motivation is motivation by extrinsic rewards. Extrinsic motivation is the same as motivation for learning the best way to satisfy a deficiency of unfulfilled needs...  deficiency needs i.e. 'deficiency motivation' or 'deficit-motivation'. The deficiency motivated individual makes repeated attempts to acquire from the outside world satisfactions of their motivational deficiencies... of their deficient needs.

Educational crisis and the problem of motivation to work  The general decline in motivation for learning leads to the so-called 'problem of motivation'. The problem of motivation at the heart of the so-called 'educational crisis' is a direct result of the task-oriented approach of 'traditional education'. The educational crisis is ultimately derived from the economic theories and 'values' of capitalism as 'commercialism' and 'consumerism'.

 ("The problem of motivation is at the heart of the teaching crisis in the United States".... Freire)

 In the framework of the official pedagogy of the behavioural paradigm, motivation is assumed to be outside or 'extrinsic' to the action of study.

Teaching techniques which emphasize extrinsic motivation are techniques of 'passive teaching' .

 The carrot and stick approach to education "first learn the skills then you can get the education and then you can get the job." Students do not cooperate because they are not encouraged to experience motivation while learning.

Teachers become more concerned with student performance as a reflection of their own. Student grades become advantage points in teachers' struggles to keep their jobs and positions. Power struggles develop and teachers' energies are deflected away from student concerns for their own progress. With the decline of concern for students in their own progress there is decline in student cooperation. Because they are not encouraged to experience motivation while learning i.e. to depend on their natural capacity for motivation or 'intrinsic motivation' they do not cooperate and they refuse to perform.

The external motivating devices are designed to motivate extrinsically towards goal objects which are external to the activities of study. In school, good grades are the means to college and college education is preparation for a 'good job'. A good job means good money and a comfortable material life.

The official educational policy promotes the dominant authority in society by disempowering students with an education for the external rewards of good jobs and good money.

End result of extrinsic motivation is decline in motivation and decline in academic standards

Ultimate effect of external motivating devices is to alienate the learner from the act of learning... to inhibit the learner from active involvement in the learning process and to cultivate passive learning. As the learner is alienated from the learning process they  become disempowered and demotivated. The demotivation and disempowerment of students leads to declining academic standards.

The end result - decline in academic standards - is explained away as 'student mediocrity'.

Decline in motivaion is explained away as 'student mediocrity'  Student mediocrity is ultimately derived from the pressure of the demands of administrators. Stalemates and power struggles develop amongst students, teachers and administrations. Teachers are pressured by the demands of administrations for examination results, test scores etc. Both teachers and administrations become concerned with student performance as a reflection of teacher performance rather than as a reflection of student progress. Student results are used to monitor teachers' job performance.

Conditioned learning of traditional paradigm is ineffective for human adaptability because it results in limited perception of reality Emphasis on extrinsic motivation prevents the individual from recognizing the social reality for what it is i.e. the way the dominant curriculum maintains that it should be.

Passive teaching In the behavioural teaching paradigm the most compatible teaching model is the lecture-based passive curriculum;

As part of the official pedagogy, passive teaching is an effecive means for the disempowerment of students. While it disempowers students, passive teaching demotivates them as well. The behavioural approach to teaching and learning demotivates students against intellectual work. 

Passive teaching for student disempowerment is equivalent to teaching for manipulation and control.

 Passive teaching is poor pedagogical practice because it does not teach for personal freedom and growth.

Extrinsic motivation does not involve changes of the whole personality... In the process of extrinsic motivation, the learner is alienated from the act of learning. Any change which comes about is simply an addition or acquisition. 

Emphasis on extrinsic motivation is characteristic of teaching and learning techniques of the behavioural paradigm. The aim is to prevent the individual from developing those critical faculties which form the basis of accurate evaluation of the social environment required for constructive and adaptive behaviour.

 Traditional education is education for manipulation and social control. The characteristic teaching model is the lecture-based curriculum. Traditional teaching methods are justified by behavioural science or 'behaviourism'. Emphasis is based on the notion that education is a matter of conditioned learning or 'conditioning'. Conditioning is dysfunctional if it  allows the individual to perceive the details but not the whole - to see the trees but not the forest - to see all there is to be seen of the surface features - the sum total of what is apparent and has already materialized.  

Teaching for limited perception of reality  Teaching techniques which emphasize extrinsic motivation teach for learning in terms of a given perception of the social environment. They teach for 'perceptual learning'... in the sense of 'limited perception'. They aim to teach the individual how they should perceive the cultural and social reality according to standards and perceptions of the dominant culture. They teach for the acceptance of perceptions of reality as the 'true' reality. They teach for the dichotomous perception of reality and for the 'incomplete cognition' of a dichotomized reality. The individual's limited perception of cultural and social reality is based on the ability to see all there is to be seen of the surface features of social phenomena - to perceive the sum total of what has already materialized as the 'reality'.  Their limited perception prevents them from penetrating  below the surface to the essential and to visualize what has not materialized and is not yet apparent i.e. 'vision'. The individual loses the capacity to enliven their perception from within and achieve a holistic perception of their social reality.

Disempowerment Emphasis on extrinsic motivation hampers the development of an individual's capacity to recognize their social circumstances as products of a cultural reality which they have the power to change. The individual is disempowered and continues to perceive their social reality in the same way it is perceived by the dominant culture.  This type of learning prevents the individual from developing the critical faculties which are needed to form accurate evaluations of the social environment i.e.'critical practice'. They learn instead to depend on a calculating imagination which is able to combine the known factors and then infer how they might operate in a new situation... or 'scenarios'. The ability to see the details but not the whole - to see the trees but not the forest requires a calculating imagination to combine the known existing factors and then to infer how they might operate in the future.

 Extrinsic motivation does little for personal growth Extrinsically motivated learning does little if anything for personality growth and development as 'mature growth' or 'self-actualisation'

Learning for the construction of the personality requires insight and understanding, knowledge of self and the steady growth of conscience, increased synergy, integration and inner harmony.

Intuition required for adaptability depends on perception of the whole ... 'holistic perception' Critical practice allows for the complete cognition which comes from perception of the whole i.e. ‘holistic perception’. Holistic perception leads to thought and behaviour which is productive and creative or 'adaptive' i.e. 'adaptability'. The individual's capacity for adaptability depends on their ability to recognize their situation as a social reality which they have the power to change. This depends on their capacity to penetrate below the surface features and to perceive the essential aspects of the reality. Perception of the essence of reality defines creative intelligence or 'intuition'. Development of intuition is inhibited with emphasis on extrinsic motivation. The individual is prevented from recognizing the social reality for what it 'is' rather than the way they are taught to expect that it 'ought to be'. Emphasis on extrinsic motivation is aleinating and demotivating because it prevents development of ‘social intelligence’. Social intelligence results from moral consciousness or 'conscience'. Conscience is the 'soul'.

 

 "The 'normalized' child's activities of work (are) related to the inner construction of the personality. The motivation to learn derives from this source. Teaching which corresponds to this motivation is functional in the child's development. The child's response is the best guide for the teacher. The child's interest and concentration indicates the extent of effectiveness of the teaching methodology in opractice. The child loses motivation when the work is directed to an external goal. Teaching for external goals is not functional in the child's development." (Mario Montessori. Education for Human Development. Schocken Books, New York. 1967 page 67.)

 

The psychological value of work in construction of the conscience or 'soul'  Development of conscience depends on creativity and productivity of 'work'. Work represents interaction with the environment. Work is meaningful if it is of psychological value to the individual as the medium through which the conscience is constructed. Emphasis on extrinsic motivation is disempowering if it ignores the psychological value of work. If the work of learning is directed to external goals, it must also be functional in personality growth and development towards maturity or ‘self-actualisation’. Self-actualisation results from growth which involves not only the simple acquisition of additional habits or attributes one after the other but change of the whole personality.If teaching techniques do not recognise the importance of personality development they alienate the learner from the learning process... ‘dysfunctional learning’.

 

Dysfunctional learning leads to decline in motivation, psychological and spiritual impotence, and the inability to adapt to changing social conditions.  

Intrinsic motivation is derived from motives of human behaviour or 'human needs' Accurate evaluation of the social environment depends on the individual's natural capacity to experience motivation while learning i.e. 'intrinsic motivation'. Intrinsic motivation is derived from the intrinsic motives for learning or 'human needs'. Human needs - including the spiritual needs for growth or 'metaneeds' - provide the basis for education for the whole person i.e. holistic education’. Holistic education is education for the responsibilities of self-knowledge, insight,  understanding and inner harmony or personal freedom i.e. 'inner freedom'. Inner freedom depends on personal integrity and the  'human values' or 'virtues' which are of survival value to the organism because they provide the guidelines of 'intuition' for adaptability to changes in the social environment. 

Adaptability to social change requires authentic motivation for growth Learning for personality construction and adaptability to social change involves motivation from within for intrinsic goals of growth and maturity of conscience - source of authentic and real intrinsic motivation.

With intrinsic motivation of normal growth, work and study activities are connected to the inner construction of the personality. When the work is directed to an external goal, there is a decline in motivation. This is because learning for external goals is not functional in personality development.

Teaching techniques based on extrinsic motivation are not functional in personal growth and development because they alienate the learner from the learning process. As a result of dysfunctional learning and declining motivation, alienation from the learning process leads to psychological impotence and incompetence and the incapacity for adaptability to changing social conditions.

Teaching which corresponds to the child's natural function of intrinsic motivation is functional in the child's growth and development... growth and change through learning is not a matter of the simple acquisition of habits one after the other. Change involves a total change of the total person, i.e. a new person rather than the same person with certain additional attributes. Teaching for intrinsic motivation is teaching for freedom and learner empowerment. The teacher of freedom has the power of example which is far greater than the power of direction as a means of control.

The problem of motivation in the educational crisis The problem of motivation becomes a politial one. Is education for control and manipulation or is education for freedom and growth?           

Implications for education Teaching techniques which emphasize extrinsic motivation are ineffective in bringing about meaningful learning if they do not engage personality growth and development to self-actualisation. Growth to self-actualisation depends on work and study which is driven by intrinsic motivation and therefore involved in the inner construction of conscience. Developed conscience is an emegent property of the organ of learning or 'brain'. Teaching to the brain's rules for learning - 'brain-based learning' - engages the natural functioning of intrinsic motivation - optimallearning' - which is functional in growth and development or conscience. Development of conscience depends on a learning environment of freedom, empowerment and the facilitation of learning. The teacher's role is defined as 'facilitator'. The facilitative teacher uses the power of example rather than direction and their effectiveness depends on appropriate personal characteristics or ‘attributes’ as well as education or teacher training’.  

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   Compare learning theory of the behavioural paradigm with the learning theory of the holistic paradigm. The behavioural psychology of learning is a limited body of knowledge, useful only to a limited degree and of real interest only to other so-called 'learning theorists'. The behavioural 'learning theory' is based almost entirely on deficit-motivation otherwise known as extrinsic motivation because the goal objects are usually external to the organism.