SUCCESS ORIENTED CULTURE OF CAPITALISM AS 'COMMMERCIALISM' AND 'CONSUMERISM': DEPENDENCE ON ARRESTED DEVELOPMENT OR 'IMMATURITY'  

theme:  Education for human development is a function of culture ('cultural context'). Capitalist culture as consumer culture is not interested in the wholeness of self-fulfillment or 'maturity'. The mature individual (humanised or 'normalised') has rich inner resources and a deep insistent concern for the rights of the dispossessed... whereas the immature individual (or dehumanised or 'unnormalised')  has poor inner resources and a desire to possess which is accompanied by a desire to destroy... does not have any concern for the disposessed and is more likely to be valuable as a source of profit and profit-making.  

 Psychological growth of the human organism must keep pace with increase in physical powers... every increase in power must be matched by an increase in understanding "Much of human history can be explained by peoples' immaturities." (Overstreet The Mature Mind 15)

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traditional paradigm...   degradation of ten commandments...

conflicting cultural forces...  capitalist culture...   limitations on human growth...   reactive-responsive character...

evil...     success oriented culture...   characeristics of immature adult...

implications for education...

 

Traditional institution of 'education' embodies and encourages the individual's fixation in immaturity.

Conflicting cultural forces: rational liberalism fosters maturity while capitalism as 'consumerism' fosters immaturity Inherent in the culture of capitalism as commercialism and consumerism is confusion which comes from the competition of conflicting forces: The philosophical tradition of intellectual and social liberalism... 'rational liberalism'... requires that the individual grow up into full psychological maturity. At the same time the forces of capitalism as consumerism - 'antirational materialism'... encourage mental dishonesty and fixation in immaturity since the immature individual is more valuable as a source of profit and profit-making because the commercial civilization of consumerism appeals to the infantile gratification of immaturity.

 The major institutions of the society are divided selves and not whole selves. Their influence on the individual is not one which produces wholeness of character.

 "Confusion of values makes for a sense of personal bewilderment and helplessness; the average individual gets what happiness he can out of doing what everybody else does. To 'survive', the individual has to accept the cultural norms. Adult immaturity is an accepted cultural norm. The philosophical tradition of intellectual and social liberalism requires that the individual grows up into full psychological maturity. The traditions of political and religious authoritarianism (dogma of man as a child of sin) do not require the individual's psychological maturity and in fact depend on the individual's psychological immaturity. The inherent cultural confusion comes from the competition of the two conflicting philosophies: rational liberalism and antirational materialism. "Authoritative religion might want man to remain a child in his obedience and dependence, while nineteenth century anti-rationalism might want him to remain a child in egocentric aggrandizement; but in an emergency the two would accurately feel that they had more in common than either with a philosophy that asked man to put his childhood behind him and to achieve the spiritual independence of maturity." (Fromm Man For Himself 142)

      The contradictory forces of liberalism and materialism have a divisive effect on the major institutions of  society such as schools. Complaints are heard of the impracticality of school curricula at the same time as expressions of pride in their children’s schoolwork.

Celebrities and businessmen are regarded with greater respect than teachers and  'education'.

 People admire others more for what they own rather than for what they know. 

In the traditional or 'behavioural' paradigm children are taught that they are powerless: the 'hidden curriculum' As a result of the demands of the system, ethical norms are formulated on the premise that the individual is powerless and insignificant i.e. 'authoritarian ethics'. Authoritarian ethics are reinforced in the traditional paradigm of education which confuses learning with 'schooling'. Schooling in the  'behavioural paradigm' discourages growth and fosters values of materialism and consumerism. This 'hidden curriculum' teaches that the power of control is in the school, in the adult… oppressor-oppressed' social contradiction. What children really learn is that they are powerless and insignificant . They learn that they have to conform. And conformity fosters the development of the perpetual impulsiveness and self-indulgence of immaturity - characteristics which are favourable for the 'good consumer' and 'valuable customer' of consumerist culture.

Less favourable are the characteristics of the mature personality  - foresight, responsibility and wholeness of character.

Cultures of capitalism as 'consumerism' focus on the economy and ignore human needs thus encouraging the cultural norm of adult immaturity. Immaturity is valuable as a source of profit 

CAPITALISM FOSTERS ADULT IMMATURITY/ 'marketing character orientation' 

 In the capitalistic consumer society of American culture, the task-oriented perception of the environment results in limited imagination and incomplete cognition. "The relative atrophy of the generative capacity is very frequent in our culture. A person may be able to recognize things as they are (or as his culture maintains them to be) but he is unable to enliven his perception from within. Such a person is the perfect 'realist' who sees all there is to be seen of the surface features of phenomena but who is quite incapable of penetrating below the surface to the essential and of visualizing what is not yet apparent. He sees the details but not the whole, the trees but not the forest. Reality to him is only the sum total of what has already materialized. This person is not lacking in imagination, but his is a calculating imagination, combining factors all of which are known and in existence, and inferring their future operation." (Fromm Man For Himself 89(H.A. Overstreet. The Mature Mind. New York: W.W. Norton & Co. Inc. 1949. p.44)

In a consumerist culture the economy of the culture is only interested in those aspects of the person which can further the interests of the economy. The individual whose work derives monetary profit has 'economic value'. Economic value can be in the form of contribution to the production of goods - the 'worker', in the form exchange of money for goods - the 'consumer', work for a corporation as an investor, an inventor, an expert, or anything else which can be regarded as 'marketable' - even as a 'name'. Dependence on the individual as a source of profit excludes any  concern for the individual's development to maturity. The contentment and happiness of maturity are not valued because they are not profitable.

Even intelligence is considered to have no economic value unless it can be used for monetary gain. 

People are taught that it is their interest...for their happiness... to work for money and power  Economic theories of capitalism teach people that the purpose of life is the successful fulfillment of their duty to work for money and monetary gain, for prestige and for power. The freedom to 'pursue happiness' is the freedom to be creative and productive i.e. to 'work'. If people lose sight of the fact that it is in their self-interest to live in harmony with themselves and with others then they lose faith in their human capacity for dignity and courage of 'freedom'.

Real freedom is freedom from fear and desire i.e. 'inner freedom'.

"Conflicts inherent in the culture produce effects which are relevant to the problem of maturity of the individual in the American culture. The individual is a divided self, with doubts, fears and inner tensions manifest in the 'mental illness, violence, crime, alcoholism, drug addiction, anxieties, prejudice, etc. Conditioning influences of the culture are conflicting. Cultural conflicts include the faith in education and contempt for educated people, apathy and driving ambition,etc. When there is a lack of wholeness in the conditioning influences, the individual cannot grow into a psychologically whole, mature human being. The individual is a compartmentalized self, trying to harmonize the various 'selves' of his experience - the domestic self, the business self - the religious self, the political self etc. all housed in one physical self. In the face of the cultural conflicts, the compartmentalized and divided self has difficulty maturing into a psychologically whole human being. The individual has difficulty building sound linkages of responsibility with the world when education in the cultural atmosphere education is both exalted and despised. It is difficult for a child to grow to maturity in a culture in which "the natural hazards of life are vastly multiplied by the confusions of the culture and in which he faces an abnormal temptation to remain dependent and irresponsible." "where the same two parents send him to school, want him to bring home grades they can view with pride, talk about the impracticality of what is learned in school, admire, people less for what they know than for what they own, and make it clear that teachers are nobodies compared with business men and movie stars." (Overstreet. 141)

Economic theories of capitalism as consumerism place limitations on human growth The economic theories of capitalism as consumerism place limitations on human growth. They discourage the instinctive development of capacities for foresight and planning which are part of the natural striving for fulfilment of human potential i.e. 'self-actualisation'. Self-actualisation involves the natural development of intrinsic human values of moral responsibility i.e. moral consciousness or 'conscience'. The conscience is the source of motivation for personal empowerment i.e. 'instrinsic motivation'. Intrinsic motivation is the driving force behind growth through learning i.e. human or 'moral development'.  Moral development is a function of development through learning of the human personality i.e. 'human nature'. Human nature is a function of adaptation to changing social conditions i.e. 'adaptability'.

The human capacity for adaptability is adversely affected by the forces of capitalism as 'consumerism'.

 Man's 'humanity' - his growth to full maturity has held slight interest for the economy. "For him to grow into full maturity might mean that he would have rich inner resources with which to entertain himself; and that he would be unsusceptible to those competitive prestige appeals that are the delight of advertisers; and that he would feel a deep insistent concern about the rights of the dispossessed; for him to grow into such full maturity would, therefore, make him far less valuable as a source of profit-making than he is in his adult immaturity." (Overstreet 178)

Traditional paradigm fosters 'reactive-responsive' character orientation of neurosis... immaturity The individual's feelings of powerlessness leads to so-called 'reactive-responsive' behaviour. Reactive-responsive behaviour is the result of conditioned learning or 'conditioning'. Conditioning is a function of education which punishes  opposition and rewards conformity to behavioural rules set by people in positions of authority. If children are expected to go along with what they are told and given behavioural rules ...don't do this, don't do that etc. and told what they can't do and how bad they are because of what they are doing... and if they act accordingly then they are responding to the rules and their behaviour becomes 'responsive'. Responsive behaviour involves conformity to the set norms and standards. If they do not go along with what they are told and react against it then their behaviour becomes 'reactive'. Reactive behaviour involves active opposition to the set norms and standards. The reactive student who continues to react in the same way is likely to become the adult who reacts against authority as 'political activist', 'extremist' etc. In the traditional school, responsive behaviour is rewarded and reactive behaviour is punished in the form of good or bad 'grades'. It is the reward and punishment system of evaluation which fosters the  development of the responsive-reactive character orientation of immaturity i.e. neurotic development or 'neurosis'. Neurosis is the basis for the weakness of character which manifests itself in unreflective or 'reactive-responsive' behaviour. Reactive-responsive behaviour is often accompanied by the failure to master the skills of creative living required for adaptation.

The responsive individual who conforms to the rules is labelled as a 'good student' or a 'nice person' and rewarded with good grades.

Neurotic drive to succeed The individual who does not conform to the rules is labelled as 'rebellious' or 'difficult' and is punished with poor grades. In such an environment children learn to perceive the environment in terms of those aspects which might be 'useful' or 'threatening'. When power lies in circumstantial stimuli they learn to depend on avoidance and prevention strategies  After years of living avoidance strategies, their 'sense of personal power' is undermined ('disempowerment')

The loss of personal power is overcompensated for by the neurotic drive for 'success'.

"The most dangerous members of our society are those grownups whose powers of influence are adult but whose motives and responses are infantile." (Overstreet The Mature Mind 44)

 Throughout the society and in the schools, there is a pervasive mistrust which originates from the fear of control by seduction (false values of 'success' - money, prestige, desire for glory etc. promoted by advertising and commercialism). The pervading mistrust is translated into negativity, cynicism and hostility - all factors which stunt sound psychic growth. Success as an empty victory...

The cultural implications of 'failure' have important repercussions for education.

The success driven adult in success oriented consumerist culture The drive to succeed is compatible with the demands of consumerist culture ...'success oriented culture'... The success driven adult is susceptible to the competitive appeals of advertisers who tempt them to spend what they have, to mortgage their futures in the accumulation of possessions through structures of credit buying and instalment purchasing - even though it means diverting funds from more important purposes. The immature adult is easily influenced by paternalistic attitudes and enthusiasm of political leaders who use rhetoric to maintain their power. They are uncritical of the corruption of capitalists in power who pay lip-service to crime prevention, health care reform, educational reform, police protection while they make money on crime, ill health, ignorance, addictive behaviour and all the other ills of society which result from people's immaturity, frustration and unhappiness. The immature adult becomes easy prey to the demands of the irrational value system of materialism and the moral confusion which results leads to feelings of personal bewilderment and helplessness. They get whatever happiness they can out of doing what everybody else does. They are persuaded to make value judgements on the basis of material success. They become alienated from themselves and their own  motivations for personal power i.e. the 'human values'.

Degradation of human values and adoption of false values for so-called 'success' is what characterises the immature adult of capitalism as 'consumerism'.

Immature minds degrade great insights such as the ten commandments of the Decalogue... by concealing the original subtle meanings of universal principles and turning them into a series of taboos. For example 'Thou shalt not steal' is applied to simple stealing of another person's possessions. Other kinds of stealing are justified with the use of different words such as 'imperialism' 'marketing' etc.

  "Throughout human history, great insights are degraded by minds too immature to understand them and put them into practice. One obvious example is the universal degradation of the idea of One God as the source of truth rather than a multiplicity of gods leading to confusion. The concept of God was degenerated into a mystery beyond man's comprehension. Even worse 'God' was made into a national possession and rallying point for nations in their wars with other nations. A second example: The Decalogue - Ten Commandments - was a statement of the one moral law for all human beings as opposed to the several 'codes' of laws which applied to separate groups and cultures." (Overstreet, H.A. The Mature Mind 95)

"A mature truth told to immature minds ceases, in those minds, to be that same mature truth. Immature minds take from it only what immature minds can assimilate. In the end, even though they may give it lip-service and may raise institutions in its name, they turn the mature truth into an applied immaturity. This fate of psychological depreciation has been the fate of all our greatest human truths. Uttered by mature minds, and for the purpose of maturing minds, they have been received, for the most part, by less mature minds - and have thus been only partially comprehended. Being only partially comprehended, they have found expression in ways that have perpetuated as much misunderstanding as understanding, as much error as truth." (Overstreet, H.A. The Mature Mind, New York: W.W. Norton & Co. Inc. 1949, 36th printing 1954, 88)

Peoples' immaturities "explain much in our history for which we have hitherto had no sufficient explanation." (H.A. Overstreet The Mature Mind New York: W.W. Norton & Co. Inc.1949 page 15)

 "The proper psychological undertaking of man is to move from immaturity to maturity." (H.A. Overstreet The Mature Mind New York: W.W. Norton & Co. Inc.1949 page 17)

 The immature – overdefensive, obsessional, controlling and self-controlling - are apt to dislike the lack of control in others as well as dislike impulsiveness, enthusiasm, whimsicality, and unpredictability. The personality of the scientist is relevant. ( Maslow Psychology of Science)

 "American civilization is not a human civilization. It is a 'business civilization.' Dependent on the 'business ethics' of the business civilization, educational institutions prevent the individual's personal and psycholgical growth to maturity. Few individuals become mature in a culture which makes 'common sense' out of mental dishonesty." (H.A. Overstreet. The Mature Mind. New York: W.W. Norton & Co. Inc. 1949. p.175)

... . In the capitalist culture, the economy encourages mental dishonesty and fosters fixation in immaturity. An accepted cultural norm is adult immaturity. (Overstreet The Mature Mind 1949)

 "One trouble with classical science applied to psychology is that all it knows how to do well is to study people as objects, when what we need is to be able to study them also as subjects." (54)

PERCEPTION OF DICHOTOMIES AS THE 'LIMITED PERCEPTION' OF IMMATURITY

 "It is as if less developed people lived in an Aristotelian world in which classes and concepts have sharp boundaries, and are mutually exclusive and incompatible, e.g. male-female, selfish-unselfish, adult-child, kind-cruel, good-bad etc. A is A and everything else is not-A inthe Aristotelian logic, and never the twain shall meet. But seen by self-actualizing people is the fact that A and not-A interpenetrate and are one, that any person is simultaneously 'good' and 'bad', 'male' and 'female', 'adult' and 'child'. One cannot place a whole person on a continuum, only an abstracted aspect of a person. Wholenesses are non-comparable." (Maslow Toward a Psychology of Being 40)

"Arrested development or 'fixation' is the root cause for halting the maturing process" (Harry Allen Overstreet The Mature Mind)                                                                 

 ... inner biological ('instinctoid)' core of human nature... includes the basic physiological and psychological needs, the inborn capacities and talents, and the biologically based values inherent in the intrinsic yearnings and preferences. A mature person is a maturing person - one whose linkages with life are constantly becoming stronger and richer because his attitudes are such as to encourage their growth rather than their stoppageThe immature - overdefensive, obsessional, controlling and self-controlling. They are apt to dislike the lack of control in others. They dislike impulsiveness, enthusiasm, whimsicality, and unpredictability Hatred and fear result from emotional immaturity and psychological ill health

  Characteristics of the immature adult

 The immature individual seeks safety... searches for security... by denying... giving up autonomy... and fusing... merging with another force - the 'ultimate rescuer'. Denial of autonomy.. fusion is a means of denying isolation since others are valued for their 'usefulness' rather than for their whole being.

 Spiritual poverty results in defensive strategy.. all the energy is focused on what the person does not want. People using it are continually in a position of potentially compromising whatever they may truly want in their lives for the sake of safety, security and sense of peace. . 'Circumstantial stimuli' are stimuli, external or internal, which seem to force people to take action. These sometimes evoke spontaneous reaction and at other times seem to call for 'appropriate' responses. This is the 'reactive-responsive orientation'. In this kind of situation, it seems that the circumstances are more powerful than the individual Strategies are designed to avoid immediate unwanted circumstances. who must design  strategies in order to avoid immediate unwanted circumstances. Longer range strategies are designed to prevent unwanted circumstances from happening in the first place.  This is called the 'pre-emptive strike'.  

 As a result of failed development of human values the immature adult is unable to distinguish the essential from the unimportant...

has an exaggerated sensitivity and moodiness....

depends on their intense likes and dislikes to make evaluations which are incorrect...

 is hostile to individualism and is unable to respect the needs of the young...

assumes the superiority of their own institutions and standardizes whatever they can......

prefers to regulate life by legislation and thus create further injustice and make life impossible...

makes weak judgements and is impelled to copy others in their prejudices...

becomes over-suggestive and easy to manipulate so that those in control can easily gain or divert their attention ...

believes in the righteousness of their own behaviour...

wants to be praised and refuses criticism...

is self-satisfied and complacent in their ignorance.

The overall result is a general disintegration of their relationships with others.

The immature adult is unaware that accurate evaluation of the social environment depends on a perception of the whole...  'holistic perception'. Holistic perception leads to critical attitude of political or 'social intelligence'.

Social intelligence is  necessary for meaningful relationships and social adaptation. 

"A human civilization living by the principles of democracy presupposes a sane 'intelligence' of the masses and a general feeling of cooperation rather than animal competition. A 'civilization' based on commercialism, greed and ignorance can be neither democratic nor even human. Respect for the potential intelligence of the human organism and for children as they mature results in the capacity of proper evaluation, adjustment and decision making on personal, social and political levels. Our present commercial civilization, appealing to infantile gratification of the need to self-indulge provides an inadequate and improper semantic environment for children to develop into mature, intelligent, well-balanced, well-adjusted and socially responsible human beings and citizens of a true democracy - of democratically thinking citizens. Instead they want to be praised and refuse blame without realizing that a critical attitude insures a proper evaluation. They become self-satisfied, and complacent in their ignorance, unable to respect the needs of the young. Citizens of such a society assume that their institutions are superior and believe in the "righteousness of their own conduct" On the national level, they standardize whatever they can, remain hostile to individualism and prefer to regulate life by legislation so that the degree of injustice increases and life becomes impossible without expensive lawyers. Unable to distinguish the essential from the unimportant, they depend on their intense likes and dislikes to make their often incorrect evaluations, and create further injustice. They are impelled to copy others in their prejudices, make weak judgements, become oversuggestive and easy to manipulate, have an exaggerated sensitivity and moodiness which makes it easy for those in control to gain or divert their attention. The overall result is a general disintegration of human relationships and generally poor educational standards. Children must struggle to grow up into mature adults with proper evaluation of themselves and their place in the insane society into which they are born. We need to educate our children with a view to their needs for adjustment to life in a democracy and therefore with respect for their potential intelligence. (Alfred Korzybski Science and Sanity 516) 

  The problem of 'evil'... evil has no independent existence of its own... Evil is the absence of good - the result of the failure to realize life...what is the source of evil?. Man becomes evil only if the proper conditions for his growth and development are lacking....the problem of what stands in the way of growth - evasion fixation, regression, defensiveness - the attractiveness of psychopathology ...'evil' is identified with the wickedness of human behavior...human behavior becomes evil only if the proper conditions for growth and development are lacking...evil human behavior results from the crippling effect of insecurity and low self-esteem...evil results from the failure to realize life... failure to achieve self-realization... The 'evil' of human nature results from the failure of the human being to achieve self-actualization, realization of human potential. The evil of human nature results from the failure to achieve 'humanness'.

Implications for education  education for intelligence... Educational methodologies are formulated for the 'needs' of consumerist culture. Task oriented education lacks vision and wisdom... inhibits imagination and the natural development of complete cognition which results from global or 'holistic prception'.... inhibits intellectual and emotional growth... stresses objectives and outcomes and so fosters incomplete cognition... non-wholistic perception of reality. The focus of task oriented education is to 'weave the child into the fabric of sociey' (Goodman). Students question their purpose in life: what purpose or meaning does their life ultimately have? (One survey of the Carnegie Institute of Education has reported that the great majority of high school students in the US felt that their lives were useless.) The need for self-indulgence provides an improper environment for education as the development of maturity, intelligence, sanity, morality and responsibility. Children struggle to grow in the inadequate environment of consumerist culture. They need to be educated with a view to their needs for growth to maturity ...for adaptability to life in changing conditions... with respect for their potential intelligence and for their total development i.e. 'holistic education'. Education based on knowledge of human nature or 'self-knowledge'...With normalisation in human development, the desire to possess is transformed into desire for knowledge

 "It has frequently been suggested that the pursuit of self-knowledge is inherently a selfish one that detracts from an involvement with, and contribution to, society. However such criticism is not valid inasmuch as the product of this work is necessarily a transcendence of limited self-interest. Concern with the general good of one's fellow beings and a desire for harmony with the broader universe is intrinsic to the work. Eric Schumacher writes: 'It is a grave error to accuse a man who pursues self-knowledge of 'turning his back on society.' The opposite would be more nearly true: that a man who fails to pursue self-knowledge is and remains a danger to society, for he will tend to misunderstand everything that other people say or do, and remain blissfully unaware of the significance of many of the things he does himself. (Schumacher, E "A Guide for the Perplexed." New York, Harper and Row, l977) " (Walsh 199)

A mature person is a "maturing person - one whose linkages with life are constantly becoming stronger and richer because his attitudes are such as to encourage their growth rather than their stoppage" (Overstreet 43)

Holistic education is education for psychological growth and understanding i.e. 'creative intelligence'.

"The psychological growth of man must keep pace with his physical powers; every increase in power must be matched by an increase in understanding." (H.A. Overstreet The Mature Mind New York: W.W. Norton & Co. Inc.1949 page 114)

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Incomplete cognition is a product of the immature mind

In a capitalist culture, educational methodologies are formulated for the 'needs' of the society. Task oriented education lacks vision and wisdom, inhibiting intellectual and emotional growth. Task oriented education stresses objectives and outcomes, inhibiting imagination and the natural development of complete wholistic cognition. imagination is lack of a wholistic perspective. Fostering incomplete cognition, taskoriented education fosters a non-wholistic perception of reality.

"In the framework of a task-oriented perception of the environment cognition is incomplete...The person with incomplete cognition sees all there is to be seen of the surface features of environmental phenomena but is incapable of penetrating below the surface to the essential; and incapable of visualizing what is not yet apparent. He sees the details but not the whole, the trees but not the forest. Reality to him is only the sum total of what has already materialized. The person is able to recognize things as they are, or as the culture maintains them to be. With an imagination that is calculating the person combines those factors which are known and already in existence. He infers their future operation. The person is unable to enliven his perception from within."

Non-wholisitc perception and imcomplete cognition result from the lack of wholeness in the conditioning influences of the social environment.

 Education for political ideals of capitalism encourages a task-oriented perception of the environment...

In a capitalist society the individual learns to perceive the social environment in terms of what is 'threatening' and what is 'useful'... external motivation ...alienates the learner from the act of learning... this leads to decline in motivation ... The dichotamous perception of reality results in 'incomplete cognition'.

Cognition which is incomplete is the limited recognition of things as they are or rather as the culture maintains them to be. The individual with incomplete cognition is unable to enliven their perception from within. ... the perfect 'realist' who sees all there is to be seen of the surface features of phenomena but who is quite incapable of penetrating below the surface to the essential and of visualizing what is not yet apparent... Their perception of 'reality' consists of the sum total of what has already materialized. The individual with incomplete cognition uses a calculating imagination to combine the factors which are known and in existence and to infer their future operation.

seeing the details but not the whole, the trees but not the forest...

the ability to recognize things as they are (or as the culture maintains them to be) ...

 Maturity... Spiritual richness results in creative strategy... all the energy is focused on what the person does want. People using it are positive and creative, accomplishing things which enhance their own welfare and happiness as well as that of others.

References H.A. Overstreet The Mature Mind

 One cannot place a whole person on a continuum, only an abstracted aspect of a person. Wholenesses are non-comparable. Individuals who are not fully developed people live in a world in which classes and concepts have sharp boundaries, and are mutually exclusive and incompatiblle, e.g. male-female, selfish-unselfish, adult-child, kind-cruel, good-bad etc. In their logic, A is A and everything else is not-A developed people... self-actualizing people see that A and not-A interpenetrate and are one, that any person is simultaneously 'good' and 'bad', 'male' and 'female', 'adult' and 'child'.

CONNECTION BETWEEN THWARTED PSYCHOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT AND THE PROBLEMS OF ETHICS: PROBLEMS OF VALUES AND "ETHICS" - GOOD/BAD, EVIL/VIRTUE ETC. RESULT FROM EGO CENTERED MENTAL PROCESSES. WHICH DICHOTOMIZE AND DISTORT REALITY: The distortion in perception results from irrational fears etc. of immaturity.

THWARTED DEVELOPMENT RESULTS IN IMMATURITY AND NEUROSIS... leads to IMMORAL or 'UNETHICAL' BEHAVIOR - MORAL FAILURE - AS FRUSTRATION OF GROWTH, THWARTED PSYCHOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT RESULTS IN THWARTED DEVELOPMENT OF CONSCIENCE... human wickedness or 'evil'. The immature mind is the product of thwarted human development. incomplete cognition; perception of dichotomies as the 'incomplete cognition' of immaturity. The tragedy in neurosis as thwarted human growth and development due to conflicts in the cultural environent - in the family environment and the cultural social (school) environment.

 Values -for survival are modified by social norms Depending on the possibilities provided by the environment, children strive to achieve self-realization within the context of their environment. With the guidance of the adult, children achieve self-realization through interaction with their immediate environment - becoming one with their environment. Continued development into independent and mature personalities depends on their education - a long and indirect process of preparation for a life of freedom as independent and mature adults. Modifications are wrought within the biological organism by the cultural environment.

SCIENCE OF ETHICS... universality of organismic valuing process... there is an organismic base for an organized valuing process within each human individual. In accordance with the biological need for self-preservation and adaptation, the human organism has the natural capacity to adjust its behavior and reactions to a continuously changing environment... the operative values... the valuing process in the human being is effective in achieving self-enhancement to the degree that the individual is open to the experiencing which is going on within himself.

The infant and the psychologically mature person are examples of individuals whose valuing process is in harmony with their own experiencing. A child's proper inner development to maturity depends on his/her being prized as a separate person with the freedom to experience his own feelings without feeling threatened. The freedom of self-expression insures development to maturity and inner freedom

Educators must analyse the cultural context in which they are doing their work of educating. "There can be no educational policy or practice independent of a social and cultural context and therefore there is no such theory as 'objective' educational theory'". (David Purpel "Holistic Education in a Prophetic Voice" in John Miller Worldviews, Educational Orientations and Holistic Education. page 69)

 Modification of organismic valuing process by way of the 'introjective instinct': 'conceived values' In order to survive the young of the human species must acquire large amounts of information from older members of the species. The instinct for acquiring externaly imposed values and information is the 'introjective instinct'. The introjective instinct is a particularly human instinct. The child 'introjects' - makes a part of himself- what appear to him as the wishes, demands, hates, scorns, and standards of his psychological parents. If the parents are weak and infantile, their weakness is introjected as strength. Internalized images have a malignant effect on the child's development. During development, the child instinctively modifies his own fluid and changing valuing process (operative values) by incorporating externally imposed concepts (conceived values). In this way, the natural valuing process is gradually modified by the introjection of parental values and cultural values - the externally imposed conceived values. The modified valuing process tends to be fixed and rigid. Conceived values are value choices made on the basis of symbolized concepts which are learned ie 'conceived values'. Conceived value choices are made in anticipation of the outcome of a chosen behavior. As an example, a human being can choose one of two possible paths of action on the basis of the concept which he has been told to value such as 'honesty is the best policy'. Conceived value choices are introjected. Their incorporation and internalization result in the modified organismic valuing process. Introjection of conceived values explains some of the causes of the formation of character - character orientation. Explains the correlation between character orientation and social structure. They point up the powerful emotional forces which are instrumental in molding the social character and explains the functioning of the society. The personality/character of the average individual is determined by the socioeconomic and political sructure of the society in which he lives.

 For the human individual in a cultural context, the nature of reality is determined by the nature of the cultural environment. The nature of the cultural environment is determined by the cultural values and belief systems. Stimuli from the cultural environment are directly related to the basic assumptions underlying the values of the culture. They are peripheral to the stimuli in the field of focused attention. As peripheral stimuli, they are processed by the brain at the subconscious level. The cultural values are a product of the cultural belief systems which make up the 'cultural consciousness'. The cultural belief systems are a product of the history of the culture. The cultural history forms the basis of the cultural consciousness, source of the peripheral stimuli processed subconsciously by the individual in a cultural context. The individual's thought and behavior patterns are influenced by the subconsciously processed peripheral stimuli from the cultural environment. The individual's thought and behavior patterns are influenced by the subconsciously processed peripheral stimuli from the cultural environment. Unconsciously perceived and processed by the brain, peripheral stimuli from the cultural environment are inherent in the so-called 'cultural consciousness'. The educational process for the individual within a cultural context involves conscious the individual within a cultural context involves conscious thought patterns in the framework of unconsciously processed environmental stimuli of the cultural consciousness. The learning process combines the processing of environmental peripheral stimuli with conscious thought processes involved in cognition. Educational policies are formulated in the context of a prevailing cultural worldview which is inherent in the prevailing cultural belief systems and values. Cultural belief systems are created in the framework of the basic assumptions underlying the cultural view of the world - the 'reality' which is perceived from the point of view of the people living in their own time. The individuals within a given culture perceive their own world from their own point of view, with the technology, the resources and the 'education' accessible to them. They identify with the belief systems of their culture and perceive the world from the point of view of the cultural belief systems. An individual educated within the context of given cultural belief systems internalize the cultural values. The cultural values are derived from the cultural beliefs. The 'enculturated' individual subconsciously perceives reality in the context of the cultural values and the cultural worldview. Cultural beliefs are derived from scientific 'beliefs' and the cultural belief systems are derived from the culture's prevailing 'scientific' perception of reality. The cultural perception of 'reality' is a reflection of the prevailing scientific view of the world. The so-called scientific 'paradigm' is the view of reality and the perception of the world as observed and perceived by the individuals in the context of their own culture and its accessible sources of knowledge. The cultural worldview results from logical conclusions about the nature of reality. The conclusions are based on the individual's 'scientific' activity in the cultural context. The available technology is used to make observations about the environment. The available knowledge is used to make inquiries about the environment. Making inquiries and observations constitutes the 'scientific activity' on the basis of which conclusions are drawn about the reality of the environment. The individual uses the 'scientific method' which prevails in the context of the culture. 'Logical' conclusions are drawn on the basis of inquiries and observations made from the perspective of the cultural belief systems. These 'scientifically' drawn conclusions form the basis for the derivation of the significant metaphysical assumptions about 'reality' as they are perceived by those enculturated individuals. The resulting cultural perceptions of reality form the basis of the culture's belief systems and the cultural 'myths'. The cultural myths in turn form the basis of the cultural perceptions of 'reality'. The cultural perceptions of reality constitutes the framework for the formulation of the belief systems and cultural values. The cultural value system constitutes the framework for the formulation of the culture's educational policies. Educational 'institutions' formulate policies which are consistent with the cultural value system. The educational policies are formed within the conceptual framework of the scientific paradigm, by way of the cultural belief systems and cultural values . In reproducing the myths of the cultural belief systems, schools foster the traditional American values of capitalism, materialism and consumerism, of hierarchy and success, of moralism and control. Referred to as the 'hidden curriculum', the obligatory instruction of the cultural values has been promoted with authoritarian teaching methodologies and 'philosophies'. For the individual in the cultural context of 'schooling', he is expected to conform to the cultural values. Instead of fostering the individual's self-reliance and hope for his own future, school authorities want the individual to meet their own 'expectations'. Instead of fostering the individual's self-responsibility, they cultivate his sense of dependence on authorities and experts. Instead of fostering the individial's sense of responsibility for his own future, they try to cultivate his unrealistic ambitions for 'professional' status in the consumer culture. Instead of fostering the individual's sense of integrity and health, they cultivate a 'competitive spirit' and life of stress. In their efforts to make the individual conform to the cultural values, they impose thought and behavior patterns which repress the individual's natural desire for learning, for growth and for independence. Instead of trusting the individual's human potential for intellectual and moral development, the school imposes requirements in the form of grades and 'performance' scores. Instead of fostering the individual's critical consciousness, the school cultivates mindlessness. With its demands for meaningless and passive learning, the school discourages creative and critical thinking. Imposing requirements have been imposed on students for their 'adaptation' and enculturation, the use of traditional methods have obscured the real challenges of living. Students have not been prepared for the demands of complex learning in a complex environment. They have not been taught the positive aspects of moral responsibility to themselves. They have not been taught the real challenges involved in realizing their personal hopes and dreams. They have been deprived of the experience of the real joys of learning. With its function of reproducing the cultural values, the educational system neglect to prepare each individual to lead his own life in a complex world. Instead of preparing the individual for his own future as a self-responsible social being, the institutions of education have prepared the individual as a 'contributing member of society.' Focusing on the individual's preparation for adaptation to the society, the educational system neglect to foster the individual's innate capacities to adapt to a changing environments. Incapacitated individuals in a changing society constitute the human evidence of an anomalous social situation. The current educational 'crisis' is the obvious manifestation of an anomalous human situation which has existed for a long time. The anomaly cannot be ignored any more - it has reached 'crisis' proportions. In keeping with the Protestant ethic, social problems are perceived in terms of the individual's own lack of moral responsibility. Social problems are discussed in terms of possible solutions and 'scenarios'. Attempts are made to resolve them through the implementation of discipline and enforcement of the 'law'. Social problems are not understood in terms of possible deficiencies inherent in the cultural institutions. Social reforms are perceived in terms of the individual's moral responsibility to initiate changes. Social reforms are not perceived in terms of necessary institutional changes. For the individual in the cultural context of capitalism, the educational system is a reflection of the belief systems underlying the cultural values. In the educational institutions, attempts are made to 'help' the individual to cultivate a sense of moral responsibility. For the individual, environmental change is manifest in the global economic and political changes.

 The individual in the context of American culture is required to adapt to the changing demands of a capitalistic society. In keeping with the theories of capitalism and the American educational 'tradition', the individual's instinctive spiritual striving for self-realization is not validated. The natural development of moral responsibility is discouraged. The life of contemplation and meditation is misunderstood. True spiritual freedom is not trusted. The self-expressive behavior of the natural human being is not trusted. The intuitive and emotional facets of human nature are restrained. The educational policies which were formulated in the paradigm of reductionist science are no longer compatible with the new global worldview. New educational policies need to be formulated on the basis of the new wholistic scientific paradigm. Studies in innovative pedagogical techniques have shown the effectiveness of placing the emphasis on issues of pedagogy and philosophy on the students and on the learning process. Truly innovative changes are those which have a liberating effect on both the teaching and the learning aspects of institutional education. They liberate the learner from the oppressive role of the teacher, the curriculum and the institution. Implementation of liberating pedagogies would bring about the humanization of institutionalized education.

 A prerequisite is the reexamination of the basic assumptions and values of the cultural belief systems which make up the contextual framework of the educational system. For the individual in the context of cultural oppression, humanization and even survival depend on the humanization of the cultural values. A shift is taking place in the dominant scientific worldview from the reductionist worldview to the wholistic worldview. Reductionist 'science' is being replaced by 'wholistic science'. The change in scientific worldview or 'paradigm' has far-reaching consequences on the cultural belief systems and in turn on the formulation of educational 'policy'. Wholistic science validates the subjective participation of the observer in the scientific process of inquiry. Wholistic science gives rise to new cultural belief systems and values. These are reproduced in the educational policies within the culture. Overall change is manifest in several characteristic trends in education. There is a trend away from fragmentation of knowledge and towards integration of knowledge areas. There is a trend away from the authoritarianism of 'science' and 'experts' and a trend towards the inner authority of the concience. There is a trend away from the value of the need to control and a trend towards the value of the need to trust 'humanity' and the human spirit. There is an overall trend in the recognition and the cultivation of a wholistic paradigm and a global worldview. There is a trend away from the individual's cultural alienation and a trend towards the individual's cultural integration. In discussion and debate about 'education', there is a trend away from the 'individualistic' perspective and a trend towards the cultivation of the wholistic perspective. There is a trend away from competitiveness in learning and a trend towards cooperation and integration in the learning process. Overall there is a trend towards wholistic education. An innovative education based on a wholistic philosophy is valid because the learner is liberated from the authoritarianism of the teacher, the curriculum and the institution. The learner must be free to develop self-discipline, engage in self-directed learning and achieve self-actualization. The history of American education has been characterized by a continual search for a theoretical framework for an effective education practice. A theory-practice (praxis) based on the wholistic learning functioning of the brain could represent another alternative in the continuing search for a theoretical framework upon which to base an effective education practice. Evidence for a rational basis for a theory - practice based on brain functioning is provided by the findings of brain research. So-called brain-based learning involves the natural processing functions of the brain. link between cultural context and brain Brain based education involves the natural learning functions of the brain and brain-based learning involves the natural 'thinking' functions of the brain. The natural functions of the brain are concerned with its special ability to search for meaning in the environment. As a product of millions of years of evolution through natural selection, the specialized brain functions have ensured the survival of the human species. For its millions of years of survival as a species, the human being has depended on the brain's ability to search for meaning in the environment. The brain's efficient evaluation of the environmental context of experience has depended on the natural selection of its characteristic complex thinking functions. The natural thinking processes constitute the brain's natural capacity for processing complex stimuli in the physical, social and cultural environment. The brain processes environmental stimuli which are in the field of focused attention and at the same time it processes those stimuli which are peripheral to it. Many environmental stimuli are perceived unconsciously by the brain and are processed at the subconscious level. The brain processes the focused stimuli within the context of the peripheral stmuli. The brain's interpretation of the focused stimuli depends on its subconscious interpretation of the peripheral stimuli. Stimuli in the field of focused attention are interpreted in ways which depend on the context of the interpretation of peripheral stimuli. The meanings attached to the peripheral stimuli determine the context in which the brain consciously processes environmental stimuli. Peripheral stimuli include those from both physical and social or 'cultural' environments.

"The most recent of the great insights that have invited man to maturity came with the development of science. The scientific method is not commonly regarded as an insight into human nature; but this, in its essence, is what it is. It is a systematized expression of the fact that man is a species capable of transcending his own limitations of sense and of subjectivity." (Overstreet The Mature Mind)

 Education for human development is a function of culture. The American capitalist culture is not interested in the individual's growth to full maturity or 'wholeness' and 'humanity'. Growth to maturity means having rich inner resources and a deep insistent concern for the rights of the dispossessed. The mature individual is far less valuable as a source of profit. The economy of the culture is only interested in those aspects of the person which can further the interests of capitalism. If they derive monetary profit they have 'economic value'. A person can be valuable as a worker who contributes to the production of goods, or as a consumer who exchanges money for goods, or as an investor who can work for a corporation or as an inventor, an expert, or even a 'name' - anything which can be regarded as 'marketable.'

 In the capitalistic system, maturity, contentment and happiness are not valued because they have no economic value. Even creative intelligence is only valued if it can be used for monetary gain. The economic theories of capitalism and consumerism place limitations on human growth. They discourage the fulfillment of the natural development of human potential, the human instinct for strive for self-realization or 'self-actualization'. They discourage the individual's development of the personal power of instrinsic motivation and the human capacities for foresight and over-all planning. They ignore the natural development of intrinsic human values of moral responsibility. This inherent cultural confusion comes from the competition of two conflicting philosophies: the philosophical tradition of intellectual and social liberalism which requires that the individual grows up into full psychological maturity i.e. rational liberalism; and antirational materialism which encourages mental dishonesty and fosters fixation in immaturity.

Capitalistic economic theories teach people that the purpose of life is the successful fulfillment of their duty to work and that it is in their interest to work for money, prestige, and power. People lose sight of the fact that it is in their 'real' self-interest to live in harmony with themselves and their fellow human beings. They lose faith in their human capacity for dignity and courage. They learn that in order to survive, they have to accept the cultural norms. And one of the accepted cultural norms is adult immaturity. In the state of adult immaturity, the individual is more valuable as a source of profit and profit-making. The immature adult is susceptible to the competitive appeals of advertisers who tempt the individual to spend what he has, to mortgage their future in the accumulation of possessions through structures of credit buying and installment purchasing - even though it means diverting funds from more important purposes. The term 'pursuit of happiness' is blatantly used to refer to monetary gain. People get whatever happiness they can out of doing what everybody else does.

 They are persuaded to make value judgements on the basis of material success. The result is extreme corruption of the natural human values and moral confusion which leads to feelings of personal bewilderment and helplessness. As a result of the demands of the system, ethical norms are formulated on the premise that the individual is powerless and insignificant. People are easily influenced by the enthusiasm of political leaders and become easy prey to the demands of the irrational value system of materialism. Social institutions - including schools - foster the individual's fixation in immaturity. This is because the development of perpetually impulsive children is more compatible with the image of the 'good consumer' and 'valuable customer' than the development of mature human beings with foresight, responsibility and wholeness of character. A paternalistic attitude towards the 'American people' is characteristic of the 'oppressor-oppressed' social contradiction. Using rhetoric to maintain their power, capitalists pay lip-service to crime prevention, health care reform, educational reform, police protection and make money on crime, ill health, ignorance, addictive behaviour and and all the other ills of society which result from people's immaturity, frustration and unhappiness. The major institutions of the society are divided and contradictory. People talk about the impracticality of what their children learn in school and at the same time they want them to bring home grades they can be proud of. People are admired more for what they own than for what they know. Teachers are regarded as insignificant compared with businessmen and movie stars. Throughout the society and in the schools, there is a pervasive mistrust which originates from the fear of control by seduction (commercialism, advertising, false values, money prestige, desire for glory etc.) The pervading mistrust is translated into negativity, cynicism and hostility - all factors which stunt sound psychic development. Stunted psychic growth leads to weakness of character which is manifest in the so-called 'reactive-responsive' behaviour. The reactive-responsive character orientation which is based on the powerlessness of the individual is reinforced in traditional education in which children learn to depend on avoidance or prevention strategies. They are given behavioural rules ...don't do this, don't do that etc. and told what they can't do and how bad they are because of what they are doing. If they go along with what they are told and act accordingly, their behaviour is 'responsive'. Responsive behaviour involves conformity to the norms and standards which are set by people in positions of authority. If they do not go along with what they are told and react against it, their behaviour is 'reactive'. Reactive behaviour involves active opposition to the norms and standards which are set by people in positions of authority.

 In school, responsive behaviour is rewarded and reactive behaviour is punished. The responsive person who conforms to the rules is labeled as a 'good student' or a 'nice person' and rewarded with good grades. The responsive student continues to respond in the same way and after years of living avoidance strategies, their sense of personal power is undermined. This contributes to their drive to 'succeed.' Cultural implications of failure in success oriented culture... Reactive-responsive people often fail to master the skills of creative living. The reactive person who does not conform to the rules is labelled with descriptions such as 'rebellious' or 'difficult' and is punished with poor grades. The reactive student who continues to react in the same way... years of reacting against authority... in adulthood, the reactive person continues to react against authority and is usually labeled as a 'political activist' or 'extremist'. With the responsive-reactive character orientation, the power lies in circumstantial stimuli. Perception of the environment is focused on those aspects which might be 'useful' or 'threatening'. Educational methodologies are formulated for the 'needs' of the society. Task oriented education lacks vision and wisdom, inhibiting intellectual and emotional growth. Task oriented education stresses objectives and outcomes, inhibiting imagination and the natural development of complete wholistic cognition. imagination is lack of a wholistic perspective. Fostering incomplete cognition... non-wholistic perception of reality. Success is an empty victory... focus of education is to weave the child into the fabric of sociey... The power in the situation is clearly defined as being in the school or the parents. Students really learn that they are powerless. They learn that they are insignificant and that they need to conform. They question their purpose in life: what purpose or meaning does their life ultimately have? (One survey of the Carnegie Institute of Education has reported that the great majority of high school students in the US felt that their lives were useless.)

The commercial civilization of capitalistic culture appeals to the infantile gratification of adult immaturity. This need for self-indulgence provides an improper environment for education as the development of maturity, intelligence, sanity, morality and responsibiltiy. The immature adult wants to be praised and refuses criticism... doesn't realize that accurate evaluation of the social environment depends on a critical attitude... is self-satisfied and complacent in their ignorance, unable to respect the needs of the young, believe in the righeousness of their own behaviour... Assuming the superiority of their own institutions, they standardize whatever they can and remain hostile to individualism. Unable to distinguish the essential from the unimportant, they depend on their intense likes and dislikes to make their incorrect evaluations. They prefer to regulate life by legislation and thus create further injustice and make life impossible. Those in control can easily gain or divert their attention because they are impelled to copy others in their prejudices, they make weak judgements, they become oversuggestive and easy to manipulate, they have an exaggerated sensitivity and moodiness. The overall result is a general disintegration of their relationships with others. Children struggle to grow in the inadequate environment of capitalistic culture. They need to be educated with a view to their needs for growth to maturity ...for adaptability to life in changing conditions... with respect for their potential intelligence and for their total development.

 They discourage the fulfillment of the natural development of human potential, the human instinct for strive for self-realization or 'self-actualization'.

 The result is extreme corruption of the natural human values and moral confusion which leads to feelings of personal bewilderment and helplessness

 The reactive-responsive character orientation which is based on the powerlessness of the individual is reinforced in traditional education in which children learn to depend on avoidance or prevention strategies.

 The responsive person who conforms to the rules is labeled as a 'good student' or a 'nice person' and rewarded with good grades.

  Truth is a function of human of awareness or 'cognition'. The degree of cognition is a function of the degree of awareness and critial consciousness. The degree of critical consciousness is a function of personality integration. Complete integration of the personality results in complete cognition. As a function complete personality integration, complete cognition is characteristic of maturity. A mature person is a 'maturing person'. With complete personality integration, a maturing person is one whose linkages with life are constantly becoming stronger and richer because his attitudes are such as to encourage their growth rather than their stoppage. Incomplete integration of the personality results in incomplete cognition. link: incomplete cognition

"In the framework of a task-oriented perception of the environment cognition is incomplete... The person with incomplete cognition sees all there is to be seen of the surface features of environmental phenomena but is incapable of penetrating below the surface to the essential; and incapable of visualizing what is not yet apparent. He sees the details but not the whole, the trees but not the forest. Reality to him is only the sum total of what has already materialized. The person is able to recognize things as they are, or as the culture maintains them to be. With an imagination that is calculating the person combines those factors which are known and already in existence. He infers their future operation. The person is unable to enliven his perception from within." (Abraham Maslow. Towards a Psychology of Being.)

Non-wholisitc perception and imcomplete cognition result from the lack of wholeness in the conditioning influences of the social environment.

 The ability to work is an important aspect of the individual's personality development throughout life. The recognition of the psychological value of work in human psychological development is the basis for the organization of schools for humanity.

 Organization of schools for humanity depends on the recognition of the psychological value of work in human psychological development. In the unnormalized individual the desire to possess is accompanied by a desire to destroy. With normalization, desire to possess becomes transformed into desire for knowledge.

Schools for humanity are 'free' schools. Free schools respect spiritual freedom which is desire for knowledge. Spiritual freedom is necessary for the development of an individual's natural sense of moral responsibility. Freedom in school means freedom to work, freedom to learn and freedom to learn from error. Freedom to work requires organization. Freedom without organization is not conducive to work or to learning. Freedom to learn precludes teacher praises, prizes, threats, punishments or corrections. Teacher interference lowers the child's energies and interests. Effective pedagogical methods take into consideration the psychological value of work. Pedagogical methods based on the natural striving for self-realization through concentrated work are successful in helping the individual reach his human potential for self-realization. Successful pedagogical methods foster personality development for realization of the human potential for self-actualization which is a natural by product of the experience of growth and freedom within the community in which effective learning is driven by the need for self-initiated personal development. The goal of education is the proper development of the individual's naturally balanced personality which depends on cooperative activities in a social environment. Contrary to competition, cooperation enhances feelings of security and stimulates further exploration. Educators can help children in the natural stages of human development by offering environmental stimuli which stimulate their inner potentialities at different stages of their development. Children themselves can advise adults in the planning and the designing of an educational curriculum which would include opportunities for experiential enrichment...of environments which will help them to grow to psychological maturity... help the individual to reach his potential. The curriculum would be based on children's instinctive motivation to satisfy the basic needs for self-respect and self-esteem in the process of self-actualization.

  Spiritual freedom is necessary for the development of an individual's natural sense of moral responsibility.

  In American culture so-called 'learning theory' is based almost entirely on deficit-motivation with goal objects usually external to the organism, learning the techniques of repeatedly acquiring from the outside world satisfactions for motivational deficiencies... change involves an acquisition of habits which are added like new external possessions one by one. ...our psychology of learning is a limited body of knowledge, useful only in small areas of life This is of little help in solving the problem of growth and self-actualization ...goal object which is intrinsic to the organism is learning the best way to satisfy the needs of the individual ...perceptual learning for the increase of insight and understanding is learning for knowledge of the self the steady growth of personality... for increased synergy, integration and inner consistency... change involves a total change of the total person i.e. a new person rather than the same ...perceptual learning is character change learning which involves changing a very complex highly integrated holistic organism which in turn means that impacts will make no change at all because more and more such impacts will be rejected as the person becomes more stable and more autonomous. The most important learning experiences are often single life experiences such as tragedies, traumata, conversions, sudden insights etc. which force the individual to change their life-outlook and consequently to change everything that they do.

Growth consists of the peeling away of inhibitions and constraints and then permitting the person to 'be himself' to emit behaviour 'radiantly' as it were - rather than to repeat it... to allow one's inner nature to express itself... ...the behaviour of self-actualizers is created and released rather than acquired, expressive rather than coping. link: mind Within the framework of the worldview of scientific rationalism, the human mind was first viewed as a 'working mechanism' in the mid-19th century. Nineteenth century developments in anatomy and physiology produced intensive studies of the brain and of the nervous system. These studies established the specific relationships between brain structures and mental functions. They clarified the various functions of the nervous system, and they produced detailed knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the sensory organs. With the new knowledge of the modern reductionist science, the Newtonian orientation of psychology became firmly established. The ingenious but naive mechanistic models of the human psyche which had been formulated by Descartes were eventually replaced by the mechanistic models of the modern 'science of the mind' known as behavioural science or behavioural psychology and later referred to as 'behaviorism'. Further limitations resulted from the economic theories of capitalism. The worldview of capitalism is based on the belief that nature must be controlled and the natural human being is lazy and needs to be disciplined to do work. In order to 'weed out' those who are lazy and undisciplined, competition between individuals is encouraged in terms of 'individualism' and 'self-assertion'. Work is measured in terms of tangible results, productivity and 'success'. Successful work is made tangible with economic rewards and material gains. Economic and material success is rewarded with social status. The respect for the sanctity of private property and social status has resulted in a materialistic value system. The psychologically healthy person is defined as 'adjusted to the society', a term which reflects the society to which he is adjusted. 'The society' is perceived as an entity separate from the individuals who make it up. And yet a society consists of the group of individuals of a community who "share a given set of constructs, values and techniques together referred to as a 'paradigm'." (Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Unviversity of Chicago Press, 1970)

The economic theories of capitalism place limitations on human experience. The life of the intellect and the quest for self-realization are not valued. The natural development of moral and spiritual self-reliance is discouraged. The life of contemplation and meditation is misunderstood and devalued. True spiritual freedom is considered undisciplined and punishable. The spontaneous and self-expressive behaviour of the natural human being is repressed. The impulsive, intuitive and emotional aspects of human nature are restrained. Social problems are perceived in terms of the individual's personal moral failure. They are resolved by discipline and the rule of law. They are not understood in terms of inherent deficiencies of fundamental institutional practices. Social reforms are perceived in terms of the individual's moral responsibility. They are not understood in the context of necessary institutional changes. Creative intelligence is only valued if it can be used to further the interests of the capitalists. The impulsive, intuitive and emotional aspects of human nature are restrained. link: 'truth' as applied immaturity ...the power of language ... the impact on the mind can result in psychopathology manifest as wicked or 'evil' human behavior. Thwarted psychological development: immature mind and neurosis;

The economy of the culture encourages immaturity on two counts. First, it discourages the fulfillment of the natural capacities of human nature. "It discourages man from using to the limit his human capacity for foresight and over-all planning." "Through its advertising, it has persistently tried to make immediate temptation so irresistable that the individual will spend what he has - even though this may mean the diversion of his funds from more important ends. Through its structure of credit buying and installment buying, it has persistently encouraged families to accept the illusion that large payments are small - thus persuading them to mortgage their futures. The image of man as a "good consumer" is often more compatible with that of man as a perpetual impulsive child than with that of man as a mature being of foresight and responsibility." Second, the economy fosters mental dishonesty. The notion of 'free enterprise' has popular appeal, especially for those who intend to control the market through monopolies. They utilize the notion of 'government interference' to make profits in the form of 'protective tariffs.'  (Overstreet 179)

 

 

the feeling that children are brought into the world to satisfy the parents and compensate them for the disappointments of their own lives...

NEUROTIC PROCESS OF GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT: NEUROSIS AS FAILURE IN MORAL DEVELOPMENTperception of dichotomies as the 'incomplete cognition' of immaturity therefore perception of dichotomies is neurotic perception of reality resulting from conflicts inherent on the cultural environment... neurosis is product of the immature mind with a perspective which is ego centered they create a dichotomous perception of reality ...perception of dichotomies of 'pseudoproblems'... fantasies about the solutions to non-existent problems...the problems of immaturity and neurosis are directly related to undeveloped conscience and immorality... evil human behavior is a function of immature, neurotic behavior...The problems of immaturity and neurosis are directly related to undeveloped conscience and immorality. ...instead of the natural wholistic perception of reality of complete cognition... evil behavior results from the 'incomplete cognition' of immaturity and neurosis...

  thwarted psychological development results in obstruction to moral development i.e. development of 'conscience'.

Pathological behaviours are variations of normal human behaviours. Investigation into abnormal developmental processes produces insights into normal human development.

Professionalizing of immature minds produces minds in grooves. Each 'profession' makes progress but it is progress in its own groove. Increased 'professionalizing' weakens the directive force of reason. As immature minds, the so called 'intellects' in the 'professions' lack balance.

 The immature mind is the product of thwarted human development. Incomplete psychological development means incomplete development of the human conscience. Traditionally, throughout the history of philosophy, theology, psychology, natural desires have been considered annoying and even threatening. Theologians, political philosophers and economic theorists have conceived of various strategies to remove, deny or avoid people's 'unwanted' desires and needs. People's happiness has been considered in terms of improving their conditions with a view to eliminating their needs... The proper psychological undertaking of man is to move from immaturity to maturity. ...responsive to their reactions. Thus relying on changeable factors in a non-reliable social environment, the 'deficiency motivated' individual is prone to anxiety, to hostility and ultimately to a lack of freedom. His interpersonal relations are limited and interchangeable because they are based on need gratification.

IMMATURE MIND AS THE RESULT OF THWARTED GROWTH IMMATURE MIND: SPIRITUAL POVERTY AND DEFENSIVE STRATEGIES

A mature truth told to immature minds ceases, in those minds, to be that same mature truth. Immature minds take from it only what immature minds can assimilate. In the end, even though they may give it lip-service and may raise institutions in its name, they turn the mature truth into an applied immaturity. This fate of psychological depreciation has been the fate of all our greatest human truths. Uttered by mature minds, and for the purpose of maturing minds, they have been received, for the most part, by less mature minds - and have thus been only partially comprehended. Being only partially comprehended, they have found expression in ways that have perpetuated as much misunderstanding as understanding, as much error as truth.

 Wholistic perception of reality is natural. The human conscience is constructed through work and through productiveness. Construction of the human conscience is dependent on the environmental conditions which foster natural human development. If the proper conditions are lacking, then the conscience is not developed. With an undeveloped conscience, the human organism as a social animal must resort to methods of power politics and control - methods which violate and destroy other human beings. Human behavior which is described as 'evil' is destructive behavior. Destructive human behavior - the so-called 'evil' human behavior - results from the failure of the human organism to achieve maturity and potential 'humanhood'. Hatred and fear result from emotional immaturity and psychological ill health. ...immaturity and improper semantic reactions... evaluations are distorted as the result of intensional training by parents, teachers and other adults... who are unaware of the heavy neurological consequences... ...complacent 'know-it-all' attitudes constitute a "pernicious influence on the child's developing mind and mentality, unable to deal with fears and anxieties.".. immature mind is unable to formulate the proper evaluations necessary for sanity and predictability...

In a cultural environment which focuses on the basic physiological and psychological needs, 'metamotivation' is inhibited by forces external to the individual. The individual in a cultural environment which focuses on the basic needs is deprived of the means for gratification of the 'metaneeds which are repressed ...denied...

inner biological ('instinctoid)' core of human nature... includes the basic physiological and psychological needs, the inborn capacities and talents, and the biologically based values inherent in the intrinsic yearnings and preferences.

The immature mind is the product of thwarted human development. Dichotomous perception of reality is immature and neurotic. perception of dichotomies as the 'incomplete cognition' of distorted neurotic perception of reality resulting from conflicts inherent in the culture. Dichotomous perception of reality ultimately results from conflicting forces in the social environment.

One cannot place a whole person on a continuum, only an abstracted aspect of a person. Wholenesses are non-comparable...

 

The 'evil' of human nature results from the failure of the human organism to achieve 'wholeness', maturity, self-actualization, realization of human potential, the failure to become 'human', to achieve 'humanness'...

 Naturally, with complete development, human behavior is determined by wholistic perception of reality, understanding between social groups amd amicable relations. With incomplete human development, incomplete cognition and dichotomous perception of reality leads to misunderstandings and conflict, destruction, wars etc. explained by individuals who have power and no understanding.

 much of human history involves power politics and power struggles of immature adults...can be explained by peoples' immaturities. ...the most dangerous members of society whose powers of influence are adult but whose motives and responses are infantile... psychological growth of the human organism must keep pace with increase in physical powers.. every increase in power must be matched by an increase in understanding.

 the 'bad' person must first satisfy the esteem needs - realize that he is not bad but good... ...incomplete psychological development results in incomplete development of the human conscience.. neurosis...neurotic behavior is immoral ...the individual who is open to all aspects of his experience, and is aware of all the varied sensings and perceivings which are going on within his organism, will tend to positive experience in his interaction with his environment... constructive both for himself and others. Children naturally strive to become adult human beings... achieving adulthood is achieving self-realization. The striving towards self-realization is hereditary.... the lack of proper education hinders development towards self-realization. It restricts the individual's achievement of mature adulthood characteristic of the human being and of humanity. Children do not become human beings with the attributes of humanity unless provided with the education which is conducive to their proper psychological development. Physical growth to adulthood without the concomitant psychological growth results in immature human beings without human attributes... with distorted and unbalanced value systems which contradict the interests of their humanity. Immature human beings are capable of thought and behavior patterns which can inflict grave harm on themselves and their fellow human beings.

Mature mind with wholistic perspective sees the 'problems' as pseudoproblems resulting from distorted perceptions of reality immature love creates no capacity for good will toward many. Self-actualizing people perceive many so-called 'problems' as merely pseudoproblems resulting from an ego-centered mental process which dichotomizes and distorts reality. The result is the emergence of problematical false dichotomies such as reason-emotion, mystic-realistic, self-society etc. For the self-actualizing person, false dichotomies can be resolved, "the polarities disappear, and many oppositions thought to be intrinsic merge and coalesce with each other to form unities."

"DIMENSIONS OF MENTAL HEALTH DICHOTOMY TRANSCENDANCE AS DIMENSION OF MENTAL HEALTH: CONCERNING THE SUPPOSED DICHOTOMY BETWEEN FREEDOM AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY

Dichotomies disappear with increased mental health  If the individuals in a society remain attached to that level of consciousness dealing with gratification of physical and emotional needs, then they would perceive a dichotomy between personal freedom "to pursue happiness" and their responsibility to the society, their social responsibility. If those same individuals' level of consciousness is raised

 

 The distortion in perception results from irrational fears etc. of immaturity.

 EGO-CENTERED MENTAL PROCESS DICHOTOMIZES AND DISTORTS REALITY:

 Perception of dichotomies is the result of 'incomplete cognition' of the immature mind. A dichotomy is a mental creation of the immature mind

 to a healthier state, then they would be motivated by so-called 'higher needs' to serve others and to contribute to society. They would not perceive a dichotomy between personal freedom "to pursue happiness" and their responsibility to society, their social responsibility.

 HEALTH-ILLNESS DICHOTOMY AND OTHER "SUBJECTIVE DICHOTOMIES."

"At the highest levels of well-being-in the transcendent realms where we experience ouselves as pure awareness transcendant to space, form, and time- very diferent possibilites for describing health become aapparent. This realm is clearly transcendent to any existing concept of health. Like the other subjective dichotomies, the distinction between health and illness collapses in the deepest levels of being. AS VARIOUS CONSCIOUSNESS DISCIPLINES HAVE MAINTAINED FOR CENTURIES, WHO WE ARE BEHIND OUR ILLUSORY IDENTIFICATIONS IS BEYOND HEALTH AND ILLNESS"

"Several traditions make the suggestions that attachment (addiction) to having one's needs gratified is the source of suffering and that highly developed individuals are likely to be motivated by a desire to contribute to and serve others. Health might thus be associated with fewer attachments and a higher ratio of service-oriented versus egocentric behaviour. Although they do not necessarily fit neatly into any particular formal model, various other qualities have been widely assumed to be characteristic of optimal mental health. These include the recognition that one is responsible for, and the source of, one's experience and one's sense of well-being; greater sensitivity towards others as manifested by enhanced love, compassion, empathy, and generosity; an appreciation of the awesomeness and mystery of life shown by attitudes of reverence, gratitude, wonder and ecological sensitivity; and a wholehearted participation in life, opening fully to the joys as well as to the sorrows of the human condition."

" A number of seeming paradoxes follow. Because this essential nature of our being continues to exist beyond any illusory constrictive identifactions, it follows that it remains transcendant to the health/illness dichotomy at all times. Thus a movement toward health does not entail changing what we are but rather recognizing what we are. Indeed there is not even any need for movement. As the perennial psychology would have it, "there is nothing to do, nothing to change, nothing to be." It follows, then, that the transpersonal perspective on the quest for psychological well-being is very different from the traditional Western view. Changes in behaviour, thought, affect, and personality are seen not only as goals in themselves but also as means to facilitate awareness of transcendant dimensions of being." "Critical perception obliterates the simplistic dualism that establishes a nonexistent dichotomy between consciousness and the world."

"Through their own efforts people can remake the natural path where consciousness emerges as the capacity for self-perception." Dichotomies are integrated in the wholistic perspective.

A wholistic view of education is based on the elimination of dichotomies such as individual/society. Wholistic education based on the biologically based needs and metaneeds of the individual automatically accomodates the needs of the society.

Taoistic science involves receptive contemplation - nonactive, noninterfering witnessing and savoring of the experience and the 'realness' of nature. .. integration of theory with reality 'praxis' first define reality as ultimate reality not reality perceived with distorted dichotamous perceoption reality is a result of perception...if the perception is distorted then the perceiver's 'reality ' is distorted..not perceiving the distortion of his own distorted perception the perceiver is psychotic.

KNOWLEDGE THROUGH BEING LOVE: "The ability to B-love is a characteristic of a higher level of personal maturity. Therefore personal maturity is a pre condition for this kind of perspicuity, and one way to improve this kind of knowing would be to improve the maturity of the knower. What could this imply for the education of scientists?"

Both orthodox science and orthodox religion have been institutionalized and frozen into a mutually excluding dichotomy. This separation into Aristotelian a and not-a has been almost perfect...every jurisdiction, every task has been assigned to either one or the other... one consequence is that they are both pathologized ...ripped apart into a crippled half-science and a crippled half-religion... the most important parceling out of jurisdictions is that science has nothing to do with values

 PROBLEMS OF VALUES AND 'ETHICS' - GOOD/BAD, EVIL/VIRTUE ETC. RESULT FROM EGO CENTERED MENTAL PROCESSES.

IMMATURE MIND IS THE product OF THWARTED GROWTH ...INCOMPLETE PSYCHOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT... incomplete personality integration... incomplete cognition is the ego-centered mental process... dichotomous perception of reality is immature and neurotic... ultimately results from conflicting forces in the social environment... distorted neurotic perception of reality resulting from conflicts inherent on the culture. ..

abstract knowledge dichotomizd from experiential knowledge is false and dangerous; but abstract knowledge built upon and hierarchically integrated with experiential knowledge is a necessity for human life

OUR DEEPEST NEEDS ARE NOT IN THEMSELVES DANGEROUS, EVIL OR BAD. CONSEQUENTLY ... REJECT THE MISTAKEN VIEW THAT THE INTERESTS OF THE INDIVIDUAL AND OF THE SOCIETY ARE MUTUALLY EXCLUSIVE AND ANTAGONISTIC, OR THAT CIVILIZATION IS PRIMARILY A MECHANISM FOR CONTROLLING AND POLICING HUMAN INSTINCTOID IMPULSES. ALL OF THESE AGE-OLD AXIOMS ARE SWEPT AWAY BY THE NEW POSSIBILITY OF DEFINING THE MAIN FUNCTION OF A HEALTHY CULTURE AS THE FOSTERING OF UNIVERSAL SELF-ACTUALIZATION CONCERNING THE SUPPOSED DICHOTOMY BETWEEN FREEDOM AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITy DICHOTAMOUS PERCEPTION OF REALITY RESULTS FROM ABSTRACTION FROM REALITY...

Dichotomous perception of 'reality' is a resut of category error... perceiving opposite characters as separate categories when in fact they are the 'extreme poles of a single whole cycle... placing things in separate caegories when in fact they are the opposite poles of a whole cycle of change is referred to as 'making a category error'.

 product of thwarted human development... incomplete personality integration... incomplete cognition is the ego-centered mental process which perceives dichotomies. Dichotomous perception of reality is immature and neurotic... ultimately results from conflicting forces in the social environment...distorted neurotic perception of reality resulting from conflicts inherent in the culture.

CONCERNING THE SUPPOSED DICHOTOMY BETWEEN FREEDOM AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY

How is a social life possible if each person is only striving to assert his own individuality? This objection is example of category error... false understanding in moralism. The moralist believes that a social community is possible only if all people are united by a communally fixed moral order. What this kind of moralist does not understand is just the unity of the world of ideas. He does not see that the world of ideas working in me is no different from the one working in a fellow human being. A moral misunderstanding, a clash, is impossible between people who are morally free...

To live in love towards our actions, and to let live in the understanding of the other person's will, is the fundamental maxim of free men. Freedom for complete development:

 "SUBJECTIVE DICHOTOMIES." - 'subjective' because they are mental creations of the subject - the 'knower' ... of the mechanistic frame of mind which "sees" dichotomies in a world in which classes and concepts have sharp boundaries... are mutually exclusive and incompatible... A is A and everything else is not-A ...examples of mutual exclusiveness... between consciouness and reality, subjectivity and objectivity, practice and theory, individual freedom and social responsibility...health and illness male and female, selfish and unselfish, adult and child, kind and cruel, good and bad... Dichotomies are mental creations. With the use of words and the mental process of 'identification' the immature mind perceives dichotomies with an imagination and by limited cognition. The dichotomies do not exist in 'reality'. They exist in the minds of people who perceive them.

The immature mind is the product of thwarted human development. Dichotomous perception of reality is immature and neurotic. perception of dichotomies as the 'incomplete cognition' of distorted neurotic perception of reality resulting from conflicts inherent on the culture. Dichotomous perception of reality ultimately results from conflicting forces in the social environment. immaturity ...deficiency perception... therefore perception of dichotomies is neurotic perception of reality resulting from conflicts inherent on the cultural environment... neurosis is product of the immature mind ...thwarted human psychological development: with a perspective which is ego centered they create a dichotamous perception of reality ...perception of dichotomies of 'pseudoproblems'... fantasies about the solutions to non-existent problems... the problems of immaturity and neurosis are directly related to undeveloped conscience and immorality... evil human behavior is a function of immature, neurotic behavior... The problems of immaturity and neurosis are directly related to undeveloped conscience and immorality. ...instead of the natural wholistic perception of reality of complete cognition... evil behavior results from the 'incomplete cognition' of immaturity and neurosis..

..To live in love towards our actions, and to let live in the understanding of the other person's will, is the fundamental maxim of free men...Persons who are free in this sense only obey themselves. Persons who are not free in this sense are 'unfree' - they submit themselves to control. In the style of Aristotelian logic (A and not-A), age-old axioms maintain the 'deficiency motivated' perception of reality in terms of classes and concepts which have sharp boundaries... are mutually exclusive and incompatible... male-female, selfish-unselfish, adult-child, kind-cruel, good-bad etc. A is A and everything else is not-A... seen by self-actualizing people ... A and not-A interpenetrate and are one... any person is WHOLE ...simultaneously 'good' and 'bad', 'male' and 'female', 'adult' and 'child'. One cannot place a whole person on a continuum, only an abstracted aspect of a person. Wholenesses are non-comparable... ... the self-actualized perceive many so-called "problems" as merely pseudoproblems resulting from an ego-centered mental process which dichotomizes and distorts reality...etc.. Instead of the natural wholistic perception of reality of complete cognition, the dichotamous perception of reality (perception of dichotomies) results in evil behavior. Naturally, with complete development, human behavior is determined by wholistic perception of reality, understanding between social groups amd amicable relations. With incomplete human development, incomplete cognition and dichotamous perception of reality leads to misunderstandings and conflict, destruction, wars etc. history wars etc. explained by individuals who have power and no understanding. Much of human history involves power politics and power struggles of immature adults whose powers of influence are adult but whose motives and responses are infantile. The most dangerous members of our society are those grownups whose powers of influence are adult but whose motives and responses are infantile. ...less developed people lived in an Aristotelian world ...in the Aristotelian logic, and never the twain shall meet. Age old axiom: The interests of the individual and of society are mutually exclusive and antagonistic... the suggestion that the pursuit of self-knowledge is inherently a selfish one that detracts from an involvement with, and contribution to, society... not valid since the product of this work (pursuit of self-knowledge) is necessarily a transcendence of limited self-interest. Concern with the general good of one's fellow beings and a desire for harmony with the broader universe is intrinsic to the work... error to accuse a man who pursues self-knowledge of 'turning his back on society...opposite would be more nearly true: that a person who fails to pursue self-knowldege is and remains a danger to society because he tends to misunderstand everything that other people say or do... remains blissfully unaware of the significance of many of the things he does himself. If the individuals in a society remain attached to that level of consciousness dealing with gratification of physical and emotional needs, then they would perceive a dichotomy between personal freedom "to pursue happiness" and their responsibility to the society, their social responsibility. If those same individuals' level of consciousness is raised to a healthier state, then they would be motivated by so-called 'higher needs' to serve others and to contribute to society. They would not perceive a dichotomy between personal freedom "to pursue happiness" and their social responsibility. A mature person is aware of his/her responsibilities to society and does not perceive a dichotomy. the transpersonal perspective on the quest for psychological well-being is very different from the traditional Western view. Changes in behaviour, thought, affect, and personality are seen not only as goals in themselves but also as means to facilitate awareness of transcendant dimensions of being... The attachment to any particular experience or attempts to change one experience for another- e.g. the frantic pursuit of pleasure and avoidance of pain- invariably results in continuing frustration and disappointment... Belief in the dichotomy between man and society is based on the assumption that man is naturally antisocial and and the function of society is to restrain man's evil nature.

 

 

INCOMPLETE COGNITION AS A PRODUCT OF THE IMMATURE MIND

In a capitalist culture, educational methodologies are formulated for the 'needs' of the society. Task oriented education lacks vision and wisdom, inhibiting intellectual and emotional growth. Task oriented education stresses objectives and outcomes, inhibiting imagination and the natural development of complete wholistic cognition. imagination is lack of a wholistic perspective. Fostering incomplete cognition, taskoriented education fosters a non-wholistic perception of reality.

"In the framework of a task-oriented perception of the environment cognition is incomplete...The person with incomplete cognition sees all there is to be seen of the surface features of environmental phenomena but is incapable of penetrating below the surface to the essential; and incapable of visualizing what is not yet apparent. He sees the details but not the whole, the trees but not the forest. Reality to him is only the sum total of what has already materialized. The person is able to recognize things as they are, or as the culture maintains them to be. With an imagination that is calculating the person combines those factors which are known and already in existence. He infers their future operation. The person is unable to enliven his perception from within."

Non-wholisitc perception and imcomplete cognition result from the lack of wholeness in the conditioning influences of the social environment.

Education for political ideals of capitalism encourages a task-oriented perception of the environment...

In a capitalist society the individual learns to perceive the social environment in terms of what is 'threatening' and what is 'useful'... external motivation ...alienates the learner from the act of learning... this leads to decline in motivation ... The dichotomous perception of reality results in 'incomplete cognition'.

Cognition which is incomplete is the limited recognition of things as they are or rather as the culture maintains them to be. The individual with incomplete cognition is unable to enliven their perception from within. ... the perfect 'realist' who sees all there is to be seen of the surface features of phenomena but who is quite incapable of penetrating below the surface to the essential and of visualizing what is not yet apparent... Their perception of 'reality' consists of the sum total of what has already materialized. The individual with incomplete cognition uses a calculating imagination to combine the factors which are known and in existence and to infer their future operation.

seeing the details but not the whole, the trees but not the forest...

the ability to recognize things as they are (or as the culture maintains them to be) ...