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                                 Abraham Maslow and the Biology of Human Values 

 

Abraham Maslow - a student of John Dewey - made a scientific study of human nature and arrived at the conclusion that "...our deepest needs are not in themselves dangerous, evil or bad... consequently we can reject the almost universal mistake that the interests of the individual and of the society are of necessity mutually exclusive and antagonistic, or that civilization is primarily a mechanism for controlling and policing human instinctoid impulses. All of these age-old axioms are swept away by the new possibility of defining the main function of a healthy culture as the fostering of universal self-actualization." ( Maslow Psychology of Being p.159)

photo: Abraham Maslow (1908-1970)  father of humanistic psychology... see his theory of 'metaneeds' and 'metamotivation' summarized by Roger Walsh and Frances Vaughan Beyond Ego: Transpersonal Dimensions in Psychology  pp. l22-l31

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Psychology of Being...

In 1927 Abraham Maslow was 'intellectually awakened' when he read Folkways by Sumner who argued that the the social mores or 'folkways' of human societies evolved by a process of natural selection in the course of human evolution. Sumner applied Darwinian evolutionary doctrine to human society...  argument for the evolution of social mores, called 'folkways', in accordance with basic biological needs and environmental contingencies by a process analagous to 'natural selection.' When Maslow became aware  his own ethnocentrism he embarked on a life-long study of human values as intrinsic to the human individual as a biological organism. He developed the notion of 'inborn biological necessity' in terms of essential  human needs or 'instinctoid human nature' and arrived at the conclusion that the man has a 'natural personality' which is basically good and that feelings of 'natural dominance' or 'self-esteem' lead to beneficial and creative human behaviour. Consequently it is possible to define the biological principles of morality and ethics as they based on human needs. "...it is these needs, 'instinctoid' in nature', that we can also think of as built-in values, values not only in the sense that the organism wants and seeks them but also in the sense that they are both good and necessary for the organism. It is these values which are found, uncovered - recovered, perhaps we should say, in the course of psychotherapy or self-discovery. We may then regard these techniques of therapy and self-discovery as being also cognitive tools or scientific methods (in the sense that they are the best methods we have available today to uncover these particlar kind of data.) It is in this sense at least that I would maintain that science in the broadest sense can and does discover what human values are, what the human being needs in order to live a good and happy life, what he needs in order to avoid illness, what is good for him and what is bad for him. ...What the healthy human being chooses, prefers, and values out of his own deepest inner nature, is also most often good for him." (Maslow, A. The Psychology of Science: A Reconaissance. New York and London: Harper and Row 1966 page 114)

biography   theory of metamotivation...

 

biological basis of the valuing process of the human organism.

 physiological needs...  basic psychological needs...   deficiency motivation...  spiritual needs or 'metaneeds'...  the 'self-actualiser'... the self-transcender...  metamotivation...   thirteen principles...

metapleasure'...  importance of cultural environment... scientific analysis... psychoanalysis as 'uncovering therapy'...  implications for education...   transpersonal education...    bibliography...   quotations...

A discussion of the science of value is prerequisite to a rational argument for the biological basis of education for the person as a whole i.e. 'holistic education'. Human development and human values  The understanding of the development of morality depends on the understanding of the human being as a social organism.  Is it possible to formulate a so-called 'science of ethics' on the basis of a 'science of man'? Is it possible to formulate a value system on the basis of natural laws of human nature and human existence? Is it possible to formulate a value system on the basis of natural biological 'laws' of human development? Is morality biologically based? "The crucial question to be asked is this: can science discover the values by which men should live?" (Maslow, A. The Psychology of Science: A Reconnaissance. New York and London: Harper and Row 1966, 114)

 The 'science of ethics' is the study of the naturalistic valuing process and the biological basis of morality. As a scientific study, it is the systematic investigation into the real nature of the individual human organism as a member of the human species. According to Abraham Maslow, student of human nature, "the full definition of human nature must include the intrinsic values, as part of human nature...These intrinsic values are instinctoid in nature i.e they are needed to avoid illness and to achieve fullest humanness or growth." (Maslow's theses 2,3)

Biography Abraham Maslow was born and raised in Brooklyn, the eldest of seven children. Parents were Russian Jewish immigrants. Attended City College in New York and then graduate school at the Universiy of Wisconsin (research with Harry Harlow) where he obtained PhD in Psychology. Continued at Columbia University where he as influence by Alfred Adler. 1937-1951 on the faculty of  Brooklyn College. Took notes on people he admired both professionally and personally ... so-called 'wonderful human beings such as anthropologist Ruth Benedict and Gestalt psychologist Max Wertheimer... the basis of lifelong research on the nature of 'human nature' as manifest in optimal mental health and the development of human potential. He observed  the people whom he considered as mankind's 'best specimens' living under the 'best conditions' and described those values by which they led their lives. The results of his observations showed that the values which guided these people from within their consciousness were the same as "the old values of truth, goodness, and beauty and some additional ones as well - for instance, gaiety, justice and joy." He explored the theory that the guiding values prescribed by religions and philosophies can be found within a person's consciousness... and made a convincing argument for the biological basis of morality and ethics.

He became the leader of the humanistic school of psychology that emerged in the 1950s and 1960s... called it the 'third force' after Freudian theory (first force) and behaviourism (second force). The various humanistic therapies are based on people's ability to utilise their own inner resources for growth and healing... the aim of therapy is to remove the obstacles which allow this to happen. One example is the 'client-centered therapy' of Carl Rogers.

1951 to 1969 Maslow was professor of  psychology at Brandeis University. While there he met Kurt Goldstein who had originated the concept of 'self-actualisation' in his famous book The Organism: A Holistic Appproach to Biology Derived from Pathological Data in Man.

He discredited theologians and philosophers for trying to find the guiding principles outside the human individual; he criticised theology for its overdependence on dogma  revelation and supernaturalism; he criticized philosophy fordenying authorities.. for its logical arguments without authorities or absolutes.

 He made a lifelong study of human nature using the scientific analytical approach. His aim was to investigate the possibility that the original nature of the human species could be scientifically revealed.He observed people whom he considered as best specimens of the human organism living under the best conditions of human existence and described the values by which they led their lives.

 By analysing the psychological and emotional characteristics of the so-called 'self-actualizing' human beings, the fully grown members of the human species who were the 'good human beings' (abbreviated as GHB in Maslow's notebooks)  he argued that such a scientific investigation was valid. He came to the conclusion that the 'self-actualizing' person is the 'ordinary' human being with 'nothing taken away,' and that the 'self-actualized' person is 'synonomous with human nature in general.' Maslow described the characteristics of the 'self-actualized' person and argued that they can be used to describe the innate characteristics of human nature. Self-actualizing people are able to perceive the world as if it were independent...

 He discovered that with suitable conditions in the psychological environment, innate motives for human behaviour emerge to the surface of human consciousness in a predetermined order which he referred to as the 'hierarchy of prepotency'. "...our deepest needs are not in themselves dangerous, evil or bad, consequently we can reject the almost universal mistake that the interests of the individual and of the society are of necessity mutually exclusive and antagonistic, or that civilization is primarily a mechanism for controlling and policing human instinctoid impulses. All of these age-old axioms are swept away by the new possibility of defining the main function of a healthy culture as the fostering of universal self-actualization." (Maslow, A. Towards a Psychology of Being 159)

Abraham Maslow's motivation theory.('A Theory of Motivation', Psychological Review, 50, l943, pp. 370-396).. theory of 'metamotivation.'

The biologically innate 'natural personality' of human nature can be described in terms of the hierarchy of human needs which account for a person's motivation and behaviour  These needs are the innate motives which are biologically built into the constitution of the human species. The hierarchy of motives is based on an inherent hierarchy of 'prepotency' defined in terms of their urgency. The innate motives for behaviour rise to the surface of consciousness and become motivational in their order of prepotency. One motive is considered more prepotent if it is more urgent and inhibits other motives. Thus the most 'prepotent' needs are the most urgent.  "It is quite true that man lives by bread alone-when there is no bread. But what happens to man's desires when there is plenty of bread and when his belly is chronically filled? At once other (and higher) needs emerge, and these, rather than physiological hungers, dominate the organism. And when these in turn are satisfied, again new (and still higher) needs emerge and so on." (Abraham Maslow Motivation and Personality New York: Harper and Brothers, l954)

The person's intellectual and spiritual needs, like the basic needs, have a biological basis. The 'basic needs' of hunger and thirst are physiological needs for the physical survival of the human organism. The 'basic needs' for reproduction are physiological needs for the survival of the human species. For the human species, 'homo sapiens' the intelligent animal, the basic psychological needs are for parental love and affection, for self-respect and self-esteem and for a sense of belongingness. The so-called 'higher needs' for transcendance, religion, esthetics and philosophy, are intrinsic to every human organism and therefore must have a biological basis. Consisting of mental components, 'the metaneeds' are psychological and related to consciousness, determining the human organism's perception and level of awareness. For the social human organism, they are basic needs for the successful adaptation to a social environment. The psychological development of the human organism presupposes the cultivation of positive 'healthy' mental components and the discouragement of negative 'unhealthy' ones. The degree of a person's mental health is determined by the balance of 'healthy' and 'unhealthy' psychological factors. The 'metaneeds' are associated with healthy psychological development which is the prerequisite to the person's full functioning as a socially intelligent being.

Maslow described the biological needs of the human organism in terms 'lower' needs and 'higher' needs in a hierarchy of urgency or 'prepotency'. The lower needs are the more urgent basic physiological and psychological needs. The higher needs are the less urgent spiritual needs or 'meta-needs'. Both the lower needs and the higher metaneeds have a biological basis. Gratifications of the basic needs are necessary for the avoidance of dehumanization as well as the avoidance of mental and physical illness. 

In order of urgency of expression or 'prepotency,' the basic needs are first the physiological needs of survival, second, the 'safety needs,' third, the needs for 'belongingness and love,' fourth, the 'esteem needs,' and fifth, the need for fulfillment or 'self-actualisation.'

The physiological needs of survival are the most urgent and thus the most prepotent. Once they are satisfied, the next 'most prepotent needs' emerge, the 'safety needs,' followed by the less prepotent needs for 'belongingness and love.' Once these are met, still another class of basic needs emerge, the 'esteem needs,' the needs for "... a stable, firmly based, usually high self-evaluation...(in the form of) a desire for strength, achievement, adequacy, mastery, competence, confidence... independence and freedom...(or in the form of) a desire for reputation...status, dominance, recognition, attention, importance or appreciation." Once the 'esteem needs' are met, the need for 'self-actualization' emerges. This refers to a person's 'desire for self-fulfillment,'... to become actualised in what one is potentially... to become everything that one is capable of becoming."

 The basic physiological needs include needs for the physical survival of the human organism and the survival of the human species. The basic physiological needs... .hunger and thirst... for the human organism include the obvious needs for food, water, warmth, sleep, protection, and so on. The basic needs for survival of the human species are the physiological needs associated with the biological function of reproduction. The biologically based physiological needs are obviously instinctive.

 The basic psychological needs  The basic psychological needs for  parental love and affection, self-respect, self-esteem, and sense of  belongingness... have a  natural biological basis. .The biologically based basic psychological needs are instinctive. As instinctive needs, the basic psychological needs have survival value for the human organism as a social organism. During the course of human evolution, human psychological needs have evolved on the basis of their survival value in a changing social environment. They must be gratified for a person to become more mature, more 'human' and 'self-actualized.' Gratifications of these instinctive basic needs are necessary for the avoidance of dehumanization as well as the avoidance of mental and physical illness. They must be gratified for the normal development of social intelligence. Gratification of basic psychological needs are the prerequisite to the individual's full functioning as a socially intelligent being.

 The basic psychological needs must be gratified for the human organism to achieve 'humanness' of 'maturity' or 'self-actualisation'. The self-actualising individual is psychologically healthy or  'mature'.

The basic psychological needs consist of mental components. The psychological development of the human organism involves the cultivation of positive 'healthy' mental components and the discouragement of negative 'unhealthy' ones. The degree of an individual's mental health is determined by the balance of 'healthy' and 'unhealthy' psychological components. Mental health determines the individual's level of awareness and perception of realities of the changing social environment.

Mature individuals whose basic psychological needs are gratified, have self-respect, self-discipline, self-directedness, a sense of purpose and worthiness, are referred to as 'self-actualizing' individuals... become motivated by the 'metaneeds' of the value-life. Motivation by the 'metaneeds' is referred to as 'metamotivation.' The 'metamotivation' by the 'metaneeds' of the value-life is an intrinsic part of human nature and must therefore be included in a full definition of the human organism, the person and the individual. The biologically based basic psychological needs are instinctive.  They must be gratified for a person to become more mature, more 'human' and 'self-actualised.' As the human organism becomes mature or 'self-actualised', the personal life is guided by "the old values of truth, goodness, and beauty and some additional ones as well - for instance, gaiety, justice and joy". The values which guide  people from within their consciousness are the same as the religious values of truth, goodness, and justice.

 The foundation of social intelligence is psychological wholeness or  'personality integration'... depends on gratification of the basic psychological needs. Individuals whose basic psychological needs are met can be described by those human attributes which have survival value in a changing social environment - self-respect, self-directedness, self-discipline, sense of purpose, sense of worthiness and others.

  The 'metaneeds' of the value-life - intellectual and spiritual needs, (ethical or moral values) - like the basic needs are instinctive and have a biological basis.  'Metaneeds', the so-called 'higher needs' for transcendance, religion, esthetics and philosophy, are intrinsic to every human organism and therefore must have a biological basis. Consisting of mental components, 'the metaneeds' are psychological and related to consciousness, determining the human organism's perception and level of awareness. For the social human organism, they are basic needs for the successful adaptation to a social enviroment. The psychological development of the human organism presupposes the cultivation of positive 'healthy' mental components and the discouragement of negative 'unhealthy' ones. The degree of a person's mental health is determined by the balance of 'healthy' and 'unhealthy' factors. The 'metaneeds' are associated with healthy psychological development which is the prerequisite to the person's full functioning as a socially intelligent being.

 The 'metaneeds'... also known as 'Being-values'or 'B-values' are related to the spiritual values of truth, goodness, perfection, justice, beauty, simplicity, lawfulness, dichotomy transcendance etc. Each one can be fully defined in terms of all the others. Thus they appear to represent different facets of a unified and composite whole. The 'metaneeds' along with the basic psychological needs are all biologically based. They are all components of our biological life. Consequently the spiritual or value-life of the human organism is natural and fact based, legitimately qualified for scientific analysis.

Rather than belonging to a domain external to human nature, spiritual values and the value-life are components of the biological basis of human nature.

Gratifications of the instinctive 'metaneeds' are necessary for the prevention of 'illness' or 'metapathology,' best defined as 'diminutions of humanness.' Thus 'metamotivation' motivation for the gratification of the 'metaneeds' of 'humanness' is biologically based and instinctive.  

"The metaneeds are equally potent among themselves, on the average - i.e. I cannot detect a generalized hierarchy of prepotency. But in any given individual, they may be and often are hierarchically arranged according to idiosyncratic talents and constitutional differences."

  Importance of cultural environment

"Necessitating a cultural environment for their actualization, the 'metaneeds' and 'metamotivation' can easily be lost in a culture which does not approve of human nature. A cultural environment which respects the human organism's basic psychological needs fosters the individual's growth towards self-actualization. A cultural environment which respects the human organism's instinctive 'metaneeds' as well as basic psychological needs, fosters the individual's 'metamotivation' towards full human awareness or ' humanness.' This notion lends itself to the potential transcendence of unnecessary dichotomies such as good and evil."

 The individual's growth towards self-actualization depends on a cultural environment which respects the human organism's basic psychological needs. A cultural environment which respects the basic psychological needs of the human organism fosters the individual's growth for self-actualization.

Metamotivation and gratification of the metaneeds depends on a cultural environment which respects the instinctive metaneeds as well as the instinctive physiological and psychological needs of the human organism. Realization of metaneeds can easily be lost in a culture which does not approve of human nature. A cultural environment which respects the intrinsic metaneeds of the human organism fosters the individual's metamotivation towards full human awareness or humanness.

 As a result of the individual's ambivalent feelings towards the instinctive metaneeds which can be both attractive and frightening, internal repression, denial and reaction responses can inhibit metamotivation.

In a cultural environment which focuses on the basic physiological and psychological needs, 'metamotivation' is inhibited by forces external to the individual who is thus deprived of the means for gratification of the 'metaneeds.'

Requisite to the 'metamotivation' for gratification of the 'metaneeds' or 'growth motivations, the prepotent more urgent basic psychological needs can be called 'deficiency needs

  Characteristics of self-actualising people... the 'self-actualiser':

 

'Self-actualizing' human beings are people who enjoy life to the full. They are adapted to life within a culture but are unspoiled in the process of acculturation. They place no unrealistic or neurotic demands on reality, perceiving it clearly and accepting it for what it is. They do not feel threatened by the unknown and are free from superstitions. Without shame, guilt or anxiety, they accept their own nature and that of others. They accept human nature, seeing it for what it is and not as they would prefer it to be. They feel uncomfortable when they see discrepancies in people's natures. They have a distinct quality of detachment and strong sense of privacy. Resisting cultural influences, they are autonomous and independent. With a genuine desire to help others, they identify with humanity and are democratic in their thinking. They prefer a few profound friendships to many superficial ones. They have a philosophical and unhostile sense of humour. They will intentionally hurt another only when it is good for that person. They are in short altogether Good Human Beings.

6 In Maslow's words, the self-actualized human being has "the wonderful capacity to appreciate again and again, freshly and naively, the basic goods of life, with awe, pleasure, wonder, and even ecstasy, however stale these experiences may have become to others. Thus for such a person, any sunset may be as beautiful as the first one, any flower may be of breath-taking loveliness, even after he has seen a million flowers. They frequently experience such ecstatic moments of clear perception of reality... 'peak-experience.' They are deeply and essentially spontaneous and non-conforming. "...they have impulses. They work, they try, and they are ambitious, even though in an unusual sense,. For them motivation is just character growth, character expression, maturation, and development; in a word, self actualization." (Motivation and Personality) 

 He called this type of motivation 'Being-motivation' and 'meta-motivation' in contrast to the control of so-called 'deficiency motivation' of 'ordinary mankind.' As a result of meta-motivation and the clear perception of reality, self-actualizing people show "in one way or another a special kind of creativeness or originality or inventiveness...(similar to that of)..unspoiled children...(which seems to be) ...a fundamental characteristic of common human nature - a potentiality given to all human beings at birth"9 and lost by many people during the process of enculturation.

He called this type of motivation 'Being-motivation' and 'meta-motivation' in contrast to the control of so-called 'deficiency motivation' of 'ordinary mankind.' As a result of meta-motivation and the clear perception of reality, self-actualizing people show "in one way or another a special kind of creativeness or originality or inventiveness...(similar to that of)..unspoiled children...(which seems to be) ...a fundamental characteristic of common human nature - a potentiality given to all human beings at birth" and lost by many people during the process of enculturation.

Self-actualizing people are not confused by means and ends, by problems and methods in scientific investigation. They are  'problem centered' rather than 'means centered'. They are not 'ego centered'. They see the problem and solutions as they are rather than as they would like them to be. Significantly, they perceive many so-called 'problems' as merely pseudoproblems resulting from an ego-centered mental process which dichotomizes and distorts reality. For the self-actualizing person, false dichotomies are resolved, "the polarities disappear, and many oppositions thought to be intrinsic merge and coalesce with each other to form unities." False dichotomies include 'reason vs.emotion,' 'mystical vs.realistic,' and 'self vs.society.'

 For Maslow, 'self-actualization' was a vision of human nature.

Maslow concluded from his scientific study of human nature that the guiding values for morality and ethics can be found within a person's consciousness.

He predicted that with the 'self-actualization' of humanity as a whole there is hope for peace and community throughout the world.

 "Self-actualizing individuals (more matured, more fully human) by definition already gratified in their basic needs, are now motivated in other higher ways, to be called 'metamotivation.'"  As motivation for growth and self-transcendance, metamotivation is instinctive and therefore biologically based. "The metamotivation by the metaneeds of the value-life is an intrinsic part of human nature and must therefore be included in a full definition of the human organism, the person and the individual." (principle 1) Gratification of the instinctive metaneeds is necessary for the avoidance of dehumanization as well as the avoidance of mental and physical illness.

 The self-actualizing human organism - the individual who has achieved self-actualization - is motivated by the higher 'metaneeds' of the value-life.

 At the level of 'metamotivation' there is no dichotomy there is no longer a dichotomy between selfishness and unselfishness. Gratification of the 'metaneed' of unelfishness is the source of the highest selfish 'metapleasure'. The mutual exclusivesness disappears. With 'metamotivation' what is 'good' for the individual (selfish) is good for others (unselfish). Hence the disappearance of the mutual exclusiveness implied in the dichotomy. 

 Mature individuals whose basic psychological needs are gratified, have self-respect, self-discipline, self-directedness, a sense of purpose and worthiness, are referred to as 'self-actualizing' individuals. They then become motivated by the 'metaneeds' of the value-life. Motivation by the 'metaneeds' is referred to as 'metamotivation.' The 'metamotivation' by the 'metaneeds' of the value-life is an intrinsic part of human nature and must therefore be included in a full definition of the human organism, the person and the individual.

the 'metaneeds' of the value-life, spiritual, ethical and moral values, are also instinctive and have a biological basis. Gratifications of the instinctive 'metaneeds' are necessary for the prevention of 'illness' or 'metapathology,' best defined as 'diminutions of humanness.' Thus 'metamotivation' or motivation for the gratification of the 'metaneeds' of 'humanness' is biologically based and instinctive. In a cultural environment which focuses on the basic physiological and psychological needs, 'metamotivation' is inhibited by forces external to the individual who is thus deprived of the means for gratification of the 'metaneeds.' As a result of the individual's ambivalent feelings towards the instinctive 'metaneeds' which can be both attractive and frightening, internal repression, denial and reaction responses can inhibit 'metamotivation.' Requisite to the 'metamotivation' for gratification of the 'metaneeds' or 'growth motivations, the prepotent more urgent basic psychological needs can be called 'deficiency needs'

"The metaneeds are equally potent among themselves, on the average-i.e. I cannot detect a generalized hierarchy of prepotency. But in any given individual, they may be and often are hierarchically arranged according to idiosyncratic talents and constitutional differences." The 'metaneeds' are also known as 'Being-values'or 'B-values.' They are related to the spiritual values of truth, goodness, perfection, justice, simplicity, lawfulness, dichotomy transcendance etc. Each one can be fully defined in terms of all the others. Thus they appear to represent different facets of a unified and composite whole. The 'metaneeds' along with the basic psychological needs are all biologically based. They are all components of our biological life. Consequently the spiritual or value-life of the human organism is natural and fact based, legitimately qualified for scientific analysis. Necessitating a cultural environment for their actualization, the 'metaneeds' and 'metamotivation' can easily be lost in a culture which does not approve of human nature. A cultural environment which respects the human organism's basic psychological needs fosters the individual's growth towards self-actualization. A cultural environment which respects the human organism's instinctive 'metaneeds' as well as basic psychological needs, fosters the individual's 'metamotivation' towards full human awareness or ' humanness.' This notion lends itself to the potential transcendence of unnecessary dichotomies such as good and evil. Rather than belonging to a domain external to human nature, spiritual values and the value-life are components of the biological basis of human nature. 'Metamotivation' and the gratification of the 'metaneeds' for the 'B-Values' or value-life are the source of the highest pleasures, 'metapleasure' which can also be called 'metahedonism.' At this level 'metamotivation' becomes the same for both the highest pleasures and the highest obligations to truth, justice, beauty etc. At the level of 'metamotivation' there is no longer a dichotomy between selfishness and unselfishness. Gratification of the 'metaneed' of unelfishness is the source of the highest selfish 'metapleasure'. The mutual exclusivesness disappears. With 'metamotivation' what is 'good' for the individual (selfish) is good for others (unselfish). Hence the disappearance of the mutual exclusiveness implied in such a dichotomy. Obviously instinctive in nature, the basic physiological and psychological needs come under the rubric of 'subjective biology.' The similarly biologically based 'metaneeds' come under the same rubric although they are less urgent and weaker than the basic psychological needs. Consequently the education of the spiritual needs, the 'metaneeds,' can be fostered through the acknowledgement, encouragement and enforcement of the individual's instinctive yearning for truth, beauty etc., the individual's capacity for 'metamotivation.' The individual's capacities for experiential richness should be 'teachable.' It should be possible to design an educational program around the instinctive needs of 'subjective biology', the 'metaneeds' as well as the physiological and psychological basic needs. The 'B-Values' are defined as truth, goodness, justice, beauty etc. The 'metamotivation' which arises from the biological 'metaneeds' for the value-life, 'B-values', 'Being-values', spiritual values, determines the individual's perception of 'ultimate reality' at the 'highest' levels of consciouness. In other words, at the highest levels of personality and cultural development, a reality is perceived which is independent of distorted human perceptions. This is the 'ultimate reality' which is described in terms of the 'B-Values'. The words which are used to describe the 'ultimate reality' are the same as those used to describe B-Values.' The reality is described as true, good, just, beautiful etc. Thus in the context of 'ultimate reality' the 'B-Values' become identical with 'B-facts.' In the transcendental realm of consciousness, facts and values fuse and the words used to describe them are called 'fusion- words'. Contemplating the nature of the universe becomes equated with contemplating the ultimate values, the B-values.

 As less urgent than the basic psychological needs, the metaneeds are the 'higher' needs in Maslow's hierarchy of prepotency.

 Metamotivation definition etc...

 

"Pleasures and gratifications can be arranged in hierarchy of levels from lower to higher. So also can hedonistic theories be seen as ranging from lower to higher, i.e. metahedonism."

 'Metamotivation' and the gratification of the 'metaneeds' for the 'B-Values' or value-life are the source of the highest pleasures, 'metapleasure' which can also be called 'metahedonism.' The greatest joy and happiness can be experienced in the contemplation of the 'B-Values.' At this level 'metamotivation' becomes the same for both the highest pleasures and the highest obligations to truth, justice, beauty etc. At the level of 'metamotivation' there is no longer a dichotomy between selfishness and unselfishness. Gratification of the 'metaneed' of unselfishness is the source of the highest selfish 'metapleasure'. The mutual exclusivesness disappears. With 'metamotivation' what is 'good' for the individual (selfish) is good for others (unselfish). Hence the disappearance of the mutual exclusiveness implied in such a dichotomy. Obviously instinctive in nature, the basic physiological and psychological needs come under the rubric of 'subjective biology.' The similarly biologically based 'metaneeds' come under the same rubric although they are less urgent and weaker than the basic psychological needs. Consequently the education of the spiritual needs, the 'metaneeds,' can be fostered through the acknowledgement, encouragement and enforcement of the individual's instinctive yearning for truth, beauty etc., the individual's capacity for 'metamotivation.'

For the human individual who has not achieved self-actualization, motivation by the prepotent more urgent basic psychological needs is called 'deficiency motivation'. Deficiency motivation is motivation by the basic psychological needs - thus referred to as 'deficiency needs'.

 "Value-starvation and value-hunger come both from external deprivation and from our ambivalence and counter-values." (principle 4)

 Gratification of the instinctive metaneeds is necessary for the prevention of illness or metapathology defined as 'diminution of humanness'.... the individual's capacities for metamotivation should be 'teachable.' It should be possible to design an educational program around the instinctive needs of subjective biology, the metaneeds as well as the physiological and psychological basic needs. Since the spiritual life is instinctoid, all the techniques of 'subjective biology' apply to its education." (principle10) The metamotivation arising from the biological metaneeds for the value-life, 'B-values', 'Being-values', spiritual values, determines the individual's perception of ultimate reality at the highest levels of consciouness.

At the highest levels of personality and cultural development, the individual perceives a reality which is independent of distorted human perceptions. This is the ultimate reality which is described in terms of the B-Values. The words which are used to describe the ultimate reality are the same as those used to describe B-Values. The B-Values are defined as truth, goodness, justice, beauty etc. The reality is described as true, good, just, beautiful etc. In the context of ultimate reality, the B-Values become identical with 'B-facts.'

A self-transcender is a self-actualizer who lives in the realm of B- values. The metaneed for self-transcendance is the need to live in the realm of B-values- the realm of the wholistic perspective of reality.

Maslow's theses or 'principles' about the nature and experience of self-actualizers and self-transcenders deal with the same basic values sought by theologians and philosophers throughout human history. The aim of philosophers, theologians, spiritual leaders and scientists is to achieve an objective perception of 'ultimate reality' which is devoid of contaminating effects of the fears and prejudices of the human individual. The understanding of ultimate reality is the function of the so-called 'mystic' or 'peak' experience of self-transcendance. The peak exerience involves the individual's total acceptance of his biological nature and his part in natural evolution. The total acceptance of the human organism's biological nature becomes fused with the concept of 'transcendance of death' and 'immortality.' Without having to resort to external authorities the individual's "communion with what transcends him... becomes a biological experience which makes it easily possible for him to live in the realm of the 'B-Values.'...Not only is man part of nature, and it part of him, but also he must be at least minimally isomorphic with nature (similar to it) in order to be viable in it. It has evolved him. His communion with what transcends him therefore need not be defined as non-natural or supernatural. It may be seen as a 'biological' experience." (principle 12) In the transcendental realm of consciousness, facts and values fuse and the words used to describe them are called 'fusion-words'.

 Abraham Maslow suggested that the following thirteen theses or principles (the theory of 'metamotivation') related to the biologically based 'metaneeds' of the value-life are within the realm of 'science'... they can be subjected to scientific investigation and verificaton.

l. "Self-actualizing individuals, (more matured, more fully human) by definition already gratified in their basic needs, are now motivated in other higher ways, to be called 'metamotivation.'" The basic psychological needs for love and affection, self-respect, self-esteem, and belongingness have a biological basis. Mature individuals whose basic psychological needs are gratified, have self-respect, self-discipline, self-directedness, a sense of purpose and worthiness, are referred to as 'self-actualizing' individuals. They then become motivated by the 'metaneeds' of the value-life. Motivation by the 'metaneeds' is referred to as 'metamotivation.'

 2. "The full definition of the person or of human nature must then include intrinsic values, as part of human nature." The 'metamotivation' by the 'metaneeds' of the value-life is an intrinsic part of human nature and must therefore be included in a full definition of the human organism, the person and the individual.

3. "These intrinsic values are instinctoid in nature, i.e they are needed (a) to avoid illness and (b) to achieve fullest humanness or growth. The 'illness' resulting from deprivation of intrinsic values (meta-needs) we may call metapathologies. The 'highest' values, the spiritual life and the highest aspirations of mankind are therefore proper subjects for scientific study and research. They are in the world of nature." The biologically based basic psychological needs are instinctive. They must be gratified for a person to become more mature, more 'human' and 'self-actualized.' Gratifications of these instinctive basic needs are necessary for the avoidance of dehumanization as well as the avoidance of mental and physical illness. It appears that the 'metaneeds' of the value-life, spiritual, ethical and moral values, are also instinctive and have a biological basis. Gratifications of the instinctive 'metaneeds' are necessary for the prevention of 'illness' or 'metapathology,' best defined as 'diminutions of humanness.' Thus 'metamotivation' or motivation for the gratification of the 'metaneeds' of 'humanness' is biologically based and instinctive.

 4."Value-starvation and value-hunger come both from external deprivation and from our ambivalence and counter-values." In a cultural environment which focuses on the basic physiological and psychological needs, 'metamotivation' is inhibited by forces external to the individual who is thus deprived of the means for gratification of the 'metaneeds.' As a result of the individual's ambivalent feelings towards the instinctive 'metaneeds' which can be both attractive and frightening, internal repression, denial and reaction responses can inhibit 'metamotivation.'

5. "The hierarchy of basic needs is prepotent to the metaneeds." Requisite to the 'metamotivation' for gratification of the 'metaneeds' or 'growth motivations, the prepotent more urgent basic psychological needs can be called 'deficiency needs'

 6. "The metaneeds are equally potent among themselves, on the average-i.e. I cannot detect a generalized hierarchy of prepotency. But in any given individual, they may be and often are hierarchically arranged according to idiosyncratic talents and constitutional differences."

7. "It looks as if any intrinsic of B-Value is fully defined by most or all of the other B-values. Perhaps they form a unity of some sort, with each specific B-Value being simply the whole seen from another angle." The 'metaneeds' are also known as 'Being-values'or 'B-values.' They are related to the spiritual values of truth, goodness, perfection, justice, simplicity, lawfulness, dichotomy transcendance etc. Each one can be fully defined in terms of all the others. Thus they appear to represent different facets of a unified and composite whole.

 8. "The value-life (spiritual, religious, philosophical, axiological etc.) is an aspect of human biology and is on the same continuum with the 'lower' animal life (rather than being in separated, dichotomized, or mutually exclusive realms). It is probably therefore species-wide, supracultural even though it must be actualized by culture in order to exist." The 'metaneeds' along with the basic psychological needs are all biologically based. They are all components of our biological life. Consequently the spiritual or value-life of the human organism is natural and fact based, legitimately qualified for scientific analysis. Necessitating a cultural environment for their actualization, the 'metaneeds' and 'metamotivation' can easily be lost in a culture which does not approve of human nature. A cultural environment which respects the human organism's basic psychological needs fosters the individual's growth towards self-actualization. A cultural environment which respects the human organism's instinctive 'metaneeds' as well as basic psychological needs, fosters the individual's 'metamotivation' towards full human awareness or ' humanness.' This notion lends itself to the potential transcendence of unnecessary dichotomies such as good and evil. Rather than belonging to a domain external to human nature, spiritual values and the value-life are components of the biological basis of human nature.

 9. "Pleasures and gratifications can be arranged in hierarchy of levels from lower to higher. So also can hedonistic theories be seen as ranging from lower to higher, i.e. metahedonism." 'Metamotivation' and the gratification of the 'metaneeds' for the 'B-Values' or value-life are the source of the highest pleasures, 'metapleasure' which can also be called 'metahedonism.' At this level 'metamotivation' becomes the same for both the highest pleasures and the highest obligations to truth, justice, beauty etc. At the level of 'metamotivation' there is no longer a dichotomy between selfishness and unselfishness. Gratification of the 'metaneed' of unelfishness is the source of the highest selfish 'metapleasure'. The mutual exclusivesness disappears. With 'metamotivation' what is 'good' for the individual (selfish) is good for others (unselfish). Hence the disappearance of the mutual exclusiveness implied in such a dichotomy.

l0. "Since the spiritual life is instinctoid, all the techniques of 'subjective biology' apply to its education. Obviously instinctive in nature, the basic physiological and psychological needs come under the rubric of 'subjective biology.' The similarly biologically based 'metaneeds' come under the same rubric although they are less urgent and weaker than the basic psychological needs". Consequently the education of the spiritual needs, the 'metaneeds,' can be fostered through the acknowledgement, encouragement and enforcement of the individual's instinctive yearning for truth, beauty etc., the individual's capacity for 'metamotivation.' The individual's capacities for experiential richness should be 'teachable.' It should be possible to design an educational program around the instinctive needs of 'subjective biology', the 'metaneeds' as well as the physiological and psychological basic needs.

ll. "But B-Values seem to be the same as B-facts. Reality then is ultimately fact-values or value-facts." The 'B-Values' are defined as truth, goodness, justice, beauty etc. The 'metamotivation' which arises from the biological 'metaneeds' for the value-life, 'B-values', 'Being-values', spiritual values, determines the individual's perception of 'ultimate reality' at the 'highest' levels of consciouness. In other words, at the highest levels of personality and cultural development, a reality is perceived which is independent of distorted human perceptions. This is the 'ultimate reality' which is described in terms of the 'B-Values'. The words which are used to describe the 'ultimate reality' are the same as those used to describe B-Values.' The reality is described as true, good, just, beautiful etc. Thus in the context of 'ultimate reality' the 'B-Values' become identical with 'B-facts.' In the transcendental realm of consciousness, facts and values fuse and the words used to describe them are called 'fusion-words'. Contemplating the nature of the universe becomes equated with contemplating the ultimate values, the B-values. The aim of philosophers, scientists, artists and spiritual leaders is to achieve the same objective perception of 'ultimate reality', a perception which is devoid of any contaminating effects of the observer's fears, wishes, calculations etc.

 l2. "Not only is man part of nature, and it part of him, but also he must be at least minimally isomorphic with nature (similar to it) in order to be viable in it. It has evolved him. His communion with what transcends him therefore need not be defined as non-natural or supernatural. It may be seen as a 'biological' experience." The mystic or 'peak' experience of transcendance involves the individual's total acceptance of his biological nature and his part in natural evolution. Without having to resort to the 'supernatural,' the individual's "communion with what transcends him" becomes a biological experience which makes it easily possible for the him to live in the realm of the 'B-Values.'

l3. "Many of the ultimate religious functions are fulfilled by this theoretical structure." The 'B-Values' "could conceivably satisfy the human longing for certainty." Like the eternal values of religions, they can be adored, revered, celebrated and sacrificed. The total acceptance of the human organism's biological nature becomes fused with the concept of 'transcendance of death' and 'immortality.' The greatest joy and happiness can be experienced in the contemplation of the 'B-Values.' Furthermore, it is proposed that the theoretical structure for the biological basis of 'metamotivation' and the 'metaneeds' of the value-life can assimilate all the functions of organized religions and religious experiences. Like the eternal values of religions, the B-values can be adored, revered, celebrated and sacrificed.

At the transcendental level of consciousness, metamotivation leads to a perception of reality which transcends dichotomies. In the conscious state of self-transcendance, socalled 'dichotomies' are dissolved in a wholistic perspective of ultimate reality. There is no longer a dichotomy between 'selfishness' and 'unselfishness'. Metamotivation by the metaneed for 'unselfishness' is the source of the highest 'selfish' metapleasure. The mutual exclusivesness disappears. With metamotivation what is 'good' for the individual -'selfish' is good for others - 'unselfish'. At the transcendental level of consciousness, there is no longer a dichotomy between personal freedom and social responsibility. The individual must be responsible to be inwardly free. Freedom for the individual is complementary with responsibility to society. The free and responsible individual is reponsible to himself and responsible to 'society.' And so on for other so-called dichotomies! "Contemplating the nature of the universe becomes equated with contemplating the ultimate values, the B-values. At this level metamotivation becomes the same for both the highest pleasure and the highest obligation to truth, justice, beauty etc. At this level of consciousness, the individual's perception of reality transcends the unnecessary dichotomies". Dichotomy transcendance is a natural characteristic of human consciousness at the level of self-transcendance and therefore a normal aspect of the wholistic perspective.

 Maslow's principles deal with the same basic values sought by theologians and philosophers throughout human history. Man has always tended to look for guiding values outside himself, from some sort of god, sacred book, ruling elite, or ruling individual.

 Metaneeds are the spiritual needs of the 'value-life', instinctive yearnings for truth, beauty etc. Metaneeds are the intellectual and spiritual needs, the needs for love, truth, beauty, self-transcendance and so on. They are related to the spiritual values of truth, goodness, perfection, justice, simplicity, lawfulness, dichotomy transcendance etc. The metaneeds are the spiritual, ethical and moral values. As biological components of the human organism, the metaneeds are natural and based on fact; they are the instinctive and intrinsic values of the spiritual life of the human organism. As metaneeds, the spiritual values and the value-life are components of the biological basis of human nature and intrinsic to the human organism. As intrinsic values, the metaneeds are also known as 'Being-values' or 'B-values.' The 'B-Values' are defined as truth, goodness, justice, beauty etc. The so-called 'higher needs' for love, truth, beauty, self-transcendance and so on are intrinsic to every human organism and therefore have a biological basis. As 'higher needs', the transcendant, religious, esthetic, and philosophical facets of life are as real and intrinsic to human nature as any other biological needs.

The metaneeds are the values which define the integrated personality of the human organism. They are the values which define the wholistic perception of ultimate reality. Metaneeds are a function of healthy psychological development. They are the psychological needs related to the consciousness of the human organism. "The education of the spiritual needs, the metaneeds, can be fostered through the acknowledgement, encouragement and enforcement of the individual's instinctive yearning for truth, beauty etc... the individual's capacity for experiential richness and 'metamotivation.' Failure to satisfy the basic metaneeds is 'dehumanizing' and leads to mental and physical illness. The biologically based metaneeds of the value life - spiritual needs for ethical and moral development - must be satisfied in order for a person to become mature or 'human' and to manifest the potentialities of human nature. As the failure to satisfy basic physiological needs results in pathology, the failure to satisfy metaneeds results in analagous forms of pathology called 'metapathology'. "The 'illness' resulting from deprivation of intrinsic values (meta-needs) we may call metapathologies." (principle 3)

self-actualized human individual is motivated for the gratification of the metaneeds of humanness - needs of growth and self-transcendance. Motivation by the metaneeds is growth motivation. Known also as 'being motivation', motivation by the metaneeds is referred to by the term coined by Maslow - 'metamotivation.'

The aim of philosophers, scientists, artists and spiritual leaders is to achieve the same objective perception of 'ultimate reality', a perception which is devoid of any contaminating effects of the observer's fears, wishes, calculations etc. The mystic or 'peak' experience of transcendance involves the individual's total acceptance of his biological nature and his part in natural evolution. Without having to resort to the 'supernatural,' the individual's "communion with what transcends him" becomes a biological experience which makes it easily possible for the him to live in the realm of the 'B-Values.' The 'B-Values' "could conceivably satisfy the human longing for certainty." Like the eternal values of religions, they can be adored, revered, celebrated and sacrificed. The total acceptance of the human organism's biological nature becomes fused with the concept of 'transcendance of death' and 'immortality.' The greatest joy and happiness can be experienced in the contemplation of the 'B-Values.' Furthermore, it is proposed that the theoretical structure for the biological basis of 'metamotivation' and the 'metaneeds' of the value-life can assimilate all the functions of organized religions and religious experiences.

Maslow claimed that his theory of the biology of ethics could be tested with 'science' and that his theses were legitimately qualified for scientific analysis. He proposed that they be subjected to scientific investigation and verification. Legitimate tools for scientific research about human nature would be the 'uncovering therapies' for self-discovery - psychoanalysis and psychotherapy. "The inner biological core of human nature is revealed and exposed by psychoanalysis, described as an 'uncovering' therapy." (Maslow Psychology of Being, 177) The uncovering therapies provide valid data to support the theory of the biological basis for the guiding principles of morality and ethics. Data from psychoanalysis indicate that human values are biologically rooted within the consciousness of the human organism.

Psychoanalysis as an 'uncovering ' therapy, revealing or exposing the inner biological ('instinctoid)' core of human nature. This inner core of human nature includes the basic pysiological and psychological needs, the inborn capacities and talents, and the biologically based values inherent in the intrinsic yearnings and preferences. The denial or frustration of any of these needs, capacities or yearnings leads to psychopathology which can be manifested as 'evil.' The psychoanalytic therapies help to expose the roots of biologically based intrinsic values. An individual's 'search for identity' is essentially a search for his own intrinsic value system, his own authentic nature, his humanness, the human core which he shares with other members of the human species. Psychoanalytic therapies help him to 'search for his identity' by uncovering the biologically based intrinsic values with which he naturally prefers to identify. Providing important data in the search for values, psychoanalysis could be regarded as a significant process in the efforts of philosophers to formulate a 'science of values' or 'science of ethics.' A 'science of values' would constitute a significant basis for the formulation of a 'science of education.' " IMPROVED SELF-KNOWLEDGE (AND CLARITY OF ONE'S VALUES) IS ALSO COINCIDENT WITH IMPROVED KNOWLEDGE OF OTHERS AND OF REALITY IN GENERAL (AND CLARITY OF THEIR VALUES)." (l77)

 Implications for education: The individual's capacities for experiential richness should be 'teachable.' It should be possible to design an educational program around the instinctive needs of 'subjective biology', the 'metaneeds' as well as the physiological and psychological basic needs."A teacher or a culture....permits, fosters, helps and encourages to actualisation what already exists in the embryo. The culture is sun, food and water. The child is the seed". (Maslow Psychology of Being )

From Maslow "Toward a Psychology of Being" Learning and personality change: "So-called learning theory in this country has based itself almost entirely on deficit-motivation with goal objects usually external to the organism, i.e. learning the best way to satisfy a need. For this reason, among others, our psychology of learning is a limited body of knowledge, useful only in small areas of life and of real interest only to other 'learning theorists.' This is of little help in solving the problem of growth and self-actualization. Here the techniques of repeatedly acquiring from the outside world satisfactions of motivational deficiencies are much less needed. Associative learning and canalizations give way to more perceptual learning ... to the increase of insight and understanding, to knowledge of self and to the steady growth of personality, i.e. increased synergy, integration and inner consistency. Change becomes much less an acquisition of habits or associations one by one, and much more a total change of the total person, i.e. a new person rather than the same person with some habits added like new external possessions. This kind of character-change learning means changing a very complex highly integrated holistic organism which in turn means that many impacts will make no change at all because more and more such impacts will be rejected as the person becomes more stable and more autonomous.

" The most important learning experiences reported to me by my subjects were very frequently single life experiences such as tragedies, deaths, traumata, conversions, and sudden insights,, which forced change in the life-outlook of the person and consequently in everything that he did. ....To the extent that growth consists in peeling away inhibitions and constraints and then permitting the person to 'be himself' to emit behaviour 'radiantly' as it were - rather than to repeat it, to allow his inner nature to express itself, to this extent the behaviour of self-actualizers is unlearned, created and released rather than acquired, expressive rather than coping." ("Motivation and Personality")

"It is the free choices of such actualising people (in those situations where real choice is possible from among a variety of possibilities) that I claim to be descriptively studies as a naturalistic value system with which the hopes of the observer absolutely have nothing to do io.e. it is 'scientific'. I do not say 'he ought to choose this or that', but only 'healthy people, permitted to choose freely, are served to choose this or that'.  This is like asking 'what are the values of the best human beings?' rather than ' 'what should be their values.?', or 'what ought they be?' Furthermore I think these findings can be generalised to most of the human species because it looks to me (and to others) as if most people (perhaps all) tend toward self-actualisation this is seen most clearly in the experiences in psychotherapy , especially of the uncovring sort) and as if in principleat least, most-people are capable os self-atualisation." (p. l58)

 The various extant religions may be taken as expressions of human aspiration providing further evidence for the fact that all people yearn toward self-actualization or tend toward it. The actual characteristics of self-actualizing people are the same as the ideals urged by the various religions. Some of these are the "transcendence of self, the fusion of the true, the good and the beautiful, contribution to others, wisdom, honesty and naturalness, the transcendence of selfish and personal motivations, the giving up of "lower' desires in favor of 'higher' ones., increased friendliness and kindness, the easy differentition between ends (tranquility, serenity, peace) and means (money, power, status), the decrease of hostility, cruelty and destructiveness (although decisiveness, justified anger and indignation, self-affirmation, etc. may very well increase.)" (l58)

l. "One conclusion from all these free-choice experiments, from developments in dynamic motivation theory and from examination of psychotherapy, is a VERY REVOLUTIONARY ONE (!), NAMELY THAT OUR DEEPEST NEEDS ARE NOT, IN THESELVES, DANGEROUS OR EVIIL OR BAD. This opens up the prospects of resolving the splits within the person between Apollonian and Dionysian, classical and romantic, scientific and poetic, betwen reason and impulse, work and play, verbal and preverbal, maturity and childlikeness, masculine and feminine, growth and regression. 2. The main social parallel to this change in our philosophy of human nature is the rapidly growing tendency to perceive the culture as an instrument of need-gratification as well as of frustration and control. WE CAN NOW REJECT THE ALMOST UNIVERSAL MISTAKE THAT THE INTERESTS OF THE INDIVIDUAL AND OF SOCIETY ARE OF NECESSITY MUTUALLY EXCLUSIVE AND ANTAGONISTIC, OR THAT CIVILIZATION IS PRIMARILY A MECHANISM FOR CONTROLLING AND POLICING HUMAN INSTINCTOID IMPULSES (Marcuse, H. "Eros and Civilization." Beacon, l955) ALL THESE AGE-OLD AXIOMS ARE SWEPT AWAY BY THE NEW POSSIBILITY OF DEFINING THE MAIN FUNCTION OF A HEALTHY CULTURE AS THE FOSTERING OF UNIVERSAL SELF-ACTUALIZATION."(l59)

 3 "In healthy people only is there a good correlation between subjective delight in the experience, impulse to the experience, or wish for it, and 'basic need' for the experience ('it's good for him in the long run). Only such people uniformly yearn for what is good for them and for others, and then are able to wholeheartedly to enjoy it, and approve of it. For such people virtue is its own reward in the sense of being enjoyed in itself. They spontaneously tend to do right because thatis what they want to do, what they need to do, what they enjoy, what they approve of doing, and what they continue to enjoy."(l59) "So far as philosophical theory is concerned, many historical dilemmas and contradictions are resolved by this finding." "Creativeness, spontaneity, self-hood, authenticity, caring for others, being able to love, yearning for truth are embryonic potentialities belonging to his species-membership as mucch as his arms and legs and brain and eyes. This is not a contradiction to the data already amassed which show clearlty that living in a family and in a culture are abslutelynecessary to actualize these psychologiical potentials that define humanness. (l60-l61)

Self-discipline and self-actualization: Maslow observed that self-actualized people tend to be self-disciplined.

. (Psychology of Being l63-l64) "There has been a special tendency in Western culture , historically determined, to assume that these instinctoid needs of the human being, his so-called animal nature, are bad or evil. As a consequence , many cultural institutions are set up for the express pdsurpose of controlling , inhibiting, suppressing and repressing this original nature of man." (l64) This is the basic FALSE PREMISE OF WESTERN, ESPECIALLY AMERICAN CULTURE Many social problems cannot be resolved if they are perceived in the framework of this false premise. This false premise determines the viewpoint or paradigm within which questions are formulated in efforts to resolve problems. If the premise is changed, a paradigm shift would occur making it possible to ask the same questions in a framework within which solutions could better be found. Change the basic assumption that 'the instinctoid needs of the human being are evil and bad' to 'the instinctoid needs of the human being are good.' Ask the same questions about education and ethics etc. "what is the aim of education?" On the basis of the assumption that the human being's animal nature is good, the aim of education could be frmulated as follows: "the aim of education is universal human self-actualization." In the process of education, formal in schools or informal at home, the basic physiological and psychological needs must be recognized and respected with a view to the actualization of each individual's humanness. The basic right of a human being is the right to be human. An individual's responsibility to himself is to develop his humanness. By developing his own humanness the individual is at the same time fulfilling his responsibility to the rest of humanity.

The success of capitalism depends on the denigration of human values. Without realizing it, the people in a capitalist society are instruments of capitalism. In order to adapt to their social environment, people must live by the 'values' of capitalism. 'Happiness' is based on material 'success.' A person in a capitalistic society is judged in terms of the requirements of the 'job.' The criteria of a person's health and worth are based on the person's suitability for 'the job,' the 'workplace,' Their 'adjustment' to the 'society' is the cause for their neuroses which result from the unsuitability of humanness in a materialistic society. The intrinsic human values are not valued in a society which measures the individual in terms of material 'success.' Concentrating on his efforts to 'adjust' to the demands of capitalism, the individual loses sight of his own intrinsic values which make him human. Maslow says " we must not fall into the trap of defining the good organism in terms of what he is "good for" as if were an instrument rather than something in himself, as if he were only a means to some extrinsic purpose."(l79)

Transpersonal education..

Bibliography

 Lowry, Richard J. A.H. Maslow: An Intellectual Portrait Monterey, California,: Brooks/Cole Publishing Co. l973

Maslow Abraham. Toward a Psychology of Being. 2nd. ed., New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., l968.

 Maslow, A. The Psychology of Science: A Reconaissance. New York

Maslow Farther Reaches of Human Nature

 For annotation of Maslow's theory of metamotivation: Walsh, Roger M.D. Ph.D and Frances Vaughan Ph.D. (Ed). "A Theory of Metamotivation: The Biological Rooting of the Value-Life" in Beyond Ego: Transpersonal Dimensions of Human Nature. J.P. Tarcher, Inc. Los Angeles l980 and London: Harper and Row 1966, l22-l31.

 "Beyond Ego: Transpersonal Dimensions in Psychology" edited by Roger Walsh, M.D. Ph.D and Frances Vaughan Ph.D. J.P. Tarcher, Inc. Los Angeles l980

Edward Hoffman The Right to be Human: A Biography of Abraham Maslow   McGraw Hill 1988

  Quotations

 "One conclusion from all these free-choice experiments from developments in dynamic motivation theory and theory from examination of psychotherapy is a very 'revolutionary' one: namely that our deepest needs are not, in themselves, dangerous or evil or bad.  This opens up the prospects of resolving the splits within the person between Apollonian and Dionysian, classical and romantic, scientific and poetic, between reason and impulse, work and play, verbal and preverbal, maturity and childlikeness, masculine and feminine, growth and regression. 2. The main social parallel to this change in our philosophy of human nature is the rapidly growing tendency to perceive the culture as an instrument of need-gratification as well as the universal mistake that the interests of the individual and of society are of necessity mutually exclusive and antagonistic or that civilization is primarily a mechanism for controlling and policing human instinctoid impulses. All these age-old maxims are swept away by the new possibility of defining the main function of a healthy culture as the fostering of universal self-actualization." (Maslow Psychology of Being p.159)

 Learning and personality change: "So-called learning theory in this country has based itself almost entirely on deficit-motivation with goal objects usually external to the organism, i.e. learning the best way to satisfy a need.  For this reason, among others, our psychology of learning is a limited body of knowledge, useful only in small areas of life and of real interest only to other 'learning theorists.' This is of little help in solving the problem of growth and self-actualization. Here the techniques of repeatedly acquiring from the outside world satisfactions of motivational deficiencies are much less needed. Associative learning and canalizations give way to more perceptual learning  ...to the increase of insight and understanding, to knowledge of self and to the steady growth of personality, i.e. increased synergy, integration and inner consistency. Change becomes much less an acquisition of habits or associations one by one, and much more a total change of the total person, i.e. a new person rather than the same person with some habits added like new external possessions. This kind of character -change learning means changing a very complex highly integrated holistic organism, which in turn means that many impacts will make no change at all because more and more such impacts will be rejected as the person becomes more stable and more autonomous. The most important learning experiences reported to me by my subjects were very frequently single life experiences such as tragedies, deaths, traumata, conversions, and sudden insights, which forced change in the life outlook of the person and consequently everything her did  (Maslow Toward a Psychology of Being)

self-actualisers: "To the extent that growth consists in peeling away inhibitions and constraints and then permitting the person to 'be himself', to emit behavior 'radiantly' as it were - rather than to repeat it, to allow his inner nature to express itself, to this extent the behavior of self-actualizers is unlearned, created and released rather than acquired, expressive rather than coping." (See Motivation and Personality)

It is the free choices of such actualisin people (in those situations where real choices are possible among a variety of possibilities) that can be descriptively studied as a naturalistic value system with which the hopes of the observer absolutely have nothing to do i.e. it is 'scientific'. I do not say 'he ought to choose this or that, but only, 'healthy people, permitted to choose freely, are served t choose this or that." This is like asking 'what are the values of the best hunmman beings? rather than "what should be their values?" or "what ought they be?" Furthemore I think these findings can be generalised to most of the human species because it looks to me (and to others) as if most people (perhaps all) tend toward self-actualisation (this is seen most clearly in the experiences in psychotherapy, especially of the uncovering sort) and as if in principle at least, most pzeople are capable of self-actualisation." (Maslow Psychology of Being p. 158)

 Religions as evidence for the human tendency to self-actualisation:  "The various extant religions, may be taken as expressions of human aspiration providing further evidence for the fact that all people yearn toward self-actualizatio or tend toward it. The actual characteristics of self-actualizing people are the same as the ideals urged by the various religions. Some of these are the 'transcendance of self', the fusion of the true, the good and the beautiful, contribution to others, wisdom, honesty, and naturalness, the transcendance of selfish and personal motivations, the giving up of 'lower' desires in favor of 'higher' ones, increased friendliness and kindness, the easy differentiation between ends (tranquility, serenity, peace) and means (money, power, status), the decrease of hostility, cruelty, and destructiveness (although decisiveness, justified anger, and indignation, self-affirmation, etc. may very well increase.... So far as philosophical theory is concerned, many historical dilemmas and contradictions are resolved by this finding." (In the old days, children's developmental needs were not understood - they grew into immature adults and immature 'philosophers 'who perceived dichotomies when in fact there are none. We have believed what they said rather analysing their own perceptions as a result of their immaturity.) "Creativeness, spontaneity, self-hood, authenticity, caring for others, being able to love, yearning for truth, are embryonic potentialities belonging to his species-membership as much as his arms and legs and brain and eyes. This is not a contradiction to the data already amassed which show clearly that living in a family and in a culture are absolutely necessary to actualize what already exists in the embryo. The culture is sun, food and water. The child is the seed." (Maslow Psychology of Being p. 158)

 

 

 

Annotation... Lowry, Richard J., "A.H. Maslow: An Intellectual Portrait" Brooks/Cole Publishing Co., Monterey, California, l973

According to author Richard Lowry, Maslow's principles deal with the same basic values sought by theologians and philosophers throughout human history. Man has always tended to look for guiding values outside himself, from some sort of god, sacred book, ruling elite, or ruling individual. Maslow explored the theory that the guiding values which have been prescribed by religions and philosophies can be found within a person's consciousness. By observing the people whom he considered as mankind's 'best specimens' living under the 'best conditions' he described those values by which they led their lives. The results of his observations showed that the values which guided these people from within their consciousness were the same as "the old values of truth, goodness, and beauty and some additional ones as well - for instance, gaiety, justice and joy."1

Maslow's 'intellectual awakening' came in l927 when he read Sumner's book "Folkways" introducing him to a point of view which pointed up his own ethnocentrism. Attempting to apply the Darwinian evolutionary doctrine to human society, the book was written as an argument for the evolution of social mores, called 'folkways', in accordance with basic biological needs and environmental contingencies by a process analagous to 'natural selection.' In Maslow's own intellectual development, the notion of inborn biological necessity and basic human needs led to his conception of 'instinctoid' human nature. He discredited theologians for trying to find man's justifications outside of himself and philosophers for having no authorities or absolute criteria. He criticised theology for its overdependence on dogma, revelation and supernaturalism and he criticised philosophy for denying these authorities.

Maslow arrived at the conclusion that man has a 'natural personality' which is basically good. Feelings of 'natural dominance' or 'self-esteem' lead to beneficial and creative behaviour. Feelings of 'compensatory dominance' become 'over-compensatory' when they are derived from the crippling effect of insecurity and low self-esteem. Such feelings of sham dominance leading to domineering or haughty behaviour can explain the wickedness of human behaviour.

According to Maslow's motivation theory, the biologically innate 'natural personality' can be described in terms of the hierarchy of human needs which account for a person's motivation and behaviour.(Abraham Maslow, "A theory of motivation", Psychological Review, 50, l943, 370-396)  These needs are the innate motives which are biologically built into the constitution of the human species. The hierarchy of motives is based on an inherent hierarchy of 'prepotency' defined in terms of their urgency. The innate motives for behaviour rise to the surface of consciousness and become motivational in their order of prepotency. One motive is considered more prepotent if it is more urgent and inhibits other motives. Thus the most 'prepotent' needs are the most urgent. In Maslow's own words, "It is quite true that man lives by bread alone-when there is no bread. But what happens to man's desires when there is plenty of bread and when his belly is chronically filled? At once other (and higher) needs emerge, and these, rather than physiological hungers, dominate the organism. And when these in turn are satisfied, again new (and still higher) needs emerge and so on."3 (Abraham Maslow, "Motivation and Personality" (New York: Harper and Brothers, l954) 83) In order of 'prepotency,' the basic needs are first the physiological needs of survival and sex, second, the 'safety needs,' third, the needs for 'belongingness and love,' fourth, the 'esteem needs,' and fifth, the need for fulfillment or 'self-actualization.' The physiological needs of survival are the most urgent and thus the most prepotent. Once they are satisfied, the next 'most prepotent needs' emerge, the 'safety needs,' followed by the less prepotent needs for 'belongingness and love.' Once these are met, still another class of basic needs emerge, the 'esteem needs,' the needs for "... a stable, firmly based, usually high self-evaluation...(in the form of) a desire for strength, achievement, adequacy, mastery, competence, confidence... independence and freedom...(or in the form of) a desire for reputation...status, dominance, recognition, attention, importance or appreciation."4 4. Ibid., 90 Once the 'esteem needs' are met, the need for 'self-actualization' emerges. This refers to a person's 'desire for self-fulfillment,'... to become actualized in what one is potentially..to become everything that one is capable of becoming."5 Ibid., 9l-92

 

 HUMAN NATURE

Annotation... Lowry, Richard J., "A.H. Maslow: An Intellectual Portrait" Brooks/Cole Publishing Co., Monterey, California, l973

According to author Richard Lowry, Maslow's principles deal with the same basic values sought by theologians and philosophers throughout human history. Man has always tended to look for guiding values outside himself, from some sort of god, sacred book, ruling elite, or ruling individual. Maslow explored the theory that the guiding values which have been prescribed by religions and philosophies can be found within a person's consciousness. By observing the people whom he considered as mankind's 'best specimens' living under the 'best conditions' he described those values by which they led their lives. The results of his observations showed that the values which guided these people from within their consciousness were the same as "the old values of truth, goodness, and beauty and some additional ones as well - for instance, gaiety, justice and joy."1

Maslow's 'intellectual awakening' came in l927 when he read Sumner's book "Folkways" introducing him to a point of view which pointed up his own ethnocentrism. Attempting to apply the Darwinian evolutionary doctrine to human society, the book was written as an argument for the evolution of social mores, called 'folkways', in accordance with basic biological needs and environmental contingencies by a process analagous to 'natural selection.' In Maslow's own intellectual development, the notion of inborn biological necessity and basic human needs led to his conception of 'instinctoid' human nature. He discredited theologians for trying to find man's justifications outside of himself and philosophers for having no authorities or absolute criteria. He criticised theology for its overdependence on dogma, revelation and supernaturalism and he criticised philosophy for denying these authorities.

Maslow arrived at the conclusion that man has a 'natural personality' which is basically good. Feelings of 'natural dominance' or 'self-esteem' lead to beneficial and creative behaviour. Feelings of 'compensatory dominance' become 'over-compensatory' when they are derived from the crippling effect of insecurity and low self-esteem. Such feelings of sham dominance leading to domineering or haughty behaviour can explain the wickedness of human behaviour.

According to Maslow's motivation theory, the biologically innate 'natural personality' can be described in terms of the hierarchy of human needs which account for a person's motivation and behaviour.(Abraham Maslow, "A theory of motivation", Psychological Review, 50, l943, 370-396)  These needs are the innate motives which are biologically built into the constitution of the human species. The hierarchy of motives is based on an inherent hierarchy of 'prepotency' defined in terms of their urgency. The innate motives for behaviour rise to the surface of consciousness and become motivational in their order of prepotency. One motive is considered more prepotent if it is more urgent and inhibits other motives. Thus the most 'prepotent' needs are the most urgent. In Maslow's own words, "It is quite true that man lives by bread alone-when there is no bread. But what happens to man's desires when there is plenty of bread and when his belly is chronically filled? At once other (and higher) needs emerge, and these, rather than physiological hungers, dominate the organism. And when these in turn are satisfied, again new (and still higher) needs emerge and so on."3 (Abraham Maslow, "Motivation and Personality" (New York: Harper and Brothers, l954) 83) In order of 'prepotency,' the basic needs are first the physiological needs of survival and sex, second, the 'safety needs,' third, the needs for 'belongingness and love,' fourth, the 'esteem needs,' and fifth, the need for fulfillment or 'self-actualization.' The physiological needs of survival are the most urgent and thus the most prepotent. Once they are satisfied, the next 'most prepotent needs' emerge, the 'safety needs,' followed by the less prepotent needs for 'belongingness and love.' Once these are met, still another class of basic needs emerge, the 'esteem needs,' the needs for "... a stable, firmly based, usually high self-evaluation...(in the form of) a desire for strength, achievement, adequacy, mastery, competence, confidence... independence and freedom...(or in the form of) a desire for reputation...status, dominance, recognition, attention, importance or appreciation."4 4. Ibid., 90 Once the 'esteem needs' are met, the need for 'self-actualization' emerges. This refers to a person's 'desire for self-fulfillment,'... to become actualized in what one is potentially..to become everything that one is capable of becoming."5 Ibid., 9l-92

 'Self-actualizing' human beings are people who enjoy life to the full. They are adapted to life within a culture but are unspoiled in the process of acculturation. They place no unrealistic or neurotic demands on reality, perceiving it clearly and accepting it for what it is. They do not feel threatened by the unknown and are free from superstitions. Without shame, guilt or anxiety, they accept their own nature and that of others. They accept human nature, seeing it for what it is and not as they would prefer it to be. They feel uncomfortable when they see discrepancies in people's natures. They have a distinct quality of detachment and strong sense of privacy. Resisting cultural influences, they are autonomous and independent. With a genuine desire to help others, they identify with humanity and are democratic in their thinking. They prefer a few profound friendships to many superficial ones. They have a philosophical and unhostile sense of humour. They will intentionally hurt another only when it is good for that person. They are in short altogether Good Human Beings(abbreviated as GHB in Maslow's notebooks). In Maslow's words, the self-actualized human being has "the wonderful capacity to appreciate again and again, freshly and naively, the basic goods of life, with awe, pleasure, wonder, and even ecstasy, however stale these experiences may have become to others. Thus for such a person, any sunset may be as beautiful as the first one, any flower may be of breath-taking loveliness, even after he has seen a million flowers.7 They frequently experience such ecstatic moments of clear perception of reality, for which Maslow coined the term 'peak-experience.' They are deeply and essentially spontaneous and non-conforming. "...they have impulses. They work, they try, and they are ambitious, even though in an unusual sense,. For them motivation is just character growth, character expression, maturation, and development; in a word, self actualization."8 He called this type of motivation 'Being-motivation' and 'meta-motivation' in contrast to the control of so-called 'deficiency motivation' of 'ordinary mankind.' As a result of meta-motivation and the clear perception of reality, self-actualizing people show "in one way or another a special kind of creativeness or originality or inventiveness...(similar to that of)..unspoiled children...(which seems to be) ...a fundamental characteristic of common human nature - a potentiality given to all human beings at birth"9 and lost by many people during the process of enculturation. "Problem centered" rather than "means centered," self-actualizing people are not confused by means and ends, by problems and methods in scientific investigation. "Problem centered" rather than "ego centered" they see problems and solutions as they are rather than as they would like them to be. Significantly, they perceive many so-called "problems" as merely pseudoproblems resulting from an ego-centered mental process which dichotomizes and distorts reality. The result is the emergence of problematical false dichotomies such as reason-emotion, mystic-realistic, self-society etc. For the self-actualizing person, false dichotomies can be resolved, "the polarities disappear, and many oppositions thought to be intrinsic merge and coalesce with each other to form unities." For Maslow, 'self-actualization' was a vision of human nature.

Maslow's aim was to investigate the possibility that the original nature of the human species could be scientifically revealed. By analysing the psychological and emotional characteristics of the so-called 'self-actualizing' human beings, the fully grown members of the human species who were the 'good human beings,' he argued that such a scientific investigation was valid. He came to the conclusion that the 'self-actualizing' person is the 'ordinary' human being with 'nothing taken away,' and that the 'self-actualized' person is 'synonomous with human nature in general.' Maslow described the characteristics of the 'self-actualized' person and argued that they can be used to describe the innate characteristics of human nature. Self-actualizing people are...

 Lowry, Richard J., "A.H. Maslow: An Intellectual Portrait" Brooks/Cole Publishing Co., Monterey, California, l973

According to author Richard Lowry, Maslow's principles deal with the same basic values sought by theologians and philosophers throughout human history. Man has always tended to look for guiding values outside himself, from some sort of god, sacred book, ruling elite, or ruling individual. Maslow explored the theory that the guiding values which have been prescribed by religions and philosophies can be found within a person's consciousness. By observing the people whom he considered as mankind's 'best specimens' living under the 'best conditions' he described those values by which they led their lives. The results of his observations showed that the values which guided these people from within their consciousness were the same as "the old values of truth, goodness, and beauty and some additional ones as well - for instance, gaiety, justice and joy."(Radio Interview l960) Maslow's 'intellectual awakening' came in l927 when he read Sumner's book "Folkways" introducing him to a point of view which pointed up his own ethnocentrism.

Attempting to apply the Darwinian evolutionary doctrine to human society, the book was written as an argument for the evolution of social mores, called 'folkways', in accordance with basic biological needs and environmental contingencies by a process analagous to 'natural selection.' In Maslow's own intellectual development, the notion of inborn biological necessity and basic human needs led to his conception of 'instinctoid' human nature. He discredited theologians for trying to find man's justifications outside of himself and philosophers for having no authorities or absolute criteria. He criticised theology for its overdependence on dogma, revelation and supernaturalism and he criticised philosophy for denying these authorities. Maslow arrived at the conclusion that man has a 'natural personality' which is basically good. Feelings of 'natural dominance' or 'self-esteem' lead to beneficial and creative behaviour. Feelings of 'compensatory dominance' become 'over-compensatory' when they are derived from the crippling effect of insecurity and low self-esteem. Such feelings of sham dominance leading to domineering or haughty behaviour can explain the wickedness of human behaviour. According to Maslow's motivation theory, the biologically innate 'natural personality' can be described in terms of the hierarchy of human needs which account for a person's motivation and behaviour. (Abraham Maslow, "A theory of motivation", Psychological Review, 50, l943, 370-396) These needs are the innate motives which are biologically built into the constitution of the human species. The hierarchy of motives is based on an inherent hierarchy of 'prepotency' defined in terms of their urgency. The innate motives for behaviour rise to the surface of consciousness and become motivational in their order of prepotency. One motive is considered more prepotent if it is more urgent and inhibits other motives. Thus the most 'prepotent' needs are the most urgent. In Maslow's own words, "It is quite true that man lives by bread alone-when there is no bread. But what happens to man's desires when there is plenty of bread and when his belly is chronically filled? At once other (and higher) needs emerge, and these, rather than physiological hungers, dominate the organism. And when these in turn are satisfied, again new (and still higher) needs emerge and so on." (Abraham Maslow, "Motivation and Personality" (New York: Harper and Brothers, l954 83, 5. Ibid., 9l-92) In order of 'prepotency,' the basic needs are first the physiological needs of survival and sex, second, the 'safety needs,' third, the needs for 'belongingness and love,' fourth, the 'esteem needs,' and fifth, the need for fulfillment or 'self-actualization.' The physiological needs of survival are the most urgent and thus the most prepotent. Once they are satisfied, the next 'most prepotent needs' emerge, the 'safety needs,' followed by the less prepotent needs for 'belongingness and love.' Once these are met, still another class of basic needs emerge, the 'esteem needs,' the needs for "... a stable, firmly based, usually high self-evaluation...(in the form of) a desire for strength, achievement, adequacy, mastery, competence, confidence... independence and freedom...(or in the form of) a desire for reputation...status, dominance, recognition, attention, importance or appreciation. (Abraham Maslow, "Motivation and Personality" New York: Harper and Brothers, l954 90) Once the 'esteem needs' are met, the need for 'self-actualization' emerges. This refers to a person's 'desire for self-fulfillment,'... to become actualized in what one is potentially..to become everything that one is capable of becoming." (Abraham Maslow, "Motivation and Personality" New York: Harper and Brothers, l954 91-92) 'Self-actualizing' human beings are people who enjoy life to the full. They are adapted to life within a culture but are unspoiled in the process of acculturation. They place no unrealistic or neurotic demands on reality, perceiving it clearly and accepting it for what it is. They do not feel threatened by the unknown and are free from superstitions. Without shame, guilt or anxiety, they accept their own nature and that of others. They accept human nature, seeing it for what it is and not as they would prefer it to be. They feel uncomfortable when they see discrepancies in people's natures. They have a distinct quality of detachment and strong sense of privacy. Resisting cultural influences, they are autonomous and independent. With a genuine desire to help others, they identify with humanity and are democratic in their thinking. They prefer a few profound friendships to many superficial ones. They have a philosophical and unhostile sense of humour. They will intentionally hurt another only when it is good for that person. They are in short altogether Good Human Beings. (abbreviated as GHB in Maslow's notebooks) In Maslow's words, the self-actualized human being has "the wonderful capacity to appreciate again and again, freshly and naively, the basic goods of life, with awe, pleasure, wonder, and even ecstasy, however stale these experiences may have become to others. Thus for such a person, any sunset may be as beautiful as the first one, any flower may be of breath-taking loveliness, even after he has seen a million flowers. (Abraham Maslow, "Motivation and Personality" 214-215) They frequently experience such ecstatic moments of clear perception of reality, for which Maslow coined the term 'peak-experience.' They are deeply and essentially spontaneous and non-conforming. "...they have impulses. They work, they try, and they are ambitious, even though in an unusual sense,. For them motivation is just character growth, character expression, maturation, and development; in a word, self actualization." (Abraham Maslow, "Motivation and Personality" 211) He called this type of motivation 'Being-motivation' and 'meta-motivation' in contrast to the control of so-called 'deficiency motivation' of 'ordinary mankind.' As a result of meta-motivation and the clear perception of reality, self-actualizing people show "in one way or another a special kind of creativeness or originality or inventiveness...(similar to that of)..unspoiled children...(which seems to be) ...a fundamental characteristic of common human nature - a potentiality given to all human beings at birth"9 and lost by many people during the process of enculturation. "Problem centered" rather than "means centered," self-actualizing people are not confused by means and ends, by problems and methods in scientific investigation. "Problem centered" rather than "ego centered" they see problems and solutions as they are rather than as they would like them to be. Significantly, they perceive many so-called "problems" as merely pseudoproblems resulting from an ego-centered mental process which dichotomizes and distorts reality. The result is the emergence of problematical false dichotomies such as reason-emotion, mystic-realistic, self-society etc. For the self-actualizing person, false dichotomies can be resolved, "the polarities disappear, and many oppositions thought to be intrinsic merge and coalesce with each other to form unities." For Maslow, 'self-actualization' was a vision of human nature. His aim was to investigate the possibility that the original nature of the human species could be scientifically revealed. By analysing the psychological and emotional characteristics of the so-called 'self-actualizing' human beings, the fully grown members of the human species who were the 'good human beings,' he argued that such a scientific investigation was valid. He came to the conclusion that the 'self-actualizing' person is the 'ordinary' human being with 'nothing taken away,' and that the 'self-actualized' person is 'synonomous with human nature in general.' Maslow described the characteristics of the 'self-actualized' person and argued that they can be used to describe the innate characteristics of human nature. Self-actualizing people are able to perceive the world as if it were independent only of ...complete 9. Ibid., 223-224

Maslow, Abraham Toward a Psychology of Being. Van Nostrand Reinhold and Company, New York, l962

Using a scientifically objective approach, it is possible to formulate a so-called 'science of ethics,' a value system based on the natural laws of human nature and human existence. It requires an investigation into the real nature of the individual human being both as a member of the human species and as a unique specimen. As a member of the human species, each human being has a biologically inherited 'intrinsic conscience' based on the unconscious perception of his own human nature. In addition to the conscience, each individual has a unique potentiality manifested in a personal decision making process which is based on his own will, responsibility, strength, courage and needs. For the scientific formulation of a natural value system it is necessary first to make the distinction between 'higher' and 'lower' needs. Both 'higher' and 'lower' needs are shared by all members of the human species. The 'lower' needs include the basic physiological needs, the need for safety, the need for belongingness, the need for love and the need for respect. With varying strength in terms of urgency they are related to each other in a hierarchical fashion. The need for food is more pressing, more prepotent, than the need for safety, which in turn is more prepotent than the need for love etc. Also known as the 'deficit' needs (D-needs), the 'lower' needs rely on sources outside the individual and depend on other people for their gratification. An individual makes personal decisions on the basis of the need which must be gratified before he can be motivated by another 'higher' need. He naturally makes decisions within the framework of an equivalent value system, that of the so-called 'Deficit-values' (D-values). Motivated by deficiency needs, he can be described as 'deficiency motivated.' He perceives other people in terms of their usefulness as sources of gratification for his need deficiencies rather than perceiving them in terms of their own intrinsic values. Dependent on other people, he must be flexible and responsive to their reactions. Thus relying on changeable factors in a non-reliable social environment, the 'deficiency motivated' individual is prone to anxiety, to hostility and ultimately to a lack of freedom. His interpersonal relations are limited and interchangeable because they are based on need gratification. Once the individual has gratified his basic 'lower' needs during a normal growth process, he becomes less dependent on others for the gratification of the 'higher' needs for growth, creation and production, also known as 'Being needs' (B-needs). For gratification of the B-needs, the individual relies on his own inner resources. Making his personal decisions on the basis of B-needs, he naturally makes his choices within the framework of the equivalent value system, that of the 'Being-values' (B-values). Motivated by the Being needs for growth, he can be described as 'growth motivated.' He becomes independent of other people for the gratification of his growth needs. Characteristically autonomous and self-sufficient, he experiences 'true' freedom and enjoys the pleasure of insight and production. He has the capacitie characteristic of 'self-actualization': to make decisions in his 'true' self interest; to perceive other people in terms of their intrinsic qualities; to have a non-judgmental, non-interfering attitude towards others; to perceive reality holistically. His comprehensive understanding of other human beings forms the basis for his meaningful interpersonal relations.
The objective study of fully developed and healthy individuals reveals information about the end result of normal human growth and provides a basis for the formulation of a natural 'science of ethics.' So-called 'self-actualized' individuals share the following characteristics: superior perception of reality; increased acceptance of self, of others and of nature; increased spontaneity; increased problem- centering; increased detachment and desire for privacy; increased autonomy and resistance to enculturation; greater freshness of appreciation and richness of emotional reaction; higher frequency of so called 'peak-experiences'; increased identification with the human species; improved interpersonal relations; more democratic 'character structure'; greatly increased creativeness; 'ethical' value system. Generally enjoying life in all of its aspects, these people lead ethical lives. Characteristically independent of other people, the self-actualized individual is autonomous and self-sufficient. He is able to perceive others objectively as unique individuals. Capable of a holistic perception of reality, his reasoning transcends the opposites, the dichotomies, the polarities, the contradictions and incompatibles. Perceiving these as interpenetrating facets of a whole, the self-actualizated person values the higher needs, the 'Being-values' (B-values) of wholeness, perfection, truth, justice, aliveness, richness, simplicity, beauty, goodness, uniqueness, self-sufficiency etc.
A 'science of ethics' can be formulated on the basis of the discovery of those highest values which people yearn and struggle for as they grow and improve themselves. The 'higher' values are those biologically based constitutional ethical impulses revealed during the proper development of psychological health. They enable the individual to adjust to the realities of a social environment. A healthy culture can provide the necessary conditions for fostering proper human growth and development if the individual's human needs are recognized and respected. As the result of a culturally fostered human development, the individual becomes 'self-actualized,' living according to the 'higher' Being values which comprise his natural system of ethics. The definition of a healthy culture as one which fosters universal self-actualization is revolutionary in its implications for ethics. In the style of Aristotelian logic (A and not-A), age-old axioms maintain the 'deficiency motivated' perception of reality in terms of classes and concepts which are mutually exclusive (male-female, selfish-unselfish, adult-child, kind-cruel, good-bad etc.). For centuries the attempts to formulate a system of ethics have been based on the mutually exclusive contrast between 'what is' and 'what ought to be.' This dichotamous concept of ethics has resulted from teaching people that their intrinsic animal instincts are immoral, evil and not to be trusted. This is the false premise upon which many seemingly insoluble social problems are based. It has led to the mistaken idea that the interests of the individual and of the society are mutually exclusive and antagonistic, that civilization is primarily a mechanism for controlling and policing human instinctive impulses. But when people are taught that they should despise their human nature ("I am only human") then they cannot have respect for their own needs and the impulses towards their gratification. Without respect for their own needs, they cannot have respect for the needs of others, the necessary basis of a scientific value system. For proper growth and development, an individual's instinctive primary needs must be respected.
If the basic premise for a 'science of ethics' were changed and human nature was assumed to be good and productive, a paradigm shift would result. Some of the age-old philosophical questions could be resolved if asked on the basis of a new premise and within the framework of a new paradigm. Both the 'science of education' and the 'science of ethics' could be formulated in terms of the natural unfolding of human nature during proper psychological development towards full 'humanness,' towards so-called 'self-actualization.' At this stage of development, the autonomous individual engages in the productivity which defines his full individuality and 'true' freedom. Leading his life according to the 'Being-values' of freedom, love, truth, justice etc. the individual is responsible to himself and simultaneously responsibile to the rest of humanity. The process of education for proper human development involves the fostering of an individual's instinctive responsibility to himself and his own needs. It therefore depends on the creation of an environment which fosters self-discipline, self-actualization and the full development of 'humanness,' the natural ethical core of every human being. In the process of successfully adapting to a changing social environment, the 'self-actualized' individual is capable of making decisions in his own 'true' interest. Simultaneously he makes decisions which are in the 'true' interest of the society. Thus he lives in accordance with natural biological laws and the evolutionary process. And the 'science of ethics' becomes a natural value system formulated on the basis of natural laws of human nature and human existence.