MOTIVATION BY THE SPIRITUAL NEEDS OR 'METANEEDS': 'METAMOTIVATION' 

                                                    

Theme: The human organism is a social organism which depends for survival and adaptation on the social intelligence of moral consciousness or 'conscience'. Construction of rational conscience is a function of spiritual development and depends on motivation by the higher needs for psychological growth... the spiritual needs or 'metaneeds' (see Abraham Maslow)... rational conscience - a function of spirituality.... spiritual development as development of moral consciousness or 'conscience'. Construction of rational conscience depends on motivation by the needs for psychological or spiritual growth i.e. the 'higher' spiritual needs or 'metaneeds' of love without demands or conditions or 'unconditional love' ...hence 'metamotivation'.

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human nature...    the human organism as a social organism...     human nature as the 'mature mind'...

human needs...     basic psychological needs or 'ego needs'...  higher psychological needs or 'metaneeds...

               development of conscience for adaptability...

               biological basis of metamotivation: 'subjective biology'...

               perception of reality at the transpersonal level of personality development...

theory of 'metamotivation' of Abraham Maslow..

            implications for education...

 The human organism is a social organism with a complex range of instinctive human motives or 'human needs'. These must be fulfilled for proper growth and development to full human awareness or 'humanness' and the peaceful functioning of human societies. Human needs are psychological and spiritual as well as physiological. The physiological needs are those needs which are related to physical growth. Psychological needs are those needs related to psychological growth. There are the basic or 'lower' psychological needs for security and the 'higher' psychological needs for moral consciousness or 'conscience'. The different psychological needs are interrelated. The 'lower' basic needs are the so-called 'security needs' for safety, belongingness and self-esteem also known as the 'ego needs'. The 'higher' needs are the so-called 'growth needs' or 'spiritual needs'... needs for development of rational conscience through spiritual growth and transcendance of the ego...  'ego-transcendance'. The most urgent or 'prepotent' is the need for freedom from fear and anxiety.... the need for safety or 'security'. Security needs include the need to admire an ideal and to strive for perfection. Security is communicated through loving care and a sense of 'belongingness'...  need for human solidarity... love as compassionate affection which communicates security... as communication of security necessary for growth... parental love without conditions attached... 'unconditional love' or 'spiritual love'. Unconditional love is derived from the human instinct for human solidarity and communicates the security, approval, respect, esteem and sense of belongingness... basic to faith in the persistence of the self, respect and approval of one's identity and expectations of oneself i.e. 'self-respect' or 'self-esteem'

Fulfillment of the ego-needs establishes a natural condition of self-identity or 'healthy ego' which is required for normal healthy psychological growth...  mature growth or 'self-actualisation' which leads to 'intuitive intelligence', 'creative intelligence'..or 'social intelligence'. Social intellligence is a function of moral or 'spiritual' 'intuition'... function of fully expanded awareness of the social values of humanness ... . function of complete development of moral consciousness or 'conscience'. The human social values - truth, justic, beauty, compassion, goodness...  are instrumental in creative and effective adaptation to changing social conditions... tools for living.    

Human adaptability is successful if it is based on the value-life.

  'Higher' psychological needs are the growth needs, moral needs, spiritual needs or 'metaneeds' of moral consciousness or 'conscience'. The 'higher' spiritual needs ('higher' because they are related to consciousness) are motivations for spiritual growth and ego-transcendance. The spiritual needs are also known as 'growth motivations' or 'metaneeds' - from the Greek word 'meta' meaning 'of a higher order'. Metaneeds are the same intellectual, moral and 'ethical' needs taught by religions and philosophies... the needs related to the spiritual values of  .truth, goodness, perfection, justice, simplicity, love, compassion lawfulness, dichotomy transcendance and so on. Each of the metaneeds representsa different facet of a unified and composite whole... of the wholeness of Being. Each one can be fully defined in terms of all the others. Also known as the 'growth needs' of the value-life... natural values of moral consciousness or 'conscience' they represent an intrinsic part of the human personality or 'human nature'.  The metaneeds are also known as 'Being-values' or 'B'values'. The B-values are defined as. The metamotivation which arises from the biological metaneeds for the values-life, B-values, Being-values, spiritual values, determines the individual's perception of 'ultimate reality' at the 'highest' levels of consciousness. In other words at the highest levels of personality and cultural development, a reality is perceived which is independent of distorted human perceptions. This is the transcendental realm of consciousness known as the 'ultimate reality' which is described in terms of the B-values... true, good, just, beautiful etc. In the context of 'ultimate reality' the B-values become identical with B-facts....  facts and values fuse and the words used to describe them are called 'fusion-words'. In this way contemplation of the nature of the universe is the same as contemplation of the B-values or 'ultimate values'. 

In a cultural environment which focuses on the basic physiological and psychological needs, metamotivation is inhibited by forces external to the individual who is thus deprived of the means for gratification of the instinctive metaneeds which may appear to be both attractive and frightening. As a result the individual may have ambivalent feelings towards them and this can trigger   reaction responses and defense mechanisms which inhibit metamotivation namely internal repression and denial.

This notion lends itself to the potential transcendance of unnecessary dichotomies such as good and evil.

The aim of philosophers, scientists, artists, and spiritual leaders is to achieve the same objective perception of 'ultimate reality, a perception which is devoid of any contaminating effects of the observer's fears, wishes, calculations etc.

Function of the rational conscience is protection of personal integrity required for adaptation to changing social conditions i.e. 'adaptability'  Survival of the human organism as a social organism depends on the  ability to adapt to the complexities of changing social conditions i.e. social adaptation or 'adaptability'. Human adaptability depends on the capacity to make connections between learning and life experience and this involves intuition of rational conscience - an emergent property of the brain. Conscience is the biologically based cognitive system which evolved through natural selection as the 'moral faculty' of 'social intelligence'. The conscience... spirituality...  is the core of guiding values, 'social values' or 'human values' for living. These have been sought by theologians and philosophers throughout human history. Human values are values of the highest consciousness state of 'self-transcendance'. In the 'transcendental realm of consciousness' the individual is aware of the rational valuing process of developed conscience, the source of human morals or 'virtues' -  goodness,  beauty, justice, spiritual love, joy, 'truth' amaking the conscience the tool for living ... 'spiritual equipment'... for effective adaptation to the complexities of changing social conditions.

Creative intelligence is based on awareness of the nature of the human personality or 'human nature' as a function of the higher psychological needs (metaneeds) and values (metavalues) . Individual awareness of human nature or 'self-knowledge' is required for accurate evaluation of the social environment and subsequent adaptation. C

Human nature is the 'mature mind' The basic psychological needs for love and affection, self-respect, self-esteem and belongingness have a biological basis. Mature individuals whose basic psychological needs are gratified, have self-respect, self-discipline, self-directedness, sense of purpose and worthiness, are referred to as 'self-actualizing' individuals. They become motivated by the 'metaneeds' of the value-life. Motivation by the metaneeds is referred to as 'metamotivation'.

Biological basis of so-called 'higher values' ... metamotivation... 'subjective biology'."Obviously instinctive in nature, the basic physiological and psychological needs come under the rubric of 'subjective biology.' The similarly biologically based 'metaneeds' come under the same rubric although they are less urgent and weaker than the basic psychological needs. Consequently the education of the spiritual needs, the 'metaneeds,' can be fostered through the acknowledgement, encouragement and enforcement of the individual's instinctive yearning for truth, beauty etc., the individual's capacity for 'metamotivation.'" (Maslow)

The mystic of 'peak' experience involves the individual's total acceptance of his biological nature and his part in natural evolution.

Without having to resort to the 'supernatural,' the individual's "communion with what transcends him" becomes a biological experience which makes it easily possible for the him to live in the realm of the 'B-Values which can satisfy the human longing for certainty." Like the eternal values of religions, they can be adored, revered, celebrated and sacrificed. The total acceptance of the human organism's biological nature becomes fused with the concept of 'transcendance of death' and 'immortality.' The greatest joy and happiness can be experienced in the contemplation of the 'B-Values.' Furthermore, it is proposed that the theoretical structure for the biological basis of 'metamotivation' and the 'metaneeds' of the value-life can assimilate all the functions of organized religions and religious experiences.

"The value-life - spiritual, religious, philosophical - is an aspect of human biology and is on the same continuum with the 'lower' animal life, rather than being in separated, dichotomized, or mutually exclusive realms. It is probably therefore species-wide, supracultural even though it must be actualized by culture in order to exist." (Abraham Maslow)

Rather than belonging to a domain external to human nature, spiritual values and the value-life are components of the biological basis of human nature. Motivation for the gratification of the 'metaneeds' of full human awareness or 'humanness'... metamotivation ... is biologically based and instinctive.

The 'metaneeds' along with the basic psychological needs are all biologically based. They are all components of our biological life. Consequently the spiritual or value - life of the human organism is natural and fact-based, legitimately qualified for scientific analysis.  The metaneeds and metamotivation necessitate a cultural environment for their actualization and they can easily be lost in a culture which does not approve of human nature. A cultural environment which respects the  the instinctive metaneeds as well as basic psychological needs, fosters the individual's growth toward self-actualization.

 This notion lends itself to the potential transcendance of unnecessary dichotomies such as good and evil.

Metamotivation is the human capacity for experiential richness... motivation by the metaneeds of developed conscience. The human conscience is an 'emergent property' of the maker of meaning or 'brain'. As a property of brain functioning, the human conscience or 'soul' is intrinsic to the nature of the human personality... 'human psychology' or 'human nature'...  therefore biologically based and  instinctive to the human organism. Human nature can be defined in terms of the biologically based metaneeeds. With metamotivation human obligations of love, truth, justice and beauty become its pleasures. What is 'good' for the individual is also good for the society. Motivation by the basic psychological needsare obviously instinctive to human nature and are therefore included in the rubric of 'subjective biology.' Subjective biology must also include growth motivation or metamotivaton.

Deprivation of psychological needs leads to motivation by deficiency of needs...  'deficiency motivation' or 'deficit motivation'. ...dehumanisation Prerequisite to the 'metamotivation' for gratification of the 'metaneeds' or 'growth motivations...the prepotent more urgent basic psychological needs can be called 'deficiency needs'.  Metamotivation is inhibited when social forces in the environment are focused on physiological or basic psychological needs. Deprivation of the basic psychological needs - parental love and affection and the security which it communicates ... self-esteem etc... 'ego needs' - leads to psychological illness i.e. neurotic growth or neurosis. The prepotent more urgent basic psychological needs can be called 'deficiency needs' and motivation by these is 'deficit motivation' As a result of deficit motivation, the individual lacks the self-respect, self-discipline, self-directedness, sense of belongingness and sense of purpose and worthiness which are the basis for motivation by the metaneeds for spiritual growth. Feelings towards them become ambivalent. They are inspiring but frightening at the same time. The individual responds to them with reactions of internal repression and denial. These reaction responses inhibit metamotivation for spiritual growth and the individual is deprived of the opportunity to satisfy the metaneeds. Deprivation of the metaneeds leads to 'metapathologies' of value-starvation, psychological incapacitation, social incompetence and dehumanisation. In the attempt to adapt to changing social environments the dehumanised individual is motivated by the deficiency needs and engages in the immoral and destructive behaviour of human wickedness or 'evil'.  

 So-called 'laziness' is really a question of not caring... lack of motivation.

Objective perception of human nature incorporates biological basis of metaneeds... Rather than belonging to a domain external to human nature, spiritual values and the value-life are components of the biological basis of human nature.

The objective perception of human nature is the same which is sought by philosophers, scientists, artists and spiritual leaders. The religious or 'mystic' experience of ego-transcendance involves the total acceptance of human nature and incorporates the concepts of 'transcendance of death' or 'immortality' in which the individual communicates with the spiritual aspect of their nature without recourse to a 'supernatural'. The experience of communion is the experience of ego-transcendance which makes it possible to live in the transcendant realm of Being-Values in which the individual can experience joy and happiness. In this way the functions of religious experiences can be explained by the biological basis of the metaneeds. The metaneeds can be adored, revered and celebrated and they can also be sacrificed just like the eternal values of religions. This wholistic perspective of human nature makes it possible to transcend dichotomies of human nature. Dichotomies imply mutual exclusiveness. Notions such as the 'forces of good' and 'the forces of evil' imply that good and evil are mutually exclusive. At the level of ego-transcendance, the mutual exclusiveness disappears.An individual's level of awareness and perception of reality is determined by the level of consciousness which they have reached in their personal growth and evelopment... 'sociocognitive stage'.

Perception of reality at the transpersonal level of personality development... 'holistic perception'...  The metamotivation by the metaneeds produces a perception of reality at the highest level of consciouness - the transpersonal level of ego-transcendance. At the transpersonal level of personality development, the individual's perception of reality is free of the distorting effects of fear, envy and malice. This is the 'ultimate reality' which is described in terms of the ultimate values of being - the 'Being-Values' which satisfy the human longing for certainty - 'true', 'good', 'just', 'beautiful' and so on. Being-Values are identical with 'Being-Facts' concerning the nature of the universe, the nature of life and the nature of human nature. It is easy to lose sight of the metaneeds in a social environment which does not approve of human nature.

Implications for education  Metamotivation is an intrinsic part of human nature. consequently the techniques of so-called subjective biology ...contemplation or 'meditation... apply to human education.  The human capacity for metamotivation as 'experiential richness' is 'teachable' in the sense that an educational program can be designed around the instinctive needs of 'subjective biology', not only the physiological and basic psychological  needs but the 'metaneeds' as well.  Metamotivation is enhanced in a social environment which recognizes the social or 'spiritual' nature of human nature. The individual's capacity for metamotivation can be fostered through the acknowledgement, encouragement and enforcement of the individual's instinctive yearning for love, truth, beauty etc... the education of the spiritual needs or 'metaneeds'. A social environment which respects the biologically based metaneeds fosters mature growth or 'self-actualisation'. Self-actualised individuals have self-respect, self-discipline, self-directedness and a sense of purpose and worthiness - characteristics of metamotivation for spiritual growth. It is possible to design an educational program based on the respect for metaneeds and the cultivation of metamotivation rather than sacrificing them in favor of the ego-needs and deficiency motivation i.e. 'holistic education'.

 references:   Walsh, Roger M.D. Ph.D and Frances Vaughan Ph.D.(eds) Beyond Ego: Transpersonal Dimensions in Psychology  J.P. Tarcher, Inc. Los Angeles l980


 
A Theory of Metamotivation: The Biological Rooting of the Value-Life  by Abraham Maslow... 

  "In A Theory of Metamotivation: The Biological Rooting of the Value-Life Abraham Maslow lays out a number of hypotheses about the nature and experience of self-actualizers and self-transcenders. He first describes the hierarchy of needs and suggests that higher needs (metaneeds, being-Values or B-values) for truth, beauty, transcendence, etc. are just as biologically based as are the lower, more obviously physiological ones such as thirst and sex. Further, he proposes that the failure to satisfy metaneeds may result in corresponding forms of pathology (metapathology) analagous to those resulting from unsatisfied lower needs. Thus he concludes that transcendant, religious, esthetic, and philosophical facets of life are as real and intrinsic to human nature as any biological needs". (Walsh and Vaughan Frances. Beyond Ego: Transpersonal Dimensions of Human Nature 121)

 The 'metamotivation' by the 'metaneeds' of the value-life is an intrinsic part of human nature and must therefore be included in a full definition of the human organism, the person and the individual. The biologically based basic psychological needs are instinctive. They must be gratified for a person to become more mature, more 'human' and 'self-actualized.' Gratifications of these instinctive basic needs are necessary for the avoidance of dehumanization as well as the avoidance of mental and physical illness. It appears that the 'metaneeds' of the value-life, spiritual, ethical and moral values, are also instinctive and have a biological basis. Gratifications of the instinctive 'metaneeds' are necessary for the prevention of 'illness' or 'metapathology,' best defined as 'diminutions of humanness.'

 Thus metamotivation or 'motivation for the gratification of the 'metaneeds' of 'humanness' is biologically based and instinctive.

 The person's intellectual and spiritual needs, like the basic needs, have a biological basis. The 'basic needs' of hunger and thirst are physiological needs for the physical survival of the human organism. The 'basic needs' for reproduction are physiological needs for the survival of the human species. For the human species, 'homo sapiens' the intelligent animal, the basic psychological needs are for parental love and affection, for self-respect and self-esteem and for a sense of belongingness. The so-called 'higher needs' for transcendance, religion, esthetics and philosophy, are intrinsic to every human organism and therefore must have a biological basis. Consisting of mental components, 'the metaneeds' are psychological and related to consciousness, determining the human organism's perception and level of awareness. For the social human organism, they are basic needs for the successful adaptation to a social environment. The psychological development of the human organism presupposes the cultivation of positive 'healthy' mental components and the discouragement of negative 'unhealthy' ones. The degree of a person's mental health is determined by the balance of 'healthy' and 'unhealthy' psychological factors. The 'metaneeds' are associated with healthy psychological development which is the prerequisite to the person's full functioning as a socially intelligent being.

Abraham Maslow's thirteen theses related to the biologically based 'metaneeds' of the value-life which he contends are within the realm of science. Consequently he proposes that the theory of 'metamotivation' can be subjected to scientific investigation and verificaton.

 

 Metamotivation and the gratification of the metaneeds for the B-values of the value life are the source of the highest pleasures, metapeasure which can also be called metahedonism. At this level metamotivation becomes the same for both the highest pleasures and the highest obligations to truth, justice, beauty etc. At the level of metamotivation there is no longer a dichotomy between selfishness and unselfishness. The mutual exclusiveness disappears. Gratification of the metaneed of unselfishness is the source of the highest selfish metapleasure. With metamotivation, what is good for the individual (selfish) is good for others (unselfish)... hence the disappearance of the mutual exclusiveness implied in such a dichotomy.
l. "Self-actualizing individuals, (more matured, more fully human) by definition already gratified in their basic needs,are now motivated in other higher ways, to be called 'metamotivation.'" The basic psychological needs for love and affection, self-respect, self-esteem, and belongingness have a biological basis. Mature individuals whose basic psychological needs are gratified, have self-respect, self-discipline, self-directedness, a sense of purpose and worthiness, are referred to as 'self-actualizing' individuals. They then become motivated by the 'metaneeds' of the value-life. Motivation by the 'metaneeds' is referred to as 'metamotivation.'


2. "The full definition of the person or of human nature must then include intrinsic values, as part of human nature." The 'metamotivation' by the 'metaneeds' of the value-life is an intrinsic part of human nature and must therefore be included in a full definition of the human organism, the person and the individual.


3. "These intrinsic values are instinctoid in nature, i.e they are needed (a) to avoid illness and (b) to achieve fullest humanness or growth. The 'illness' resulting from deprivation of intrinsic values (meta-needs) we may call metapathologies. The 'highest' values, the spiritual life and the highest aspirations of mankind are therefore proper subjects for scientific study and research. They are in the world of nature."
The biologically based basic psychological needs are instinctive. They must be gratified for a person to become more mature, more 'human' and 'self-actualized.' Gratifications of these instinctive basic needs are necessary for the avoidance of dehumanization as well as the avoidance of mental and physical illness. It appears that the 'metaneeds' of the value-life, spiritual, ethical and moral values, are also instinctive and have a biological basis. Gratifications of the instinctive 'metaneeds' are necessary for the prevention of 'illness' or 'metapathology,' best defined as 'diminutions of humanness.' Thus 'metamotivation' or motivation for the gratification of the 'metaneeds' of 'humanness' is biologically based and instinctive.


4."Value-starvation and value-hunger come both from external deprivation and from our ambivalence and counter-values." In a cultural environment which focuses on the basic physiological and psychological needs, 'metamotivation' is inhibited by forces external to the individual who is thus deprived of the means for gratification of the 'metaneeds.' As a result of the individual's ambivalent feelings towards the instinctive 'metaneeds' which can be both attractive and frightening, internal repression, denial and reaction responses can inhibit 'metamotivation'.


5. "The hierarchy of basic needs is prepotent to the metaneeds." Requisite to the 'metamotivation' for gratification of the 'metaneeds' or 'growth motivations, the prepotent more urgent basic psychological needs can be called 'deficiency needs'.


6. "The metaneeds are equally potent among themselves, on the average-i.e. I cannot detect a generalized hierarchy of prepotency. But in any given individual, they may be and often are hierarchically arranged according to idiosyncratic talents and constitutional differences."


7. "It looks as if any intrinsic B-Value is fully defined by most or all of the other B-values. Perhaps they form a unity of some sort, with each specific B-Value being simply the whole seen from another angle." The 'metaneeds' are also known as 'Being-values'or 'B-values.' They are related to the spiritual values of truth, goodness, perfection, justice, simplicity, lawfulness, dichotomy transcendance etc. Each one can be fully defined in terms of all the others. Thus they appear to represent different facets of a unified and composite whole.


8. "The value-life (spiritual, religious, philosophical, axiological etc.) is an aspect of human biology and is on the same continuum with the 'lower' animal life (rather than being in separated, dichotomized, or mutually exclusive realms). It is probably therefore species-wide, supracultural even though it must be actualized by culture in order to exist." The 'metaneeds' along with the basic psychological needs are all
biologically based. They are all components of our biological life. Consequently the spiritual or value-life of the human organism is natural and fact based, legitimately qualified for scientific analysis. Necessitating a cultural environment for their actualization, the 'metaneeds' and 'metamotivation' can easily be lost in a culture which does not approve of human nature. A cultural environment which respects the human organism's basic psychological needs fosters the individual's growth towards self-actualization. A cultural environment which respects the human organism's instinctive 'metaneeds' as well as basic psychological needs, fosters the individual's 'metamotivation' towards full human awareness or ' humanness.' This notion lends itself to the potential transcendence of unnecessary dichotomies such as good and evil. Rather than belonging to a domain external to human nature, spiritual values and the value-life are components of the biological basis of human nature.


9. "Pleasures and gratifications can be arranged in hierarchy of levels from lower to higher. So also can hedonistic theories be seen as ranging from lower to higher, i.e. metahedonism." 'Metamotivation' and the gratification of the 'metaneeds' for the 'B-Values' or value-life are the source of the highest pleasures, 'metapleasure' which can also be called 'metahedonism.' At this level 'metamotivation' becomes the same for both the highest pleasures and the highest obligations to truth, justice, beauty etc. At the level of 'metamotivation' there is there is no longer a dichotomy between selfishness and unselfishness. Gratification of the 'metaneed' of unelfishness is the source of the highest selfish 'metapleasure'. The mutual exclusivesness disappears. With 'metamotivation' what is 'good' for the individual (selfish) is good for others (unselfish). Hence the disappearance of the mutual exclusiveness implied in such a dichotomy.


l0. "Since the spiritual life is instinctoid, all the techniques of 'subjective biology' apply to its education." Obviously instinctive in nature, the basic physiological and psychological needs come under the rubric of 'subjective biology.' The similarly biologically based 'metaneeds' come under the same rubric although they are less urgent and weaker than the basic psychological needs. Consequently the education of the spiritual needs, the 'metaneeds,' can be fostered through the acknowledgement, encouragement and enforcement of the individual's instinctive yearning for truth, beauty etc., the individual's capacity for 'metamotivation.' The individual's capacities for experiential richness should be 'teachable.' It should be possible to design an educational program around the instinctive needs of 'subjective biology', the 'metaneeds' as well as the physiological and psychological basic needs.

ll. "But B-Values seem to be the same as B-facts. Reality then is ultimately fact-values or value-facts." The 'B-Values' are defined as truth, goodness, justice, beauty etc. The 'metamotivation' which arises from the biological 'metaneeds' for the value-life, 'B-values', 'Being-values', spiritual values, determines the individual's perception of 'ultimate reality' at the 'highest' levels of consciouness. In other words, at the highest levels of personality and cultural development, a reality is perceived which is independent of distorted human perceptions. This is the 'ultimate reality' which is described in terms of the 'B-Values'. The words which are used to describe the 'ultimate reality' are the same as those used to describe B-Values.' The reality is described as true, good, just, beautiful etc. Thus in the context of 'ultimate reality' the 'B-Values' become identical with 'B-facts.' In the transcendental realm of consciousness, facts and values fuse and the words used to describe them are called 'fusion-words'. Contemplating the nature of the universe becomes equated with contemplating the ultimate values, the B-values. The aim of philosophers, scientists, artists and spiritual leaders is to achieve the same objective perception of 'ultimate reality', a perception which is devoid of any contaminating effects of the observer's fears, wishes, calculations etc.


l2. "Not only is man part of nature, and it part of him, but also he must be at least minimally isomorphic with nature (similar to it) in order to be viable in it. It has evolved him. His communion with what transcends him therefore need not be defined as non-natural or supernatural. It may be seen as a 'biological' experience." The mystic or 'peak' experience of transcendance involves the individual's total acceptance of his biological nature and his part in natural evolution. Without having to resort to the 'supernatural,' the individual's "communion with what transcends him" becomes a biological experience which makes it easily possible for the him to live in the realm of the 'B-Values'.


l3. "Many of the ultimate religious functions are fulfilled by this theoretical structure." The 'B-Values' "could conceivably satisfy the human longing for certainty." Like the eternal values of religions, they can be adored, revered, celebrated and sacrificed. The total acceptance of the human organism's biological nature becomes fused with the concept of 'transcendance of death' and 'immortality.' The greatest joy and happiness can be experienced in the contemplation of the 'B-Values.' Furthermore, it is proposed that the theoretical structure for the biological basis of 'metamotivation' and the 'metaneeds' of the value-life can assimilate all the functions of organized religions and religious experiences.



      Motivation by the Spiritual needs or ‘Metaneeds’: Metamotivation         

"The value-life - spiritual, religious, philosophical - is an aspect of human biology and is on the same continuum with the 'lower' animal life, rather than being in separated, dichotomized, or mutually exclusive realms. It is probably therefore species-wide, supracultural even though it must be actualized by culture in order to exist." (Abraham Maslow )

Theme: The human needs for psychological growth to maturity of moral  consciousness or ‘conscience’(the ‘human spirit’) for the value-life of ‘humanness' are known as ‘growth needs’, ‘moral needs’, ‘spiritual needs or 'metaneeds’. Motivation by the metaneeds is 'metamotivation.' Metamotivation is instinctive because it is an intrinsic part of human nature and should therefore be included in a full definition of human psychology.

          The human organism is a social organism with a range of instinctive human motivations or 'needs'. Human needs are psychological and spiritual as well as physiological. They must all be fulfilled for proper growth and development to full human awareness or 'humanness'. Physiological needs are the needs related to physical growth such as needs for water, food and so on. Psychological needs comprise the so-called ‘lower’ and ‘higher’ psychological needs for complete psychological growth.

      The lower needs are the basic psychological needs related to needs for security, belongingness and self-esteem i.e. the needs for a healthy ego or ‘ego’ needs. The basic psychological needs for growth depends for fulfillment on social conditions which provide unselfish love and care or ‘unconditional love’. Mature parental love communicates the security, approval, respect, esteem and sense of belongingness needed for normal psychological growth. The fulfillment of psychological needs is a part of the healthy psychological development which is a prerequisite for cultivation of social intelligence as a function of fully expanded awareness of maturity and humanisation. Social intelligence allows for creative, effective and successful adaptation to changing social conditions. Achievement of humanisation depends on a social environment which respects both lower and higher psychological needs for mature growth and 'self-actualization'. Self-actualized individuals have self-respect, self-discipline, self-directedness and a sense of purpose and worthiness which are needed for effective social adaptability. Deprivation of the basic psychological needs - parental love and affection and the security which it communicates - leads to psychological 'illness' or ‘neurosis’. In a process of neurotic growth, the individual continues to be motivated by the unfulfilled basic needs and for this reason they are also referred to as 'deficiency needs'.

      The 'higher' spiritual needs ('higher' because they are related to consciousness) are the instinctive human yearnings and aspirations related to spiritual growth and transcendence of the ego… the needs for guiding values of truth, beauty, justice, compassion. The spiritual needs are also known as 'growth motivations' or 'metaneeds' - from the Greek word 'meta' meaning 'of a higher order'. The 'higher' spiritual needs (‘higher’ because they are related to consciousness) are motivations for spiritual growth and ego-transcendenceLike the physiological and psychological needs, the spiritual needs are natural biological needs… biological components intrinsic to the organism and therefore representative of a legitimate aspect of the scientific definition of human nature and human psychology. The metaneeds are the natural needs of the human spirit or 'conscience' and the human conscience is an emergent property of the human brain.

       Metaneeds are the same intellectual, moral and 'ethical' values taught by religions and philosophies… values of truth, beauty, goodness, perfection, justice, simplicity, love, compassion and so on…  They are also known as 'Being-Values' because each one represents a different facet of the wholeness of Being and can be defined in terms of the others. Metamotivation is the same for the pleasures and the obligations of truth, justice, beauty and so on so that what is 'good' for the individual is also ‘good’ for the society. Since the individual’s perception of reality is determined by the level of consciousness which they have reached , then mutual exclusiveness between individual and society disappears when those individuals making up the society have a perception of reality which is a function of the highest level of consciousness… the level of the Being values.  This wholistic perspective of human nature makes it possible to transcend dichotomies which imply mutual exclusiveness. Notions such as the 'forces of good' and 'the forces of evil' imply that good and evil are mutually exclusive. At the level of ego-transcendence, the mutual exclusiveness disappears.

        Motivation by the metaneeds or 'metamotivation' is enhanced in a social environment which recognizes its validity. The metamotivation by the metaneeds produces a perception of reality at the highest level of consciouness - the transpersonal level of ego-transcendence. At the transpersonal level of personality development, the individual's perception of reality is free of the distorting effects of fear, envy and malice. This is the 'ultimate reality' described in terms of the ultimate values of being - the 'Being-Values' which satisfy the human longing for certainty - 'true', 'good', 'just', 'beautiful' and so on. Being-Values are identical with 'Being-Facts' concerning the nature of the universe, the nature of life and the nature of human nature. The objective perception of human nature is the same which is sought by philosophers, scientists, artists and spiritual leaders.

      The religious or 'mystic' experience of ego-transcendence involves the total acceptance of human nature and incorporates the concepts of 'transcendence of death' and 'immortality' in which the individual communicates with the spiritual aspect of their nature. There is no need to resort to the presence of a 'supernatural'. The experience of communion is the experience of ego-transcendence which makes it possible to live in the transcendent realm of Being-Values in which the individual can experience joy and happiness. In this way, all the functions of religious experiences can be explained by the biological basis of metamotivation and the metaneeds. Like the eternal values of religions, the metaneeds can be adored, revered celebrated and even sarificed.    

         If the social environment does not approve of human nature and social forces are focused on physiological needs then it can easily lose sight of the metaneeds and inhibit metamotivation. The result is a lack of the self-respect, self-discipline, self-directedness, sense of belongingness and sense of purpose and worthiness which are prerequisite to motivation by the metaneeds for spiritual growth. The individual develops ambivalent feelings towards them so that they appear to be inspiring but frightening at the same time. The individual responds to them with reactions of internal repression and denial, reaction responses which inhibit metamotivation for spiritual growth. The individual is deprived of the opportunity to satisfy the metaneeds and to continue their spiritual growth.The deprivation of the metaneeds leads to 'metapathologies' of value-starvation, psychological incapacitation, social incompetence and dehumanisation or ‘spiritual poverty’. In the attempt to adapt to changing social conditions the dehumanised individual with characteristic distortions of perception is motivated by the deficiency needs for healthy ego and engages in ineffective immoral and and destructive and therefore non-adaptive modes of behaviour i.e. ‘evil’. The dehumanised individual (‘psychopath’) fails to reach maturity and continues to be motivated by the needs of deficiency in a continuous effort to maintain the power of the unhealthy self-made self or ‘ego’.

Implications for education: The education of the spiritual needs, the 'metaneeds,' can be fostered through the acknowledgement, encouragement and enforcement of the individual's instinctive yearning for truth, beauty etc. the individual's capacity for 'metamotivation'. Since motivation by the metaneeds or 'metamotivation' is an intrinsic part of human nature, then the techniques of so-called 'subjective biology' apply to human education. The physiological needs and psychological needs (love and affection as communication of security necessary for growth) obviously instinctive in nature, are included in the rubric of 'subjective biology.' As motivation by the metaneeds - i.e. metamotivaton - is intrinsic to the individual, so the rubric of subjective biology also includes metamotivation as the human capacity for experiential richness. Metamotivation is 'teachable' in the sense that it is possible to design an educational program which does not foster deficiency motivation and sacrifice the metaneeds but one which celebrates the metaneeds and fosters the experiential richness of metamotivation. Hence the need for education which cultivates complete psychological growth i.e. ‘holistic education’.