link: method of study

                                  

                                     EXPLORATION OF A RATIONAL BASIS FOR HOLISTIC EDUCATION: 

                                                                     METHOD OF STUDY ... 'structural analysis'

 

The thesis involves a wholistic perception of the human organism as a social organism... 'homo sapiens'- the thinking hominid The nature of the human personality or 'human nature' is the foundational assumption for rational education... 'holistic education'.

The method of study is concerned with the search for an underlying pattern of structural phenomena which give rise to significant surface manifestations in the form of apparently separate phenomena.

 "The specialist concentrates on detail and disregards the wider structure which gives it context. The 'new' scientist concentrates on structure on all levels of magnitude and complexity, and fits detail into its general framework. He discerns relationships and situations...We ourselves are a part of the connected complexity with which we are surrounded in nature...To have an adequate grasp of reality, we must look at things in systems, with properties ('emergent properties') and structures (systems of meaning derived from connections i.e. 'framework') of their own." (Laszlo, E., The Systems of the World: The Natural Philosophy of the New Developments in the Sciences. New York: George Brazillier.)

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structuralism...                              references...   external links...

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Holistic science  is structuralist as opposed to classical science which is reductionist.

The study is not concerned with the search for content and does not use the specialist's method of concentration on detail. The study is not based on any kind of experimental research, surveys or questionnaires and does not require statistical analysis of numerical data.

Study involves fitting he details into the general framework or 'sructure'.. the study is concerned with the wholistic perspective and uses the systems method of 'structuralism'. Gather information, find relationships... 'connections'... synthesize for overall or 'holistic' perspective.

 The study is based on analysis of the literature and is concerned with the search for a framework or 'structure' which gives context to the content. The study is concerned with the wholistic perspective and uses the systems method of 'structuralism'.

 The study of a given topic gains in breadth and clarity when it is considered from different perspectives....

The topic 'brain-based wholistic education' can be expanded and integrated if it is considered from the perspectives of  biological evolution evolution, biology, study of the 'psyche' or psychology, the study of human cultures or 'anthropology' study of cultural origins or history.... study of word meanings or 'semantics'.

 Psychology is concerned with the causes and mechanisms of mental functions, mental processes underlying the individual's behavior; psychological patterns and psychological determinants.

Anthropology is concerned with cultural influences on the individual's thought patterns and behavior; history, is concerned with the influences of historical traditions on the individual's cultural environment

Semantics is concerned with the underlying patterns in the uses of words and symbols.

Relationships... connections... patterns of interconnections... patterns of thought create meaning. Systems of meaning are 'structures'.

 "...the ballast of factual information, so far from being just about to sink us, is growing daily less... In all sciences we are being progressively relieved of the burden of singular instances, the tyranny of the particular. We need no longer record the fall of every apple." (Medawar, P. The Threat and the Glory: Reflections on Science and Scientists. New York: Harper Collins, 1990. xv)                                    

Structuralism: search for an underlying pattern, order, significance of surface manifestations of phenomena. ('ethics', 'human nature' and 'education' are surface manifestations of an underlying pattern of human development) They are the surface manifestations of the natural human striving to intelligence required for self-preservation.

'Structuralism' is a method of analyzing and understanding phenomena - rather than a dogma of content. The method involves the search for an underlying pattern or order and the significance of surface manifestations of phenomena relating to the natural human striving for 'self-actualisation'... characterised by human intelligence required for self-preservation. ('ethics', 'human nature' and 'education' are surface manifestations of an underlying pattern of human development).  

 Rather than the search for content, the study involves the search for context... the search for an underlying pattern of structural phenomena which give rise to significant surface manifestations in the form of apparently separate phenomena....

. use of the systems method of 'structuralism'. Structuralism is a method of analyzing the surface manifestations of phenomena through the understanding of their significance in terms of their root causes. Using the method of structuralism, emphasis is placed on the connections and relationships among the interdependent elements which make up the totality or whole. It involves the making of a synthesis. It involves the search for an underlying 'pattern of deep structures' which give rise to the overtly perceived surface manifestations.

 The study gains in breadth and clarity when the topic is considered from the perspectives of study of the 'psyche' or 'psychology' and study of word meanings or 'semantics'. Psychology is concerned with the causes and mechanisms of mental functions, psychological patterns and psychological determinants. Semantics is concerned with the underlying patterns in the uses of words and symbols.  

 Structuralism is a method of analyzing phenomena through the understanding of phenomena via analysis of their root causes... i.e. 'meaning'. As a method of analysis for understanding... 'structural analysis'... structuralism is concerned with meaning rather than 'dogma' of content.

 structures are 'systems of meaning' which emerge arise from patterns of interconnection:

 Rather than the search for content, structural analysis involves the search for context.

 the search for an underlying pattern of structural phenomena which give rise to significant surface manifestations in the form of

systems method of 'structuralism'. Structuralism is a method of analyzing the surface manifestations of phenomena through the understanding of their significance in terms of their root causes. Using the method of structuralism, emphasis is placed on the connections and relationships among the interdependent elements which make up the totality or whole. It involves the making of a synthesis. It involves the search for an underlying 'pattern of deep structures' which give rise to the overtly perceived surface manifestations.

Structural analysis involves the search for an underlying pattern or order, and the significance of surface manifestations of phenomena relating to the natural human striving for 'self-actualisation'... characterised by human intelligence required for self-preservation... Apparently separate phenomena... seemingly disparate phenomena such as 'ethics', 'human nature' and 'education' are surface manifestations explainable in terms of the underlying pattern of human development. They are the surface manifestations of the natural human striving for creative intelligence required for self-preservation.  It involves the search for an underlying 'pattern of deep structures' which give rise to surface phenomena. It is a method which places emphasis on the connections and relationships among the interdependent elements which make up the totality of overtly perceived phenomena. It is a method of linking surface manifestations of phenomena in terms of their interrelatedness. It is a method which searches for a synthesis of superficially diverse phenomena. Using the method of structuralism with the systems approach..."...the superficial detail and diversity that appear on the surface prove to be less significant than the coherent pattern of the deep structures which give rise to what is overtly perceived. Emphasis is placed upon the self-regulating system of relationships and transformations among the interdependent elements comprising the totality or whole of a phenomenon." (Rosen. H The Development of Sociomoral Knowledge: A Cognitive-Structural Approach. New York: Columbia University Press, 1980. p.2)

Structuralist explanations can be tested and refuted...

The structural analyst tries to reunite perspectives thought to be mutually exclusive...   Stuctural analysis concentrates on internal relationships between elements rather than on the functions of the elements themselves

The structuralist explanation is more persuasive because it embraces more phenomena..

Binary oppositions  male/female, public/private good/bad etc. reveal the unconscious logic or 'grammar' of a system.

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BRAIN SCIENCES AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO EDUCATIONAL THEORY

 The full maturation of the inherent potential in the 'productive' character, self-realization, is the aim of the natural process of human development ('science of man'), of the natural educational process ('science of education') and of natural humanistic ethics ('science of ethics'). Since each of these three inquiries is directly involved with the study of human development, then the natural laws related to the natural, biologically based stages of human development constitute the guiding principles of 'science of education'.

The scientific definition of 'human nature'... intrinsic value system forms the basis of education

 The mind's perception of reality is a function of the mind's level of consciousness'. The level of consciousness is a function of biological mechanisms inherent in the brain. A product of millions of years of evolution, the brain functions wholistically

 For all animal species the skills required for survival are instinctive and genetically transmitted. Survival of the human species has depended on the genetic transmission of the instinctive capacities for creative intelligence and symbolic communication. Human evolution is based on the genetic transmission of cognitive and communicative skills: the ability to communicate with language, the ability to learn, the ability to think logically and creatively, the ability to plan with foresight, and the ability to behave intelligently. Creative intelligence is a human characteristic which evolved because it had survival value both for the individual and for the species. Survival of the organism and evolution of the human species depended on the development of natural creative intelligence. Survival of the species depended on intelligent behavior coupled with the ability for speech and language. The development of both intelligent behavior and language enabled the individual to prepare in advance for situations which required preparative measures to insure the survival of the organism and thus the survival of the species. "Preparation for possible action in situations not as yet existent in actuality is an essential condition of, and factor in, all intelligent behavior."2 The ability for speech and language originated and evolved as a human characteristic which had survival value for the individual and the species. Speech and language allowed for the preparation of future possible action, thus increasing chances of survival in situations which were not yet existent in actuality. This was necessary for the survival of a species not endowed with the other physical characteristics of other animals. The survival of the human species depended on the development of specialized brain functions which resulted in the ability for speech, for tool making, for intelligent thinking and intelligent behavior. 2. John Dewey. Logic: The Theory of Inquiry. New York, London: Holt Rinehat and Winston, 1938, 56

Language is "a strictly biological mode of behavior, emerging in natural continuity from earlier organic activities ...serving a medium of communication... It is language, originating as a medium of communication in order to bring about deliberate cooperation and competition in conjoint activities, that has conferred upon existential things their signifying or evidential power. Language transformed animal activities into intelligent behavior having the properties which, when formulated are logical in nature." (John Dewey. Ibid. 48) In producing intelligent behavior, language provided human experience with a new dimension - 'culture' and all that it entails. A product of language, culture is the only means of transmitting acquired skills and information to subsequent generations. Survival of the human species as well as the human individual has depended on the conjoint evolution of natural creative intelligence and the ability to learn and communicate. Dependent for survival on creative intelligence and intelligent behavior, the human species has been able to control its own environment. With the capacity for language, the human species has created an artificially complex 'reality'. In a continual effort to adapt to the artificial environment and to create the resulting necessary changes, the human being has had to devise words to deal with the complexity of the environment which he has created. In efforts to understand his environment and to understand himself, terms are continually invented to communicate his perceptions of the reality which he creates for himself. The terms themselves result in the artifical fragmentation of the natural flow of human existence. Terms such as 'science of ethics,' 'science of human nature,' and 'science of education' create a fragmented reality. From a wholistic perception of reality, the concepts of 'ethics', 'human nature' and 'education' are surface manifestations of an underlying pattern of human development. It is suggested that there is a pattern of structural phenomena which underlies the overt manifestations of human nature, human values and human education. This underlying pattern involves the biological striving for survival of the individual human organism and the survival of the human species. The underlying pattern ('Bateson's 'pattern which connects') which connects the 'science of human nature' with the 'science of ethics' and the 'science of education' is the natural development of human intelligence for the survival of the individual human being and the survival of the human species. 'Science education' is conceived within the framework of the history of human intelligence. A wholistic perspective of human nature and education is the basis for a concept of science education in which 'science' is learned and taught as a human activity. It is suggested that the teaching of science from a historical perspective in conjunction with wholistic teaching methods, fosters scientific attitudes of mature moral judgement. Such an approach would eliminate the dichotomies implied in such terms as 'value free science' and 'scientific objectivity'.

 references:

Laszlo, E., The Systems of the World: The Natural Philosophy of the New Developments in the Sciences. New York: George Brazillier.

Rosen. H The Development of Sociomoral Knowledge. A Cognitive-Structural Approach. New York: Columbia University Press, 1980.)

Medawar, P. The Threat and the Glory: Reflections on Science and Scientists. New York: Harper Collins, 1990.

see Mordecai Gordon Ten Myths... great-ideas.org 

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 Method of study...  method of analysis  The proposed method of study involves a wholistic perception of the human being as a biological organism (species -'homo sapiens'- the thinking hominid)

                                                         

 "...the ballast of factual information, so far from being just about to sink us, is growing daily less... In all sciences we are being progressively relieved of the burden of singular instances, the tyranny of the particular. We need no longer record the fall of every apple." (Medawar, P. The Threat and the Glory: Reflections on Science and Scientists. New York: Harper Collins, 1990. xv)

 relies on synthesis of interpretive studies... using them to support the main argument that a real understanding of human nature is the basis for a rational philosophy of education. Insights are borrowed from sources that help to shed light on the issues concerned... bibliography... quotations according to author... quotations according to theme...

 The study is scientific in the sense of 'systems theory' and 'holistic science' : the systems approach of 'structuralism'.                                                                                                                                

On method of study: According to Laszlo, E., (The Systems of the World: The Natural Philosophy of the New Developments in the Sciences. New York: George Brazillier.) "The specialist concentrates on detail and disregards the wider structure which gives it context. The 'new' scientist concentrates on structure on all levels of magnitude and complexity, and fits detail into its general framework. He discerns relationships and situations...We ourselves are a part of the connected complexity with which we are surrounded in nature...To have an adequate grasp of reality, we must look at things in systems, with properties and structures of their own."

The study is not concerned with the search for content and does not use the specialist's method of concentration on detail. The study is not based on any kind of experimental research, surveys or questionnaires and does not require statistical analysis of numerical data. The study is based on analysis of the literature and is concerned with the search for a framework or structure which gives context to the content. Based on literary analysis, the study is concerned with the wholistic perspective and uses the systems method of 'structuralism'. Structuralism is a method of analyzing phenomena through the understanding of their root causes. It involves the search for an underlying 'pattern of deep structures' which give rise to surface phenomena. It is a method which places emphasis on the connections and relationships among the interdependent elements which make up the totality of overtly perceived phenomena. It is a method of linking surface manifestations of phenomena in terms of their interrelatedness. It is a method which searches for a synthesis of superficially diverse phenomena. Using the method of structuralism with the systems approach.On this basis "the superficial detail and diversity that appear on the surface prove to be less significant than the coherent pattern of the deep structures which give rise to what is overtly perceived. Emphasis is placed upon the self-regulating system of relationships and transformations among the interdependent elements comprising the totality or whole of a phenomenon." (Rosen, H. The Development of Sociomoral Knowledge: A Cognitive-Structural Approach New York: Columbia University Press, 1980 page 2) 

 The thesis topic is concerned with the search for an underlying pattern of structural phenomena which give rise to significant surface manifestations in the form of apparently separate phenomena.

For all animal species the skills required for survival are instinctive and genetically transmitted. Survival of the human species has depended on the genetic transmission of the instinctive capacities for creative intelligence and symbolic communication. Human evolution is based on the genetic transmission of cognitive and communicative skills: the ability to communicate with language, the ability to learn, the ability to think logically and creatively, the ability to plan with foresight, and the ability to behave intelligently. Creative intelligence is a human characteristic which evolved because it had survival value both for the individual and for the species. Survival of the organism and evolution of the human species depended on the development of natural creative intelligence. Survival of the species depended on intelligent behavior coupled with the ability for speech and language. The development of both intelligent behavior and language enabled the individual to prepare in advance for situations which required preparative measures to insure the survival of the organism and thus the survival of the species. "Preparation for possible action in situations not as yet existent in actuality is an essential condition of, and factor in, all intelligent behavior."2 The ability for speech and language originated and evolved as a human characteristic which had survival value for the individual and the species. Speech and language allowed for the preparation of future possible action, thus increasing chances of survival in situations which were not yet existent in actuality. This was necessary for the survival of a species not endowed with the other physical characteristics of other animals. The survival of the human species depended on the development of specialized brain functions which resulted in the ability for speech, for tool making, for intelligent thinking and intelligent behavior. 2. John Dewey. Logic: The Theory of Inquiry. New York, London: Holt Rinehat and Winston, 1938, 56 Language is "a strictly biological mode of behavior, emerging in natural continuity from earlier organic activities ...serving a medium of communication... It is language, originating as a medium of communication in order to bring about deliberate cooperation and competition in conjoint activities, that has conferred upon existential things their signifying or evidential power. Language transformed animal activities into intelligent behavior having the properties which, when formulated are logical in nature." (John Dewey. Ibid. 48) In producing intelligent behavior, language provided human experience with a new dimension - 'culture' and all that it entails. A product of language, culture is the only means of transmitting acquired skills and information to subsequent generations. Survival of the human species as well as the human individual has depended on the conjoint evolution of natural creative intelligence and the ability to learn and communicate. Dependent for survival on creative intelligence and intelligent behavior, the human species has been able to control its own environment. With the capacity for language, the human species has created an artificially complex 'reality'. In a continual effort to adapt to the artificial environment and to create the resulting necessary changes, the human being has had to devise words to deal with the complexity of the environment which he has created. In efforts to understand his environment and to understand himself, terms are continually invented to communicate his perceptions of the reality which he creates for himself. The terms themselves result in the artifical fragmentation of the natural flow of human existence. Terms such as 'science of ethics,' 'science of human nature,' and 'science of education' create a fragmented reality. From a wholistic perception of reality, the concepts of 'ethics', 'human nature' and 'education' are surface manifestations of an underlying pattern of human development. It is suggested that there is a pattern of structural phenomena which underlies the overt manifestations of human nature, human values and human education. This underlying pattern involves the biological striving for survival of the individual human organism and the survival of the human species. The underlying pattern ('Bateson's 'pattern which connects') which connects the 'science of human nature' with the 'science of ethics' and the 'science of education' is the natural development of human intelligence for the survival of the individual human being and the survival of the human species. 'Science education' is conceived within the framework of the history of human intelligence. A wholistic perspective of human nature and education is the basis for a concept of science education in which 'science' is learned and taught as a human activity. It is suggested that the teaching of science from a historical perspective in conjunction with wholistic teaching methods, fosters scientific attitudes of mature moral judgement. Such an approach would eliminate the dichotomies implied in such terms as 'value free science' and 'scientific objectivity'.

 "Freedom does not consist in keeping up an uninterrupted and unimpeded external activity, but is something achieved through conquering, by personal reflection, the difficulties that prevent immediate overflow into action and spontaneous success." (John Dewey, How We Think 88)                                                                                                                                           

 Method of study...  method of analysis  The proposed method of study involves a wholistic perception of the human being as a biological organism (species -'homo sapiens'- the thinking hominid.)

external links:

structuralism... www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/structuralism