(work in progress)
 

MORAL SCIENCE... (also 'biology of ethics' ... 'science of ethics'... 'scientific ethics'... 'evolutionary ethics'... 'science of value'... 'natural ethics'... 'metaethics'...)

The unique feature of the human species is its moral faculty... the concern for the welfare of others... The human moral faculty promotes both individual and community survival and cooperation.

Moral science deals with human relationships - not only within the human species but also with other animal species and even with the living planet 'earth'.

theme: Ethics is usually considered in terms of the branch of philosophy which is deals with problems of life and how it should be lived i.e. 'moral philosophy'. Moral philosophy is concerned with 'human values' as philosophical principles prescribed by the various organised religions as 'guiding values'.  Human values are biological values... natural values to be found in human consciousness... of human existence... natural intrinsic social values which are operational in the actualisation of the organism's inherent tendency for mature growth or 'self-actualisation'. In the process of 'self-actualisation', ethical values or 'norms' for excellent living are discovered according to the laws of nature. Human values by which the organism operates ... 'operative values'... do not involve any cognitive or conceptual thinking. The operative human values function in the maintenance of personal integrity during the process of adaptation to changing social conditions or 'adaptability'. Human adaptability depends on  moral knowledge or 'morality' which is a function of the development of moral consciousness of developed 'conscience'. The human conscience is an instinctive valuing process based on the unconscious perception of the nature of the human personality or 'human nature'. Human nature is defined in terms of human motives for behaviour or 'human needs'. Human needs are biologically based 'lower' psychological needs for self-esteem or 'ego-needs' and higher psychological needs for spiritual growth or 'spiritual needs'. During the  normal process of human growth and moral development, human potentialities unfold and become actualised... the individual discovers the spiritual values which are natural values  Development of conscience or 'rational conscience'... source of 'rational ethics' is a part of the human genetic heritage and is therefore a concern for biology i.e. the 'science of value' or 'moral science'.  Moral science is directly related to the formulation of educatioal policy which is humane because it is based on the understanding of the biological basis of morality as a defining characteristic of the human organism as a social organism.

"Scientists and humanists should consider together the possibility that the time has come for ethics to be removed temporarily from the hands of the philosophers and biologicized... ...the full exploration of the neural machinery of ethical judgement is desirable and already in progress." (Edward O. Wilson Sociobiology: The New Synthesis Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, l975b  p.562)

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MORALITY is a function of social intelligence of the mature mind... maturity... moral development... moral consciousness or moral knowledge of rational conscience... biological mechanism biological function is preservation of integrity required for adaptation and survival...  SO-CALLED 'HIGHER' VALUES... NATURAL VALUING PROCESS OR ORGANISMIC VALUING PROCESS ... HUMANISTIC  MORALITY,  'FREE' MORALITY...  AS A FUNCTION OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE HUMAN CONSCIENCE ... HUMAN DEVELOPMENT... HUMAN NATURE AS

 Biology of Ethics...  moral development... development of moral consciousness or 'conscience' as rational conscience... the divine nature of the human personality... the mature mind... or 'human nature'.

   study of natural valuing process as a part of normal human development... moral faculty or conscience directs human actions in accordance with natural moral law... law of human nature

"...one does not need to know philosophy to know how ethics have come to be. Ethics is best described in scientific terms". (See http://www.evolutionaryethics.com/)

Moral integrity comes naturally with wholehearted interest and willingness to explore new experiences.                             

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aims of moral science

origin and meaning of the word 'ethics'...        

traditional systems of ethics...       traditional mistrust of human nature...  'evil'... 

Philosophers have attempted to formulate a science of ethics - and failed...

                         In the great philosophical tradition the so-called 'problem of ethics' what is the source of guiding values?

   ( the problem of ethics is a question of individual freedom and moral consciousness or 'conscience'.)

evolutionary approach to study of ethics     evolutionary significance of human values...

                               Scientifically objective approach to formulate a 'science of ethics...' the formulation of a rational ethical system... is based on understanding of 'human nature' and human motivation

 human organism as social organism...    human nature in terms of motivation for behaviour or 'human needs'...     spiritual needs or 'metaneeds'...      'enlightened mind'...

 evolution of ethics as a function of evolution of moral consciousness or 'conscience'... 

conscience is the source of human values...

 function of conscience...      development of conscience as rational or free' conscience...  humanistic conscience.

natural ethics is a function of rational 'conscience'...

  morality   morality as a function of freedom: 'free morality'...  morality as 'moral intelligence' or 'social intelligence'...

  values rooted in the 'human condition'...   values are not the same as value judgements...

  there are three categories of 'values':

 operative values,

                                                                 conceived values

                                                                 objective values...

instinctive responsibility for mature growth or 'self-actualisation... 

 biological function of values as 'virtues'...   virtue as source of happiness...

creative intelligence..

function of human motivation...

 rational ethics as 'humanistic ethics'...  'natural ethics'... 

                                                                                                     

authoritarian ethics codes of ethics of American culture...  - 'authoritarian' conscience  morality vs. moralism... 

moral consciousness or 'conscience'...   Intelligence of developed conscience or 'intuition'...

 

  implications for education: education for human development and construction of conscience.

 

                                                                                  

 Moral science is concerned with the real nature of the human organism as a member of a social species. with instincts for sociability.Effective socialisation depends on ethical behaviour which originates in a natural valuing system intrinsic to the human organism ... the science of morality... .. study of intrinsic valuing process of the human organism.... naturalistic valuing process....the full definition of human nature includes the intrinsic values which are instinctoid in nature... to achieve fullest humanness ... growth... avoid illness...scientific analytical approach... study of human nature....people as best specimens of the human organism living under the best conditions of human existence...values by which they lead their lives... with suitable conditions in the psychological environment, innate motives for human behaviour emerge to the surface of human consciousness in a predetermined order..

 Origin and meaning of the word 'ethics'? The term 'ethics' implies external moral codes... norms for ethical conduct... ethical norms... codes of ethics  ...ethical codes... codes of morality based on external authority...  ethical system or philosophy of ethics...  a  fixed philosophical system a logical system  built on the foundations of given premises which may or may not be true... devised for  application of moral standards to be applied to groups of individuals. In 'aristotelian' fashion, the philosophical ethical system is intrinsically logical despite the fact that the given premise might be false...

The terms ‘ethics’ and ‘morality' have come to be treated as almost identical in meaning. The words tend to be interchanged although they have different derivations. The word 'ethics' which is sometimes translated as custom’ or ‘usage’ comes from the Greek word 'ethicos' derived from the root 'ethos' which originally meant both 'custom' and 'character'. In its original sense, the 'ethics' of a group was determined by its character and its customs...  social mores or customary social behaviour. The 'ethics' of a group or community formed an 'ethos'. In its original broad sense, ethics was concerned with positive human excellences or virtues (See Aristotle's 'Ethics'). This original broad meaning of the word 'ethics' came to refer to the formation and perfection of human character and human 'virtues'. Later the word was used to define the virtues... behaviour of a virtuous character is described as ‘ethical behaviour’. Eventually the term was used to describe the philosophy or 'science' of dealing with the ideal of human relatedness. The word 'ethics' is defined in Webster's dictionary as both 'the science of moral values and duties' and as 'the study of the ideal human character, actions, and ends'. The confusion between custom and ideal character still exists. Sometimes the word 'ethics' is used to refer to a code of behavior - code of ethics - which is valid and desirable for a particular person or a particular situation. There is a code of medical ethics, business ethics, military ethics and so on. A code of ethics for a specific situation can easily degenerate into a code which serves the interests of those within that situation. 'Medical ethics' can become a code of ethics which serves the interests of those in the medical 'profession'. 'Business ethics' can become a code of ethics serving the interests of those in business.

"The word 'ethics' comes from a root which means, originally, custom, and eventually, ethics comes to mean the science dealing with the ideal of human relatedness. This confusion between custom and ideals still exists in the minds of many people... Sometimes the term 'ethics' is used to refer to a code of behavior which is desirable for a given situation. There is a code of medical ethics, business ethics, military ethics. In the great philosophical tradition, "ethics is not a code of behavior valid in reference to this or that person or to this or that situation but to all human beings and for everything that is alive... There is only universal human ethics applied to specific human situations... Separated from universal human ethics, a 'code of ethics' for a specific situation can easily degenerate into a code which serves the interests of those within that situation. 'Medical ethics' can become a code of ethics which serves the interests of those in the medical 'profession.' 'Business ethics' can become a code of ethics serving the interests of those in 'business.' Ethics is a matter of 'conscience' - (See Man for Himself) not the authoritarian 'conscience' or 'superego,' the internalized power of the father and 'society.' Ethics is a matter of "humanistic conscience" - "an inner voice that calls us back to ourselves." "Ourselves' refers to the "inner core common to all men" or 'human nature.'  (Erich Fromm The Dogma of Christ, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, Chicago, San Francisco1963 pp 169-171)

In the great philosophical tradition of ethics,the so-called 'problem of ethics'... what is the source of guiding values?... is stated in the form of a question which in its very asking renders the question meaningless... makes the assumption that the source of values is external to the human individual. So what is the question for the 'science of ethics'... of 'moral science?  The question "Can science discover the values by which men should live?" is a moralistic question. The question for science is  "Can science discover the values by which people can live if they are fully developed? The question for moral science is "What are the natural origins of human values?' The answer lies within the framework of the fact that human values are operative values which unfold in the natural process of cognitive-developmental growth of the human oganism as a social organism  (... an earthworm will prefer a smooth path if given the choice between that and a path paved with sandpaper. The preference for smoothness is an operative value.)

     The problem of ethics is a matter of individual freedom and moral consciousness or 'conscience'. The human conscience is the unconscious perception of human nature and human motives i.e. 'human needs'.  Human needs are human values and they include spiritual values for spiritual growth - the 'metaneeds'.

The 'moral problem' of today is 'how to make people virtuous'... answer lies in education for human development or 'holistic education'. Human development depends on education which fosters the individual's instinctive responsibility to themselves... their own needs. It depends on the creation of an environment which fosters self-discipline,and the full development of  natural ethical core or 'humanness'... self-actualisation. The 'self-actualised' individual is capable of making decisions in his own 'true' interest in the process of successfully adapting to a changing social environment and at the same time  makes decisions which are in the 'true' interest of the society in which he functions thus living  in accordance with natural biological laws and the evolutionary process.

Humanistic ethics a natural value system formulated on the basis of natural laws of human nature and human existence.

For proper growth and development, an individual's instinctive primary needs must be respected.

For centuries the attempts to formulate a system of ethics have been based on the dichotomous concept of ethics in terms of the contrast between 'what is' and 'what ought to be'... a perception of reality described in terms of concepts which are mutually exclusive - selfish-unselfish, kind-cruel, good-bad etc.

 

 "ethics is but to all human beings...and for everything that is alive.

According to the great philosophical tradition there is only universal human ethics applied to

specific human situations...  Ethics is a matter of 'moral consciousness' or 'morality' of 'conscience' - not the authoritarian conscience ... or 'superego' (internalised authority of father or society) but developed conscience -humanistic conscience. the "inner voice that calls us back to ourselves, the inner core which is common to all human beings, our 'human nature'." (Erich Fromm 1963. The Dogma of Christ 171) Developed conscience is 'humanistic conscience' the basis for 'humanistic ethics' applied science of the 'art of living' based upon 'laws of human nature'. Living as an art is living by the laws of human nature... the process of developing into that which one is potentially i.e. 'freedom'. Inner freedom of 'morality' translates into 'outer freedom' of moral behaviour i.e. social responsibility or 'peace'.

 "In the great philosophical tradition, ethics is a code of behaviour which is valid for all human beings and for every living thing... ethics is not a code of behaviour valid in reference to this or that person or to this or that situation but to all human beings. Ethics is but to all human beings...and for everything that is alive. There is only universal human ethics applied to specific human situations." (Erich Fromm Man For Himself   p.170)..

Throughout human history theologians and philosophers have sought the same basic guiding values... theology depending on the authority of dogma and philosophy denying it. They have tended to look for guiding values from some external authority... some sort of god, sacred book, ruling elite, ruling individual or some set of universal principles. The age-old axioms of ethics perceive reality in terms of classes and concepts which are mutually exclusive - male-female, adult-child, selfish-unselfish, good-bad and so on. The dichotomous concept of ethics is based on the assumption that the instinctive human impulses... intrinsic human instincts of 'human nature' are not to be trusted because they are immoral and bad or 'evil'. The misrust in human nature is the false premise... .  upon which philosophers have tried to formulate systems of morals in terms of universally fixed systems of ethics based on the premise that ethical values belong to a domain which is external to human nature... built in the style of Aristotelian logic.deduction. Although they are intrinsically logical, such systems of ethics give rise to fallacies and pseudoproblems which are impossible to resolve. One such fallacy is that the interests of the individual and of the society are mutually exclusive and must therefore be antagonistic... and the function of civilisation understood in terms of the control and policing of natural human impulses. The pseudo-problem how can the interests of the individual be reconciled with the interests of society?  gives rise to a real problem: teaching people to despise their human nature ("I am only human") prevents them from respecting their own intrinsic motives for behaviour or 'human needs'. Lack of respect for their own needs leads to lack of respect for the needs of others and the emotional forces which determine their own thoughts and actions as well as those of others i.e. 'intrinsic motivation'. 

Some of the age-old philosophical questions could be resolved if asked on the basis of the new premise and within the framework of the new paradigm. education and ethics formulated in terms of the natural unfolding of human nature during proper psychological development of self-actualisation and full 'humanness.' At this stage of development, the autonomous individual engages in the productivity which defines his full individuality and 'true' freedom. Leading his life according to the 'Being-values' of freedom, love, truth, justice etc. the individual is responsible to himself and simultaneously responsibile to the rest of humanity.

 The age old teaching of mistrust in human nature will never resolve the problem of ethics.

The guiding values which have been prescribed by religions and philosophies can be found within a person's consciousness.

 no single set of moral standards can be applied to all human populations... Imposition of a uniform code creates complex, intractable moral dilemmas

 

  "Humanists for thousands of years have attempted to construct a naturalistic, psychological value system that could be derived from man's own nature, without the necessity of recourse to authority outside the human being himself. Many such theories have been offered throughout history. They have all failed." (Maslow Psychology of Being 149)

 Traditional systems of ethics as guiding precept... 'moral codes'... based on mistrust of human nature... American culture... The modern meaning of the term is based on the American concept of morality in terms of ethical conduct dictated by external authorities i.e. 'moralism'. Moralism is concerned with how life should be lived. The moralistic view of fixed philosophical systems of values or 'ethics'  is based on mistrust of human nature... belief in the innate wickedness of human nature or 'evil'. According to the dictates of moralism, a social community is possible only if all the individuals are united by a communally fixed moral order or 'system of ethics'.

Philosophers have attempted to formulate a science of ethics on the method of natural science - and failed.

"Traditionally, philosophy had been a struggle to discover and to live the good and virtuous life. Socrates is probably the best example of this quest...." (Purpel)

For centuries in the religions of Western cultures, people have been taught that 'human instincts' are equivalent to 'animal instincts'...  that human nature and instinctive human needs are immoral, bad, corrupt, and evil and not to be trusted.... not allowed to respect their biological needs ... including the spiritual needs for growth....result is a dichotomous concept of ethics...

For centuries the attempts to formulate a system of ethics have been based on the mutually exclusive contrast between 'what is' and 'what ought to be.' This dichotomous concept of ethics... This is the false premise upon which many seemingly insoluble social problems are based. It has led to the mistaken idea that the interests of the individual and of the society are mutually exclusive and antagonistic, that civilisation is primarily a mechanism for controlling and policing human instinctive impulses. But when people are taught that they should despise their human nature ("I am only human") then they cannot have respect for their own needs and the impulses towards their gratification. Without respect for their own needs, they cannot have respect for the needs of others...
 

Codes of ethics are based on the assumption that human nature is bad, corrupt, and evil. They are built on the premise which states that instinctive human needs and impulses are evil - unaware of the instinctive needs for growth... biological needs include the spiritual needs for growth. People have been taught that the divine is 'good' but they have not been taught that they have 'divine instincts'.

Codes of ethics are philosophical systems built on the premise

 The so-called 'scientific' tool for understanding moral nature has been called 'axiology' from the Greek word 'axos' meaning valuable. The explication of value in terms of the system of logic is called scientific axiology ... the framework for the explication of value phenomena just as mathematics is the framework for the explication of natural phenomena.

People have been taught the false notion that scientific investigation is objective and devoid of values... that values are subjective valuations... evaluations and that emotions distort the world of objective fact and so cannot be trusted. This is true of people whose emotions are immature, who cut themselves off from the most real aspects of the 'reality' of the world by denying the reality of human feelings.

Many of the 'problems' of philosophy - the 'problem' of ethics and values, the 'problem' of evil, the 'problem' of education and many other 'philosophical problems' result from the incomplete knowledge of human origins and the biological basis of human divine-nature: total physiological, psychological, spiritual human nature.

The reason is that mathematical and empirical methods cannot be applied to values... attempts to formulate a science of values..moral science..a science of ethics ...within the paradigm of objective science... objective 'scientific' study of values in the framework of the 'scientific worldview' of objective science, as a purely 'intellectual' enterprise of logical explanation of value ... of precise and exact knowledge...with axioms and definitions... rules of deduction, dimensions, measurements, and calculations...

...According to the so-called 'scientific' study of values in the framework of the 'scientific worldview' of objective science, ... orthodox science and orthodox religion have been institutionalized and frozen into a mutually excluding dichotomy..tasks has been assigned to either one or the other...one consequence is that they are both pathologized ...ripped apart into a crippled half-science and a crippled half-religion...the most important parceling out of jurisdictions is that science has nothing to do with values. Orthodox science has been defined as 'value - free'. The situation is even worse than it was during the Renaissance, because more recently all the value fields - humanities and arts - have been included in this world of nonscience i.e. of the unscientific. Science began originally as a determination to rely on one's own eyes instead of on the ancients or upon ecclesiastical authority or pure logic. It was originally just a kind of looking for oneself rather than trusting anyone else's preconceived ideas. Orthodox science today attempts to be free not only of values but of emotions... The unquestioned assumption that 'cool' perceiving and neutral thinking (without emotion) are best for discovering any kind of scientific truth...An important by-product of this dichotomizing is the desacralizing of science, the banishment of all the experiences of transcendence from the realm of the respectably known and the respectably knowable, and the denial of a systematic place in science for awe, wonder, mystery, ecstasy, beauty, and peak experiences.The orthodoxy of of the Cartesian-Newtonian paradigm... the overemphasis on intellect... reason is divorced from emotion. ...in western cultures, it is an old and widely held notion that values are subjective evaluations and therefore belong to the realm of 'emotions'...as emotions they cannot be trusted...they are the enemy of true perception and good judgement... distort the world of objective fact.... they are only disrupting... they counteract sagacity ...that they must be exclusive of truth.... both values and emotions should not be taken into account in descriptions of 'reality'... the orthodox institution of objective science has created a desacralized science...denies the reality of these feelings of humility, reverence, mystery, wonder, and awe. ... very real aspects of the 'reality' of the world...dichotomous perception of reality ultimately results from conflicting forces in the social environment.

 "The greatest philosophers of the modern age have attempted to found a science of ethics on the method of natural science -and failed. The reason is that the world of value is of such a nature that mathematical and empirical methods cannot be applied to it. Ethics is thus an elusive game; unless you approach her just right she will change in your hands and vanish; like the princess in the fairy tale who, when 'caught' appears as a deer. This autonomous nature of ethics, which we will call 'nonnaturalistic', was seen by Plato, but the philosopher who established it in modern times was Kant. (Hartman, R. The Science of Value In Malslow A.H. (ed) New Knowledge in Human Values. New York: Harper, 1959, p. 16)

.. ethics is 'an elusive game' because values cannot be studied objectively ...they have no objective existence of their own....outside the nature of the human organism ... human values do not exist outside of human existence...they are rooted in the very conditions of human existence... knowledge of human conditions and the 'human condition' - human situation- leads us to estabishing values which for the human organism have objective validity which exists only with regard to the existence of the human organism...there are no objective values outside the human organism...to study values in the framework of objective science is like trying to see your eye with your own eyes...a knife cannot cut itself...values cannot see themselves...we cannot see values objectively as they are part of us...it is necessary to approach the question of values using a methodology which destroys the dualism subject vs. object...a study of  values requires a different framework...knowledge of reality is a question of consciousness...the only way to study human values is with the wholistic approach... and contemplation and intuition...to rid the conscious of illusory distortions of reality...human values which include the values of the 'divine' are the essential nature of our being ...they exist beyond ...transcendant to illusory dichotomy and dichotomizing of incomplete cognition - to constrictive identifications...an understanding of human values is impossible in the framework of dualistic knowledge which separates the knower from the known....another mode of knowling -intimate- is necessary because the knower and theknown are intimately united in the cognition process... symbolic knowledge is illusory...separation of the object - values -from the subject is illusory...and the symbolic knowledge which result is in effect just as illusory... in the case of the study of human values and ethics, a dualistic knowledge is the blind spot of the philosophical interpretation... which remains a picture or a shadow of reality and not the reality itself... akin to a map of a teritory which rmains only a map, no matter how sophisticated and analyticcal the map might be.

 Values are no-values like electrons are not electrons... Uncertainty principle in physics:"When you look at an electron it is not there, and when it is there you cannot look"

Very often a philosophical problem remains insoluble if it is phrased in the form of a question which in its very asking makes assumptions which render the question meaningless.

It was primarily the physicists and the astronomers who created the Weltanschauiung and the subculture known as Science (including all its goals, methoids, axiomatic values, concepts, languages, folkways, prejudices, selective blindnesses, hidden assumptions). ...the impersonal model failed with the personal, the unique, the holistic.... the fully human person... fatal weakness of science is its inability to deal impersonally with the personal, with the problems of value, of individuality, of consciousness, of beauty, of transcendance, of ethics ... Why the problem defining values in western cultures... In western philosophies, the word 'value' is used to designate choice of action. A value is a 'value choice'.

the study of ethics in the framework of objective science... SCIENCE OF ETHICS cannot be formulated within the framework of objective science...

 Modes of conceptualization

'ethics' as guiding precept... The most well known is the theory of the 'social contract' (Locke, Rousseau and Kant). The precept has been rewoven into a solid philosophical system based on the imperative that justice should be the object of the original contract as well as being integral to a system of government (John Rawls A Theory of Justice l97l). The principles of  'justice as fairness' are the same as those of free and rational persons who wish to define the fundamental rules of an association for positions of equal advantage. Another mode of conceptualization called 'ethical behaviourism' holds that moral commitment is entirely learned and the dominant mechanism is children's internalisation of the behavioural norms of the society i.e. 'operant conditioning'. (J.F. Scott Internalization of Norms: A Sociological Theory of Moral Commitment. l97l) Opposing this theory is the'developmental-genetic conception' of ethical behaviour... a structuralist viewpoint which is based on the studies of Piaget who used the expression 'genetic epistemology'.  The termis used to label the general concept which can be incorporated into a broadened developmental biology and genetics. According to the 'cognitive-developmental' model the child progresses through six sequential stages of ethical reasoning ('sociocognitive stages') in a process of mental maturation... moves from a primary dependence on external controls and sanctions to an increasingly sophisticated set of internalized standards. (Lawrence Kohlberg Stage and Sequence: the Cognitive-Develomental Approach to Socialization. l969)

 

 Evolutionary approach to the study of ethics makes it possible to resolve the age-old philosophical question 'what is the source of guiding values? The real problem is to formulate a 'science of ethics' in terms of the real nature of the human organism as a social organism with instincts for sociability i.e. 'human nature'.   'evolution of ethics'.

'developed conscience... wisdom of creative intelligence or 'intuition' i.e.'ethical intuition'. Intuition is the emotive judgement of the developed mind. The mind must be developed, mature, i!ntelligent... 'emotional intelligence' of the transpersonal level of consciousness... 'enlightened mind'. The enlightened mind has a direct awareness of true right and wrong that it can formalize by logic and translate into rules of social action...'humanistic ethics'

"The guiding values which have been prescribed by religions and philosophies can be found within a person's consciousness." (Lowry, Richard J., "A.H. Maslow: An Intellectual Portrait" Brooks/Cole Publishing Co., Monterey, California, l973)

"Human values originate in the genetic makeup of the human species. Parental love is ingrained in the mammalian genetic make-up of man. Parental care of progeny is a characteristic of all mammals. As a social animal, man benefits more from amicable disposition than pugnacious disposition and behavior". Dobjansky in Maslow(ed) New Knowledge in Huamn Values. NY Harper Bros 1959)

 study of ethics in the framework of wholistic science...

It is possible to formulate a 'science of ethics' using a scientifically objective approach. It requires an investigation into the real nature of the individual human being both as a member of the human species and as a unique specimen. As a memberof the human species, each human being has a biologically inherited 'intrinsic conscience' based on the unconscious perception of his own human nature. In addition to the conscience, each individual has a unique potentiality manifested in a personal decision making process which is based on his own will, responsibility, strength, courage and needs. Therefore a science of ethics constitutes a value system based on the natural laws of human nature and human existence.

 Scientifically objective approach to formulate a 'science of ethics' is based on knowledge of 'human nature' and the understanding of human motivation. A science of ethics depends on investigation into the real nature of the human being as a unique social organism and member of the human speciesa social species. As a member of the species, each individual inherits an unconscious perception of human nature and human needs i.e. moral consciousness or 'conscience'. The conscience is the human 'soul'. Realisation of human potential for development of conscience. depends on education for 'moral development'. Each individual has a unique potentiality for growth to maturity and fulfillment or 'self-actualisation'. Self-actualisation depends on a balanced process of personal decision making based on the individual's will, strength, courage and sense of responsibility.

As the biological organismic valuing process is 'embedded' in the biologically based developmental process then the 'evolution of ethics' is a part of the evolution of growth and psychology of normal human development. If morality is a function of intelligence and intelligence is a function of adaptation and survival in human evolution, then the 'evolution of ethics' is a term which refers to a significant part of human evolution generally - individual psychological development in terms of survival vlaue. Evolution of 'ethical' behavior could be explained in terms of a natural selection process.

There is an important aspect missing form the study of moral development, that is an explanation of the 'genetic evolution of ethics'. "What is missing is the 'evolution of ethics'!" (Wilson. Sociobiology 564)

"The crucial question to be asked is: can science discover the values by which men should live? I think it can and I have advanced this thesis in various places supporting it with whatever data I could muster". (Maslow : New Knowledge in Human Values, Toward a Psychology of Being, Notes on Being-Psychology, "Fusions of Facts and Values" American Journal of Pschoanalysis XXIII, 1963, 117-131; Religions, Values and Peak Experiences, "Criteria for Judging Needs to be Instinctoid", in Human Motivation: A Symposium, ed. M.R. Jones. Lincoln, Nebraska: Univ. of Nebraska Press, 1965; Eupsychian Management: A Journal. Homewood , Illinois: Irwin-Dorsey, 1965)  Valid ethical norms of a naturally human ethics is based on the respect for the dignity of human existence.

An inquiry into human nature forms the basis for a valid theoretical construction of a rational ethical system. This is revealed in the so-called 'productive' character which values the affirmation of the truly human self. As the ideal human potentialities naturally unfold and become actualized, ethical norms for excellent living are discovered according to the laws of nature and human existence. The actualization of an individual's particular potentiality and disposition reveals a core of human qualities which are common to all members of the human species.  Valid ethical norms of a naturally human ethics is based on the respect for the dignity of human existence.

The science of values investigates the natural origins of human values and the human conscience. makes value choices and decisions in accordance with ...according to ...its own organismic valuing process, living by values which facilitate its own survival, adaptation and self-enhancement as well as the enhancement of the human species.. Like other animal species, the social human animal behaves in accordance with an organismic valuing process enabling it to adapt to a changing social environment... value judgements of the human organism ...operative values... criteria for good and bad - 'ethics' - are derived from the meaningfulness of human existence

Self-actualisation

The objective study of fully developed and healthy individuals reveals information about the end result of normal human growth and provides a basis for the formulation of a natural 'science of ethics.' A 'science of ethics' can be formulated on the basis of the discovery of those highest values which people yearn and strugglefor as they grow and improve themselves. The 'higher' values are those biologically based constitutional ethical impulses revealed during the proper development of psychological health. They enable the individual to adjust to the realities of a social environment. A healthy culture can provide the necessary conditions for fostering proper human growth and development if the individual's human needs are recognized and respected. As the result of a culturally fostered human development, the individual becomes 'self-actualized,' living according to the 'higher' Being values which comprise his natural system of ethics. The definition of a healthy culture as one which fosters universal self-actualisation is revolutionary in its implications for ethics. In the style of Aristotelian logic (A and not-A), age-old axioms maintain the 'deficiency motivated' perception of reality in terms of classes and concepts which are mutually exclusive (male-female, selfish-unselfish, adult-child, kind-cruel, good-bad etc.).  

A 'science of ethics' can be formulated on the basis of the 'higher' human values by which the self-actualised individual lives. In this way the so called 'science of ethics' becomes a natural value system which is formulated on the basis of the natural laws of nature and human existence

An earthworm will prefer a smooth path if given the choice between that and a path paved with sandpaper. (Unnatural values or 'conceived values' are those conceived as being symbolically desirable... based on symbolized concepts such as 'honesty is the best policy'.)

The mature mind has a direct awareness of true right and wrong that it can formalize by logic and translate into rules of social action... the 'enlightened mind' of Buddhism...'ethical intuitionism'... depends on inner freedom...

  "Acting out of freedom does not exclude the moral laws; it includes them, but shows itself to be on a higher level than those actions which are merely dictated by such laws. Why should my action be of less service to the public good when I have done it out of love than when I have done it only because I consider serving the public good to be my duty? The mere concept of duty excludes freedom because it does not acknowledge the individual element but demands that this be subject to a general standard. Freedom of action is conceivable only from the standpoint of ethical individualism." (Steiner, Rudolph. The Philosophy of Freedom. London: Rudolph Steiner Press. 13)

Very important to a 'science of ethics' is the study of the correlation between character orientation and social structure.

The study of a specific character orientation which is common to most members of the culture explains some of the causes for the formation of character... and indicates which powerful emotional forces are instrumental in molding the social character and the functioning of the society. The personality of the average individual is determined by the socioeconomic and political structure of the society in which he lives

 The human conscience is the natural expression of a biologically based interest in the properly integrated functioning of the whole personality - the guardian of the individual's true self-interest. "Conscience is a reaction of ourselves to ourselves. It is the voice of our true selves, which summons us back to ourselves, to live productively, to develop fully and harmoniously- that is to become what we potentially are. It is the guardian of our integrity... of our love for ourselves". (Erich Fromm Man For Himself: An Inquiry into the Psychology of Ethics  p.159)

 An inquiry into human nature forms the basis for a valid theoretical construction of a rational ethical system. This is revealed in the so-called 'productive' character which values the affirmation of the truly human self. As the ideal human potentialities naturally unfold and become actualized, ethical norms for excellent living are discovered according to the laws of nature and human existence. The actualization of an individual's particular potentiality and disposition reveals a core of human qualities which are common to all members of the human species. The individual human being is instinctively responsible to himself for his own potential development or 'self-actualization.' This natural responsibility to his own biological and psychological existence and self-actualization constitutes the ethical value called 'virtue.' Sharing the existential dichotomies inherent in the human situation, all human beings have a natural sense of responsibility for their self-actualization, virtue and happiness. Depending on the unchangeable constitutional temperament and the changeable acquired character, each human being has a unique way of solving his human problems. Significant to a science of ethics are the conscious and unconscious motivating factors which determine the individual's character, based on the mode of relatedness to the world. Akin to the animal's instinctive apparatus for self-preservation, the individual's character orientation has a biological function. Each human being is instinctively motivated to acquire the things he needs ('assimilation') and to relate to other people for defense and for work ('socialization'). An individual's character is expressed by the mode of orientation by which he relates to the world - loving, hating, competing, cooperating. Character is formed by social and cultural patterns and constitutes the basis of the individual's adjustment to society. The child develops in response to the character of the parents and their cultural background, becoming adjusted and adapted to a particular social structure. The individual's uniqueness of character  is the result of the combined effects of his constitutional temperament, the different personalities of his parents, and the specific social environment in which he grew up as a child. The individual's specific character determines the way he feels, thinks and acts - his 'behaviour.' Fundamental change in behaviour only occurs with fundamental change in character. (Fromm, Erich. Man for Himself: an Inquiry into the Psychology of Ethics. Holt, Rhinehart and Winston, New York, l947)

 SCIENCE OF ETHICS in the framework of :HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AND HUMAN VALUES... VALUE SYSTEM (ETHICS) IN CULTURAL CONTEXT... ORGANISMIC VALUING PROCESS... universality of organismic valuing process... there is an organismic base for an organized valuing process within the human individual. In accordance with the biological need for self-preservation and adaptation, the human organism has the natural capacity to adjust its behavior and reactions to a continuously changing environment... the operative values... the valuing process in the human being is effective in achieving self-enhancement to the degree that the individual is open to the experiencing which is going on within himself. The infant and the psychologically mature person are examples of individuals whose valuing process is in harmony with their own experiencing. A child's proper inner development to maturity depends on his/her being prized as a separate person with the freedom to experience his own feelings without feeling threatened. The freedom of self-expression insures development to maturity and inner freedom.

 biological basis of 'virtue' and value sytems:

approach the study of ethics with a mature wholistic approach using the techniques of holistic science....first distinguish between morality as moral development and moralism as a system of morality to be imposed from an external authority.

the job of the scientist is to see reality for what it is... to experience reality.... The human organism understands the world mentally and through the natural intellectual and emotional powers which are inseparable... the power of emotion is love... the power of thinking or 'cognition' is reason..Love is inseparable from reason. The power of love combined with the power of reason results in understanding. The human faculty for understanding reality is based on a combination of love and reason.

 any 'science' is a 'science' because it brings to our awareness an aspect of nature which has always existed but we were unaware of its existence before the 'science' discovered it and made us aware of it...so a science of ethics - moral science- brings to our awareness an aspect of human nature which has always existed but we were unaware of its existence before its discovery made us aware of it...

the only way to study human values is with the wholistic approach... and contemplation and intuition...to rid the conscious of illusory distortions of reality...human values which include the values of the 'divine' are the essential nature of our being ...they exist beyond ...transcendant to illusory dichotomy and dichotomizing of incomplete cognition - to constrictive identifications...an understanding of human values is impossible in the framework of dualistic knowledge which separates the knower from the known....another mode of knowling -intimate- is necessary because the knower and theknown are intimately united in the cognition process... symbolic knowledge is illusory...separation of the object - values -from the subject is illusory...and the symbolic knowledge which result is in effect just as illusory... in the case of the study of human values and ethics, a dualistic knowledge is the blind spot of the philosophical interpretation... which remains a picture or a shadow of reality and not the reality itself... akin to a map of a teritory which remains only a map, no matter how sophisticated and analyticcal the map might be.

Increasing the level of sophisitication does not make the map any closer to the 'truth' of the territory. The territory itself must be experienced. So in the study of the territory of values, the values must be experienced for complete understanding... and the person doing the experiencing must have reached the level of awareness at which those values being considered operational ... we cannot fully understand by becoming an object to ourselves...that is dualistic perception...and therefore incomplete...we can only understand ourselves from a wholistic perception of the human individual and the human species... The concept of universal ethical systems and philosophies is unrealistic and untruthful ......universal human ethics - study of the natural valuing process as a part of normal human development... morality as function of intelligence ...the autonomous nature of ethical values discovered in the lives of autonomous self-actualizing individuals who live and act in freedom ....act morally from a moral idea which belongs to the nature of the human organism... The understanding of human moral development depends on the understanding of the human being as a social organism... The survival of the human organism depends on its successful functioning as a social organism.. As a biological species, the human species is a social species. The individual of the species is an individual social organism...moral understanding is possible between individuals who are morally free, living in love and understanding of the will of the other - also morally free. Freedom in this sense means obedience to one's own conscience (fully developed and therefore fully 'human') Individuals who are not free in this sense submit themselves to control... the sources of norms for ethical conduct are to be found in human nature itself... moral norms are based on the inherent qualities of the human organism... the violation of natural moral norms results in ...the 'science of ethics' is a natural value system formulated on the basis of natural laws of human nature and human existence...the 'science of ethics' is formulated in terms of the natural unfolding of human nature during proper psychological development towards full 'humanness,' towards so-called 'self-actualization' ...the autonomous individual engages in the productivity which defines his full individuality and 'true' freedom. Leading his life according to the 'Being-values' of freedom, love, truth, justice etc. the individual is responsible to himself and simultaneously responsibile to the rest of humanity. The process of education for proper human development involves the fostering of an individual's instinctive responsibility to himself and his own needs. It therefore depends on the creation of an environment which fosters self-discipline, self-actualization and the full development of 'humanness,' the natural ethical core of every human being. In the process of successfully adapting to a changing social environment, the 'self-actualized' individual is apable of making decisions in his own 'true' interest. Simultaneously he makes decisions which are in the 'true' interest of the society. Thus he lives in accordance with natural biological laws and the evolutionary process. The source of all morality is the human individual... moral ideas of human individuals are the prerequisites of a moral world order. A necessary consequence of the life of the individual is the existence of a social order... society and state...which in turn can act favorably on the individual.

 Knowledge of human values depends on a wholistic understanding of the integration of all aspects of the human personality, incorporating the biological need for unconditional love and the divine aspects of human nature. The human and the divine are one... what is humanly valuable is called 'divine'.(origin of word) As a biological species, the human species is a social species. The individual of the species is an individual social organism...moral understanding is possible between individuals who are morally free, living in love and understanding of the will of the other - also morally free. Freedom in this sense means obedience to one's own conscience (fully developed and therefore fully 'human') Individuals who are not free in this sense submit themselves to control... the sources of norms for ethical conduct are to be found in human nature itself... moral norms are based on the inherent qualities of the human organism... the violation of natural moral norms results in mental and emotional disintegration...the character structure of the mature and integrated personality, the 'productive' character, constitutes the source and the basis of 'virtue' and 'vice' in the last analysis is the indifference to one's own self and self-mutilation. 'Self-love' and the affirmation of one's true self are the supreme values of humanistic ethics. For the human organism to have confidence in values, he must know himself and the capactity of his nature for goodness and productiveness. ...the 'science of ethics' is a natural value system formulated on the basis of natural laws of human nature and human existence...the 'science of ethics' is formulated in terms of the natural unfolding of human nature during proper psychological development towards full 'humanness,' towards so-called 'self-actualization' ...the autonomous individual engages in the productivity which defines his full individuality and 'true' freedom. Leading his life according to the 'Being-values' of freedom, love, truth, justice etc. the individual is responsible to himself and simultaneously responsibile to the rest of humanity. The process of education for proper human development involves the fostering of an individual's instinctive responsibility to himself and his own needs. It therefore depends on the creation of an environment which fosters self-discipline, self-actualization and the full development of 'humanness,' the natural ethical core of every human being. In the process of successfully adapting to a changing social environment, the 'self-actualized' individual is capable of making decisions in his own 'true' interest. Simultaneously he makes decisions which are in the 'true' interest of the society. Thus he lives in accordance with natural biological laws and the evolutionary process. The source of all morality is the human individual... moral ideas of human individuals are the prerequisites of a moral world order. A necessary consequence of the life of he individual is the existence of a social order... society and state...which in turn can act favorably on the individual.

HOLISTIC ETHICS

perception of reality as a function of consciousness: Knowledge of human values depends on a wholistic understanding of the integration of the human ...including the 'divine' aspects of the human personality. Knowledge of human values depends on a wholistic understanding of the integration of all aspects of the human personality, incorporating the biological need for unconditional love and the divine aspects of human nature. The human and the divine are one... what is humanly valuable is valuable because it is divine...called 'divine'.(origin of word),Human nature incorporates the divine aspects of experience. 'human-divine nature': the 'wholeness' of human nature. The human includes the 'divine': In the Upanishads, we find the great questions of man, and the answers are summed up in two words: brahman  (the 'truth' of the universe) and atman  (inner truth of each human being). 'Atman'- the Self in each and every one of us is 'Brahman' the highest in us or 'God'. The nearest conception of Brahman ...it is a state of consciousness beyond time...when Being and Consciousness and Joy are One

The divine apsects of the human organism are manifest in the integrated personality of ego transcendance... human values are in the unconscious ... In terms of Taoism, or Mahayana Buddhism, the value is a value when it is a no-value... when all the values are shut up in the depths of the unconscious we have the values in their genuine form. nameless.(Tao or God)   Every moment you say, "it is good", the good loses its goodness... saying "it is good"; detracts from the goodness. The really good is just so, and no more no less. The good is just-so-ness. So with the rest of human values...The human and the divine are one, for what is humanly valuable is so only because it is divine... ...value judgements - criteria for good and evil - are derived from the meaningfulness of human existence. ...fulfillment and happiness are found through love - the power by which the human organism relates to the world through his beings... a value is valueless when it is not subjectively free from an egoistic impulse... a value is a value when it is subjectively free from an egoistic impulse...a value is a value when it is a no-value...values are nameless...by naming a value one devalues the value ... ....approach the study of ethics with a mature wholistic approach using the techniques of wholistic science....first distinguish between morality as moral development and moralism as a system of morality to be imposed from an external authority.  the study of ethics in the framework of objective science...   study of ethics in the framework of wholistic science...the job of the scientist is to see reality for what it is... to experience reality...... any 'science' is a 'science' because it brings to our awareness an aspect of nature which has always existed but we were unaware of its existence before the 'science' discovered it and made us aware of it...so a science of ethics - moral science- brings to our awareness an aspect of human nature which has always existed but we were unaware of its existence before its discovery made us aware of it... People have been taught that 'values' are subjective evaluations and that 'emotions' cannot be trusted... subjective valuations and emotions distort the world of objective fact....(File MASLOW1)... devoid of feelings of humility, reverence, mystery, wonder, and awe.Denying the reality of these feelings is to cut oneself off from the most real aspects of the 'reality' of the world...that scientific investigation is objective and devoid of values... Many of the 'problems' of philosophy - the 'problem' of ethics and values, the 'problem' of evil, the 'problem' of education and many other 'philosophical problems' result from the incomplete knowledge of human origins and the biological basis of human divine-nature: the total physiological, psychological, spiritual human nature. Moral science.. the science of morality...is the investigation into the real nature of the individual human organism as a member of the human species.. study of intrinsic valuing process of the human organism.... naturalistic valuing process....the full definition of human nature includes the intrinsic values to achieve fullest humanness ... growth... avoid illness.... study of human nature....people as best specimens of the human organism living under the best conditions of human existence... values by which they lead their lives... with suitable conditions in the psychological environment, innate motives for human behaviour emerge to the surface of human consciousness in a predetermined order... human values do not exist outside of human existence...they are rooted in the very conditions of human existence... knowledge of human conditions and the 'human condition' - human situation- leads us to estabishing values which for the human organism have objective validity which exists only with regard to the existence of the human organism...there are no objective values outside the human organism...to study the values in the framework of objective science is like trying to see your eye with your own eyes...a knife canntot cut itself...values cannot see themselves...we cannot see values objectively as they are part of us...it is necessary to approach the question of values using a methodology which destroys the dualism subject vs. object...a study of the values requires a different framework... knowledge of reality is a question of consciousness...

 Knowledge of human values depends on a wholistic understanding of the integration of all aspects of the human personality, incorporating the biological need for unconditional love and the divine aspects of human nature. The human and the divine are one... what is humanly valuable is called 'divine'.(origin of word) mental and emotional disintegration...the character structure of the mature and integrated personality, the 'productive' character, constitutes the source and the basis of 'virtue' and 'vice' in the last analysis is the indifference to one's own self and self-mutilation. 'Self-love' and the affirmation of one's true self are the supreme values of humanistic ethics. For the human organism to have confidence in values, he must know himself and the capactity of his nature for goodness and productiveness. ...the 'science of ethics' is a natural value system formulated on the basis of natural laws of human nature and human existence...the 'science of ethics' is formulated in terms of the natural unfolding of human nature during proper psychological development towards full 'humanness,' towards so-called 'self-actualization' ...the autonomous individual engages in the productivity which defines his full individuality and 'true' freedom. Leading his life according to the 'Being-values' of freedom, love, truth, justice etc. the individual is responsible to himself and simultaneously responsibile to the rest of humanity. The process of education for proper human development involves the fostering of an individual's instinctive responsibility to himself and his own needs. It therefore depends on the creation of an environment which fosters self-discipline, self-actualization and the full development of 'humanness,' the natural ethical core of every human being. In the process of successfully adapting to a changing social environment, the 'self-actualized' individual is capable of making decisions in his own 'true' interest. Simultaneously he makes decisions which are in the 'true' interest of the society. Thus he lives in accordance with natural biological laws and the evolutionary process.

A science necessarily values truth. Truth is central to science... The search for truth requires independence of mind which safeguards originality - the tool with which new discoveries are made. Independence of mind and originality must be allowed expression and thus 'dissent' must be valued. The high moments of dissent are monuments in our literature... Progress comes only when accepted values are challenged ...Dissent is an instrument of intellectual evolution...VALUES AS VALUE JUDGEMENTS...Man's value judgements - his criteria for good and evil - are derived from the meaningfulness of his own existence. ...values are rooted in the very conditions of human existence; hence our knowledge of these conditions, that is, of the 'human situation', leads us to estabishing values which have objective validity; this validity exists only with regard to the existence of the human organism... outside of the human organism there are no values... So what is the nature of the human organism? what are the special conditions of human existence, and what are the needs which are rooted in these conditions? human needs are human values... ethics is 'an elusive game' because values cannot be studied objectively ...they have no objective existence of their own..outside the nature of the human organism ... .

 According to the so-called 'scientific' study of values in the framework of the 'scientific worldview' of objective science, the science of value is an intellectual, not a valuational, enterprise a matter of science, of precise and exact knowledge, the object of which happens to be value.In this respect the science of value is like any other science: it has its axioms, its definitions, its rules of deduction, and its dimensions, its measurements, and its calculations; what is measured is value and what is calculated is the value content of situations... whereas the precision and exactness of the science of nature is quantitative, the precision and exactness of the science of value is qualitative. The science of nature measure spatiotemporal being; the science of value measures meaning. The science of value will change the world as did the science of nature The modern American meaning of ethics is based on the modern American concept of morality... misconception of morality as external to the human organism... result is relativistic ethics of American culture... conflicts inherent in the culture necessitate the formulation of ethical systems. Conditioning influences of the culture are conflicting. Cultural conflicts include the faith in education and contempt for educated people, apathy and driving ambition, etc. Objective study of ethics implies the question... can science discover the values by which people should live?"

Is it possible to formulate a value system on the basis of natural laws of human nature and human existence? Is it possible to formulate a value system on the basis of natural biological 'laws' of human development?

Change the premise from 'the instinctoid needs of the human being are evil and bad' to the premise 'the instinctoid needs of the human being are good' then ask the same questions and resolve many problems. The basic right of a human being is the right to be human. An individual's responsibility to himself is to develop his humanness. By developing his own humanness the individual is being responsible to the rest of humanity. "The overemphasis of traditional psychology on the pathologies, neuroses, psychoses etc. has provided abundant evidence that men's bad and evil behavior results from frustration in his efforts toward self-actualization... human nature - not evil, bad etc. Feelings of 'natural dominance' or 'self-esteem' lead to beneficial and creative behaviour. Feelings of sham dominance lack of self-esteem etc. lead to destructive and evil behaviour. Premise for sience of ethics...The assumption that man is naturally unsocial makes no sense and is false to fact... as a false assumption, it creates a moral dilemma ...as a dilemma created as a product of logical deduction based on false premise, the dilemma becomes in fact a 'pseudo dilemma' ... the supposed impossibility of a civilized social life if each individual in the society is striving for their own self-actualization... the pseudo dilemma is based on the belief that a social community is possible only if all the individuals are united by a communally fixed moral order... a result of misunderstanding of true moralism (free morality...ignorance of the unity of the world of ideas.

The science of values is the study of the development of the individual's intrinsic value system. The inner nature of the human organism is delicate and subtle... easily overcome by habit, cultural pressures, and wrong attitudes towards it. It is best to bring out this human nature... encourage it...If it is permitted to guide our life, we grow healthy, fruitful and happy.The basic needs - for life, for safety and security, for belongingness and affection, for respect and self-respect, and for self-actualization, the basic human emotions and the basic human capacities, are upon their face either neutral, pre-moral or positively 'good'... Any experiences which reveal, foster, and fulfill the inner nature of the human organism are desirable experiences...contribute to a sense of achievement and ego strength and therefore with the sense of healthy self-esteem and self-confidence.....if this basic human nature is suppressed and repressed or frustrated in any way, the human organism reacts violently. Any experiences of discipline, deprivation, frustration, pain, suppression or denial of this inner nature in subtle ways leads to sickness sooner or later....The so-called 'evils' of human nature - destructiveness, sadism, cruelty, malice, etc. are the violent reactions against frustration of intrinsic human needs, emotions and capacities.                                                                               

  The so-called 'problem of ethics' is one of human consciousness and its biological basis. The study of the 'biology of ethics' is the concern of the 'science of value' or 'moral science'. 

 Formulation of a valid system of ethics or 'science of ethics' constitutes the 'problem of ethics'.

"The greatest philosophers of the modern age have attempted to found a science of ethics on the method of natural science - and failed. The reason is that the world of value is of such a nature that mathematical and empirical methods cannot be applied to it. Ethics is thus an elusive game; unless you approach her just right she will change in your hands and vanish; like the princess in the fairy tale who, when 'caught' appears as a deer. This autonomous nature of ethics, which we will call 'nonnaturalistic', was seen by Plato, but the philosopher who established it in modern times was Kant... (p.16)... The true knowledge of value lies in the science of value... as natural science has changed the world, so moral science, once it is developed and fully known, is bound to change the world. There was no force that brought about the age of technology, other than the clarity of mind of people like Newton and Einstein. The only difference these men made in the world is that they gave us knowledge. All the rest followed by itself. All the difference that the new science is going to make to the world is that it gives us moral knowledge, and all the rest will follow by itself".  (Hartman 'The Science of Value' in Maslow ed. New Knowledge in Human Values New York: Harper, 1959, p.34)

  Systems of ethics are based on the dichotomous perception of ethics resulting from mistrust of the human personality or 'human nature'. Throughout the history of Western culture, people have been taught that their intrinsic instincts are  animal instincts' and therefore immoral... bad... corrupt... antisocial etc. and not to be trusted. In order to control the so-called 'evil' aspect of human nature, civilization is perceived in terms of the control and policing of natural human impulses... social institutions are set up to control, inhibit, suppress and repress human expression.

In fact, the inner core of human nature is not in itself intrinsically dangerous or bad. But the natural constitution of human nature is subtle and fragile and can easily be overcome  by cultural pressures, social conditioning and wrong attitudes towards it expressed with in  language which implies mutually exclusivity of classes and concepts - man/woman, adult/child, selfish/unselfish, good/bad and so on. These age-old axioms of human nature are translated into a dichotomous perception of ethics in terms of the mutual exclusiveness between the reality of 'what is' and the reality of 'what ought to be'. Hence the perceived necessity for the search for guiding values to live by.

In a lifelong study, Abraham Maslow observed people whom he considered as mankind's 'best specimens' living under the 'best conditions' and described the values by which they led their lives. The results of his observations showed that the values which guided these people from within their consciousness were the same as the religious values of truth, goodness, and justice. Maslow criticised theology for its overdependence on dogma, revelation and supernaturalism and discredited theologians for trying to find guiding principles outside the human organism. He discredited philosophers for making arguments with no authorities or absolute criteria. Maslow arrived at the conclusion that man has a 'natural personality' which is basically good...

 (From Lowry, Richard J., "A.H. Maslow: An Intellectual Portrait" Brooks/Cole Publishing Co., Monterey, California, l973)

Ethics in cultural context: the so-called 'problem of ethics' - the search for guiding values in the resolution of human problems - is peculiar to American capitalist culture...The study of a specific character orientation which is common to most members of the culture indicates which powerful emotional forces... cultural forces... explain the formation of social character. The personality of the average individual is determined by the socioeconomic and political structure of the society in which he lives.  

The American social character is based on the scientific worldview which is justified by a combination of concepts and assumptions derived from Protestantism scientific reductionism, behaviourism, moralism and the traditional political ideals of 'democracy' (see American Constitution). These basic concepts and assumptions have formed the basis for educational policy in the American educational system which prevents the personal and psychological growth of the individual. Political ideals interfere with the true aim of education which is complete personality growth and moral consciousness or 'conscience'.

Capitalistic economic theories of modern technological society teach people that their aim in life is the successful fulfillment of their duty to work. They are made to believe that they need to work for money, prestige and power in order to achieve happiness. They are persuaded to make everything important except life and the art of living. While under the illusion that they act in their own self-interest they act against their basic instinct for self-preservation and growth. They lose sight of the fact that it is in their 'real' self-interest to live in harmony with themselves and their fellow human beings. While they value themselves (and others) on the basis of material success they ignore their true self-interest, their integrity and their intrinsic faith in human dignity and courage.

American capitalist culture is not concerned with personal growth and the development of the human conscience as the source of morality and rational ethics. The natural integrity of the human organism is devalued. Cultural values place severe limitations on human experience, the human potential for autonomy and responsibility, the desire for meaningful learning and emotional self-expression... they foster adult immaturity. As a result people are easily influenced by political rhetoric which encourages the pursuit of 'happiness' as material success. They become easy prey to the demands of capitalism and subscribe to irrational values of consumerism - the so-called values of money-making, obedience to authority, accumulation of knowledge, cleverness in cheating, love of neighbour, and remunerative leisure activities. Thought and behaviour patterns of deception and hypocrisy are considered to be corrupt animal traits waiting to be erased by further social evolution. The person who can suppress them to a minimum level is considered to be 'virtuous'. Mental dishonesty is promoted as 'common sense'. 

"...intrinsic human values are not valued in a society which measures the individual in terms of material success. Focusing on the demands for adjustment to capitalism, the individual loses sight of his own intrinsic values which make him human. 'Adjustment' to the capitalistic 'society' is the cause for neuroses which result from the unsuitability of humanness in a materialistic society." (Erich Fromm. Man For Himself) 

   Coercive social system and 'authoritarian ethics'. A culture which does not foster growth must depend on codes of behavour which do not require reflective reasoning or 'intelligence'... 'Codes of ethics'... 'authoritarian ethics'... are moral codes or 'ethical norms' based on external authority such as the formulated on the premise that the individual is powerless and insignificant. Codes of ethics as codes of behaviour are codes of morality based on external authority... the anonymous authority of the 'market' in capitalistic culture. Because they are separated from human morality based on developed conscience... universal human ethics i.e. 'humanistic ethics'  the codes of ethics for a specific situation easily degenerate into codes which serve the interests of those within that situation. 'Medical ethics' serves the interests of those in the medical 'profession.' 'Business ethics' serves the interests of those in 'business' and so on. As a result of the demands of the capitalistic economic system... people make efforts to retain the love and acceptance of others in the society. The individual who focuses on the demands for adjustment to the culture of capitalism loses sight of their own intrinsic values... their human values or 'virtues'.

The correlation between character orientation (marketing character orientation) and social structure points up the powerful emotional forces which are instrumental in molding the social character and explains the functioning  of the society.

Authoritarian ethics is the product of irrational authoritarian conscience derived form the internalization of an external authority. The authoritarian conscience is the "voice of an internalized authority such as the parental authority, or state authority." (Fromm Man For Himself 143)

So-called 'evil' is a product of neurosis, 'psychosis' and other social pathologies. 

"Feelings of 'compensatory dominance' become 'over-compensatory' when they are derived from the crippling effect of insecurity and low self-esteem. Such feelings of sham dominance leading to domineering or haughty behaviour can explain the wickedness of human behaviour or 'evil'." (Erich Fromm  Man For Himself)

 Each individual has a unique way of solving their human problems. The uniqueness of problem-solving depends on their unchangeable constitutional temperament and their changeable acquired character. Acquired character depends on conscious and unconscious motivating forces and varies with the individual's mode of relatedness to the world. In normal growth and development, both conscious and unconscious behaviour are based on the flexibility of the instinctive tendency to grow in the direction of self-actualization and self-transcendance. In pathological growth, conscious behaviour is based on the introjection of rigid and static cultural beliefs and values. In a process of social conditioning, conditioned behaviours are rewarded even though they are perversions of the natural tendency to grow in the direction of self-actualization. Socially conditioned individuals are dissociated and estranged from their own directional growth process.

The human organism behaves in accordance with an organismic valuing process which allows for self-preservation and also adaptation to changes in the environment. The human organism as a social organism lives by intrinsic values which facilitate self-enhancement and the adaptation to changing social conditions...  conscience development

Mistrust of human nature as basis for relativistic concept of ethics or 'ethical relativism' Ethical relativism is based on the belief that there is no way to make objectively valid statements about ethics. Only those individuals who abide by the codes are considered to be ethical and only they can be made responsible for teaching and preaching the moral life. This notion is based on a mistrust of human nature  derived from the assumption that human existence involves separate material and spiritual realms ('mind/body dualism'). The conceptual dichotomy between matter and spirit originated with the scientific revolution of the eighteenth century 'Enlightenment' and was incorporated into the so-called 'scientific worldview' based is on the apparent discontinuity between the natural and the 'supernatural'... the human and the divine or 'God'. (In fact 'human' in the sense of 'complete humanness' as a function of spiritual growth is equivalent to 'divine'.)

"It was primarily the physicists and the astronomers who created the Weltanschaung and the subculture known as 'science' ...including all its goals, methods, axiomatic values, concepts, languages, folkways, prejudices, selective blindnesses, hidden assumptions. The impersonal model failed with the personal, the unique, the holistic... the fully human person... The fatal weakness of science is its inability to deal impersonally with the personal, with the problems of  individuality, of consciousness, of beauty, of transcendance, of value, of ethics. (Maslow Psychology of Science xiii)

The profound mistrust of human nature is derived from the 'Fall/Redemption' theology' of 'orthodox' Protestant Christianity which was adopted by the Protestant Calvinist and Puritan movements. According to the theology, as a result of the original 'fall' from God's grace - Adam and Eve's disobedience for eating from the 'tree of knowledge' - knowledge of 'good' and 'evil' - each individual is brought into this life tainted with sin and is therefore inherently corrupt or 'evil' and must suffer in this life. Even an afterlife without suffering depends on God's redemption. In this moralistic view, the individual is expected to be morally responsibile for restraining the evil impulses of their basic nature even though they are considered to be powerless and insignificant.

The coercive social system of American capitalist culture leads to confusion and a distortion of human values: 'freedom' is confused with licence, 'adaptation' with conformism, 'discipline' with submissiveness, 'independence' with anti-authoritarianism, 'equality' with uniformity, 'individuality' with selfishness.

The confusion of values leads to the mistaken idea that the interests of the individual and of the society are mutually exclusive and antagonistic... As a result the function of civilization is perceived in terms of controlling instinctive human impulses and this gives rise to insoluble pseudo-problems or 'problems of ethics' such as 'How can the interests of the individual be reconciled with the interests of the society?' 'How is it possible to formulate a philosophical system of ethics which can be applied to the teaching of values? How does one teach the virtues? 'How can people be made to lead ethical lives?' How does one formulate a system of values which could be applied to everyone... a so-called 'science of ethics'? Scientists have attempted to use the scientific method of the impersonal model of science as orthodox science... scientism'. Scientism is inadequate for dealing with the human problems of values and ethics.

The distortion of social values produces an infantile attitude toward the social system which is mirrored in the child's reaction to dominant authoritarian and intolerant parents and further cultivated by the demands of the system. 

 The confusion between custom and ideal character still exists in the belief that children simply internalize the behavioural norms of the society... that moral commitment is entirely learned through the mechanism of 'operant conditioning'... i.e. 'ethical behaviourism'.... 'ethical relativism'

Moral confusion and moral education as 'teaching of values'  People are naturally bewildered by the irrationality of the cultural value system and they become morally confused. In their moral confusion they are forced to depend on ethical norms of behaviour or codes of ethics.

Authoritarian conscience is not the same as the intrinsically human conscience. The human conscience which is derived from reason is the source of natural value judgements.  

American moral education, based on the premise that the individual is powerless and insignificant is concerned with teaching the conceived cultural values. Hypocrisy and deception become the human devices for coping with the complexities of a social life which is based on the irrational authoritarian ethics of a business civilisation.  

Moral education as the teaching  of 'values' fails because true moral education  as education for personal growth and development of conscience - the basis for humanitarian ethics is not recognized

Norman development of conscience is a function of a natural reasoning process which is fluid and changing i.e. 'cognition'.   

 "Unable to resort to either revelation or reason, man adopted the 'relativistic' position which proposes that value judgements and ethical norms are exclusively matters of taste or arbitrary preference and that no objectively valid statement can be made in this realm. But since man cannot live without values and norms, this relativism makes him an easy prey for irrational value systems...the demands of the state, the enthusiasm for magic qualities of powerful leaders, powerful machines, and material success become the sources for his norms and value judgements." (Fromm Man For Himself p. 5)

People who are not valued for their intrinsic morality eventually become morally confused... since it is not possible to live without values and norms...  in their confusion they learn to rely on the authority of strict codes of civil law and moral standards...'behavioural norms' or 'codes of behaviour' which are desirable for given situations.. 'codes of ethics' -  'medical ethics', 'business ethics', 'military ethics' and so on. Based on external authoritythe ethical codes are irrational codes of moralityor 'value systems'  derived from a relativistic concept of ethics which makes value judgements and ethical norms a matter of arbitrary preference. The diffferent codes of ethics can degenerate into codes which serve the interests of those within that situation if they are separated from universal human ethics which is valid for all human beings and all living things. A code  of  'medical ethics' serving the interests of those in the medical 'profession' and so on.  

 What are human values? What values are not... values are not values when they are objects of judgement... true human values are not the same as choices of action or 'value choices'...'value judgements' or 'conceived values'

  discussion of 'ethics' depends on the meaning of the word 'value' which varies with cultural context. In the capitalist culture of American society, the word 'value' is used to designate 'choice of action'. A value is a 'value choice'. An individual makes a value choice on the basis of a symbolized concept which he has been taught to value such as 'honesty is the best policy'. The outcome of the value choice is considered to be symbolically desirable. Value choices which are made on the basis of symbolized concepts and in anticipation of desirable  outcomes are 'conceived values'. Conceived values are taught values... incorporated, internalised or 'introjected' values. They are valued parental and social cultural concepts... such as the 'American values' of material success and so on. (American constitution)

In the philosophical analysis of the human value life, there is often confusion between 'values' as 'true values' and values as 'value judgements'. Values are not the same as value judgements. Value judgements are values attached to subjective judgements which are made from the perspective of self-centeredness as egocentrism or 'egotism' (as opposed to 'egoism' as  natural motivation by healthy self-interest). Value judgements based on egotistic and therefore judgmental thought processes involve decisions about whether something is 'right or wrong', 'good or bad' and so on. The subjective criteria for right/wrong, good/bad are ultimately derived from the meaning attached to human existence - a function of the cultural context and its corresponding system of ethics. According to the ethical system of 'humanism' the affirmation of life and the unfolding of human powers is 'good'; the denigration of life and the represssion of growth is 'bad'; the sense of responsibility toward human existence and excellence of human achievement is the source of 'virtue'; the sense of irresponsibility toward human existence is the source of 'vice'.  'Good' 'bad' 'virtue' and 'vice' are value judgements. Human values which are conceived in terms of human attributes are value judgements or 'conceived values'.

A value is a true value only when it is not an object of judgement and is not attributed with objective validity. If the true value 'goodness' is made into a value judgement 'goodness is good' then the value of goodness is lost. True values are free from the perspective of egoistic judgement. They are perceived from the higher level of ego-transcendant consciousness i.e. 'ego-transcendance'.  Human values are 'humanly valuable' or 'divine' in the depths of the unconscious where they are free from judgement. In this sense the 'human values' and the 'divine values' are the same. Lao-tze of Mahatyana Buddhism expressed it thus: "The good is just so and values are just-so-ness or 'tao'. And tao is nameless".

 "A value is valueless when it is not subjectively free from an egoistic impulse... In terms of Taoism, or Mahayana Buddhism, the value is a value when it is a no-value. Psychologically when all the values are shut up in the depths of the the unconscious or in the limbo of oblivion, we have the values in their genuine form. Lao-tze says that what can be designated as this or that is not Tao. Tao is nameless. Every moment you say , "it is good" the good loses its goodness. The really good is just so, and no more no less. The good is just-so-ness. So with the rest of human values...The human and the divine are one, for what is humanly valuable is so only because it is divine." (Daisetz Teitoro Suzuki 'Human Values in Zen' Maslow A.H. (ed) New Knowledge in Human Values. New York: Harper Brothers 1959 p 95)

 The problem of ethics is one which deals with the personal, the unique and the holistic. It deals with those aspects of human nature which give rise to the expanded consciousness of 'humanness' i.e. 'ego-transcendance'... 'human spirituality' or 'divinity' which defines the core of the human personality or 'human nature'. An inquiry into human nature forms the basis for a valid inquiry into the nature of value... 'moral science'. Valid ethical norms of a naturally human ethics is based on the respect for the dignity of human nature as revealed in the so-called 'productive' character which values the affirmation of the truly human self. As the ideal human potentialities naturally unfold and become actualised, ethical norms for excellent living are discovered according to the laws of nature and human existence. The actualisation of an individual's particular potentiality and disposition reveals a core of human qualities which are common to all members of the human species... Holistic education as education for moral development... cultivation of social values or 'virtues'. 

Human nature is a function of human motives for human behaviour or 'human needs'. Human needs are physiological, psychological and spiritual. They include the needs for safety and affection which communicates security, for a sense of belongingness, for self-respect and self-esteem, for psychological growth to self-actualization and for spiritual growth to self-transcendance. These needs must be satisfied for the fulfillment of human potential in a process of psychological and spiritual growth and development.  

The individual is instinctively responsible to himself for his own potential development of self-actualisation'.

The individual human organism is instinctively responsible to itself for its own potential development... mature growth or 'self-actualisation.' Self-actualisation  refers to the affirmation of the individual's particular talents and disposition as well as the core of human qualities common to all members of the human species. 'Self-actualization' refers to the development of the individual with all his potentialities.

Spiritual growth needs, the 'metaneeds' are the source of 'motivation for spiritual growth' or 'metamotivation'. In a process of normal psychological and spiritual growth human potentialities naturally unfold and become actualized, producing feelings of natural self-esteem which lead to beneficial and creative behaviour. In the process a natural valuing process also unfolds revealing intrinsic social or 'ethical values' - the 'virtues'. If there are obstacles to growth then insecurity results and the individual's low self-esteem has a crippling effect on their development. The individual overcompensates with domineering attitudes of sham dominance....'neurosis'. Their violent reactions of frustration manifest themselves in acts of destructiveness, sadism, cruelty, malice and gree

d - the same attributes which describe the wickedness of human behaviour or 'evil'.

 "This natural responsibility to his own biological and psychological existence and self-actualization constitutes the ethical value called 'virtue.' " (Erich Fromm. Man For Himself: An Inquiry into the Psychology of Ethics. New York: Holt, Rhinehart and Winston, 1947)

Biological function of human social values as specialized attributes for social adaptation... 'virtues'.

"The aim of man's life is the unfolding of his powers according to the laws of his nature"  In humanistic ethics 'good' is the affirmation of life, the unfolding of man's powers. 'Virtue' from Latin 'virtus' is 'responsibility toward one's existence, excellence of one's achievement." 'Vice' is "irresponsibility toward one's own existence." (Fromm Man For Himself 20)

Virtues have a biological function... they are of survival value to the human organism as a social organism. Virtues are operative values. Consequently it is possible to analyse the philosophical concept of 'virtue' in terms of a biological analysis of 'virtues' as human social values.

 "Those human attributes which are of value to the child in a social setting are the same attributes which we call 'virtues'. As a social organism, the child is happy in his work in a social environment in which the attributes for adaptation to the social environment are the same as the so-called 'virtues'. Virtues are of survival value for the social human organism. Virtues and the value life are of survival value and therefore biologically based. The philosophical analysis of virtues becomes the biological. The philosophical analysis of 'virtues' becomes equivalent to the biological analysis of the social values." (Maria Montessori Absorbent Mind 231)  

 Virtues and the value life are of survival value for the social human organism and therefore biologically based... the philosophical analysis of 'virtue' becomes equivalent to the biological analysis of social values.  'Virtues' are the human attributes which are of value to the individual as a social organism in a social environment ...human attributes for adaptation to the social environment are the same as the human values called 'virtues'.

Virtues are intrinsic values which unfold in the development of the organismic valuing process. Virtues are 'operative values' and as social values they are 'ethical' values. Ethical values increase the individual's capacity to adapt to changes in the social environment. The function of virtues as social values is to preserve the integrity of the personality as a whole i.e. to preserve psychological health or 'sanity'. Sanity is the basis for accurate evaluation of changing social conditions and rational choice of action which leads to adaptive behaviour.

Virtue from Latin 'virtus' is the affirmation of life and the responsibility to the unfolding of human potential and the excellence of human achievement. Irresponsibility toward one's self and one's potential is 'vice'. Vice is self-mutilation. The human organism is instinctively responsible to itself for its own potential development and self-actualization. The actualizing individual values the potentiality and the disposition of the 'human self' making decisions according to the organismic valuing process which is intrinsic to human nature. The biological function of organismic values is related to the preservation of the integrity of the organism. Virtues unfold naturally in a processof development of moral consciousness or 'conscience'. Conscience is awareness or consciousness of human moral values i.e. moral consciousness as 'knowledge of value' or 'morality'. The human conscience evolved as a biological mechanism for the preservation of the individual's true self-interest in the process of integration of personality and character in a changing social environment.

   Virtue as the source of happiness  Development of humaness depends on the need for parental love which is 'unconditional' i.e. mature love with care, respect, knowledge and responsibility (not overprotection and possessiveness). Unconditional love is the basis for development of conscience, the source of human virtues. Virtues are the biologically based social values which produce those attributes which are the foundation of human socialization and happiness - rational thought, confidence and courage

The aim of human development is happiness which is a function of  virtue. "Happiness is not the reward of virtue but is virtue itself." (Spinoza, Ethics)   

 Education for happiness and virtue: As virtue is the same as spontaneous productiveness, an educational system which encourages natural productiveness simultaneously encourages virtue. "The freedom to realize that which one potentially is, to fulfill the true nature of man according to the laws of his existence" is the necessary condition for happiness and virtue. (Fromm 247)

As virtue is the same as spontaneous productiveness, an education which encourages natural productiveness simultaneously encourages virtue. "The freedom to realize that which one potentially is, to fulfill the true nature of man according to the laws of his existence" is the necessary condition for happiness and virtue. (247) The moral problem of man and society today: making people virtuous. The conditions must be created which foster the development of prodctiveness. The first and foremost of these conditions is that the unfolding and growth of every person is the aim of all social and political activities, that man is the only purpose and end, and not a means for anybody or anything except himself."(229)

"If society is concerned with making people virtuous, it must be concerned with making them productive and hence with creating the conditions for the development of productiveness. The first and foremost of these conditions is that the unfolding and growth of every person is the aim of all social and political activities, that man is the only purpose and end, and not a means for anybody or anything but himself." (Erich Fromm. Man For Himself: An Inquiry into the Psychology of Ethics. New York: Holt, Rhinehart and Winston, 1947 p. 229) 

 Human values from the perspective of biology:

human values as motives for behaviour are 'guiding values' or 'operative values' distinct from value judgements or 'conceived values'

There are no values outside of human existence. As a biological and social organism, the human individual makes value choices on the basis of the inherent tendency toward self-actualisation. Value choices instinctively made in the context of the inherent tendency for self-actualisation are known as the 'operative values'.'Operative values are the values by which the organism operates or 'lives'. Operative values are the guiding values for living. Consequently the analysis of the human value life... moral science'... is a problem for biology of the human organism as a social organism and thus includes the biological basis of human social values... and their origin in moral consciousness or 'conscience'. The human conscience is the 'organismic valuing process' or 'naturalistic valuing system'.

It makes sense to analyse the value life of the human organism from the perspective of biology. It is possible to analyse the human value life in terms of its function in the evolution of the human species as a social species.

From the biological perspective the analysis of human values means that they can be understood in terms of their biological function in human evolution i.e. the science of value or 'moral science'. Moral science involves the study of the intrinsic and instinctive valuing process as a part of normal personality development as a function of development of moral consciousness or 'conscience'. Conscience is the source of values... the spiritual or 'divine' aspect of the human personality i.e. 'human nature'. Human nature is defined in terms of value choices instinctively made on the basis of the inherent tendency of growth i.e. 'operative values'. Operative values are the value choices which are sensed as being advantageous to the organism in the process of development i.e. 'human needs'.  Human needs are rooted in the instinct for self-preservation and are functional in motivation for human behaviour.

Human needs as operative values are value choices made by the human organism as a social organism with an inherent tendency for mature spiritual growth or 'self-actualisation'.

"Values are rooted in the very conditions of human existence; hence our knowledge of these conditions, that is, of the 'human situation', leads us to estabishing values which have objective validity; this validity exists only with regard to the existence of man; outside of him there are no values." (Erich Fromm Values, Psychology, and Human Existence in Maslow A.H. (ed) New Knowledge in Human Values. New York: Harper, 1959)

 There are three categories of 'values': operative values or human values, value judgements or 'conceived values'  and objective values.

 

Conceived values are instinctively introjected into the organismic valuing process during development. Conceived values are unnatural values conceived as being symbolically desirable... based on symbolized concepts... The 'introjective instinct' is a characteristically human instinct for internalisation of social values as 'cultural values'. The introjective instinct is the instinct for incorporating the content of instruction into the developmental process in a process of education of the young... The human species is a social and cultural species which depends for survival on the ability of the young to acquire large amounts of knowledge from the significant adults. The developing child depends completely on the care and love of the adult. The need for approval and the fear of disapproval are powerful motivating factors for ethical judgement. Under intense emotional pressure, ethical judgement is determined by the friendly or unfriendly reactions of its psychological parents. In a process of 'introjection' the child makes a part of himself or 'introjects' what appear to be the wishes, demands, hates, scorns, and standards significant adults. If the adults are weak, infantile and irrational, their values are introjected as though they were rational. Introjection of conceived values explains some of the causes of the formation of character and character orientation and explains the correlation between character orientation and social structure.  The internalisation of valued parental and cultural concepts can have a malignant effect by modifying the child's intrinsic organismic valuing process which involves the instinctive human values or 'operative values' of the development of moral consciousness or 'conscience'. Modification of the natural valuing  process results in construction of fixed and rigid conscience which is based on fear for the authority i.e. 'authoritarian conscience'. Authoritarian conscience forms arbitrary distinctions between 'good' and 'bad' before making rational judgements through a natural process of reflection and ethical reasoning.

 Under intense emotional pressure, "the child acquires a sense of distinguishing between good and bad before he learns the difference by reasoning. His value judgements are formed as a result of the friendly or unfriendly reactions of the significant people in his life... The fear of disapproval and the need for approval seem to be the most powerful and almost exclusive motivation for ethical judgement." (Fromm Man For Himself 11)

Further development produces the irrational 'authoritarian conscience' associated with authoritarian social character."The authoritarian 'conscience' is a fear for the authority rather than a representation of the individual's real conscience, the source of natural value judgements". (Fromm Man For Himself: Psychology of Ethics p.144) Authoritarian ethics is derived from authoritarian conscience. Authoritarian conscience is irrational conscience  derived from the internalization of an external authority. Authoritarian conscience  Authoritarian conscience is derived from the internalization of an external authority such as parental authority, state authority  or the autonomous authority of the 'market'. The authoritarian conscience is the voice of an insernalized authority and represents fear for the authority rather than the intrinsic conscience. The authoritarian conscience is the "voice of an internalized authority such as the parental authority, or state authority... The authoritarian so-called 'conscience' is a fear for the authority rather than a representation of the individual's real conscience, the source of natural value judgements." Authoritarian conscience is the source of irrational value judgements and produces 'authoritarian ethics'.   "Both the formal and the material aspects of authoritarian ethics are apparent in the genesis of ethical judgement in the child and of unreflective ethical judgement in the adult. (Fromm Man For Himself 10)

"Operative' values are value choices which are indicated with preferences of behavior, action and objects. As an example, if an earthworm placed in a 'Y' maze is given a choice between a smooth path and a path paved with sandpaper, it will prefer the smooth path to the potentially damaging path paved with sandpaper. The earthworm's choice is an 'operative value'. 'Conceived' values are value choices made on the basis of symbolized concepts. They are made in anticipation of the outcome, of the chosen behavior. As an example, a human being can choose one of two possible paths of action on the basis of a concept which he has been told to value such as 'honesty is the best policy'. The choice is a 'conceived value'. 'Objective' values are value choices which are objectively desirable. They are not sensed as being advantageous to the organism nor are they conceived as being symbolically desirable." (Morris, C.W. Varieties of Human Value. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1956)

 The 'values' expressed by the infant are 'operative' values. The 'operative values' are the values chosen on the basis of the organism's inherent tendency toward self-actualization. ...the valuing process in the developing human being.... reacting as a biological organism operating within an environment in which it must satisfy its ultimate need for self-actualization. 'responsibility for one's health' in the context of brain-based wholistic education. An individual who has been educated according to the principles of brain-based wholistic education is naturally 'responsible' for his/her own health and wants to take charge of their own life. Interference in this desire to take charge of one's own life and be responsible for one's own life and health constitutes deprivation of freedom even violence.

The values for the human organism are organismic values or  'operative values'. Organismic values are biologically based.

"Human values originate in the genetic makeup of the human species". . Dobjansky in Maslow(ed) New Knowledge in Huamn Values. NY Harper Bros 1959)

The organismic valuing process The organismic valuing process is a part of normal human development. As a biological organism, the human individual makes value choices on the basis of the inherent tendency toward self-actualisation. During development, the value choices are a function of the degree to which they are advantageous to the organism. Making choices and decisions according to its own organismic valuing process, the individual lives by values which facilitate its own survival, adaptation, self-enhancement and the enhancement of the human species. Like other species of the animal kingdom, homo sapiens - the social human animal - naturally behaves in accordance with an organismic valuing process which enables the organism to adapt to changing social conditions i.e. 'adaptability'. Adaptability depends on motives for learning or 'human needs'.

Functioning of operative values in the behaviour of the human infant  A clear example of the functioning of operative values is the expression of the human infant which demonstrates clearly that the center of the valuing process is the organism itself. From the beginning, the infant prefers the experiences which satisfy its basic developmental needs... maintain, enhance, or actualise the organism and rejects the same experiences once those needs have been met... rejects experiences which do not maintain, enhance or actualise the organism. The infant reacts as a biological organism operating within an environment in which it must satisfy its basic needs. It knows what value choices are right. Likes and dislikes are clearly expressed. Reactions and behaviour are overt. The organism naturally likes what is good for the organism and dislikes what is not good for the organism. Likes can become dislikes and vice versa but always in favour of growth. Food is valued positively and then becomes valued negatively when hunger is satisfied. Affection is valued positively because it communicates security required for growth. Security is valued because it allows for expression of curiosity for new experience. When the need for security is satisfied and pleasure is gained from the satisfaction of curiosity, then affection is rejected in favor of new experience. This natural valuing process is the 'naturalistic' or 'organismic valuing process'. The infant's approach to values as 'value choices' is a flexible process of change and not a fixed system. The 'values' expressed by the human infant are natural organismic values known as the 'operative' values. The operative values are natural values of the intrinsic organismic valuing process. They are the values which are sensed as being advantageous to the organism. Operative values are the biologically based instinctive values chosen on the basis of the organismic striving for self-actualization. They are value choices which are indicated by preferences of behaviour leading to the fulfillment of psychological and emotional needs of the organism and organismic tendencies to favor the development of the self, of others and the species. Naturally valued are those objects and experiences which contribute to the individual's own growth and development and the growth and development of others.

"The living human being has, at the outset, a clear approach to values. He prefers some things and experiences and rejects others. We can infer from studying his behaviour that he prefers those experiences which maintain, enhance, or actualize his organism, and rejects those which do not serve this end. Watch him for a bit... The infant's 'values' are clearly obvious to anyone observing his behaviour and his reactions. Hunger is negatively valued and food is positively valued. But when the hunger is satisfied then food is negatively valued. Security is positively valued. Affection is positively valued because it communicates security. New experience is valued. Pleasure is gained from the satisfaction of curiosity. Pain, bitter tastes and sudden loud sounds are negatively valued. The infant reacts overtly and gives expression to his likes and dislikes. He naturally likes what is good for him dislikes what is bad for him. The approach to 'values' which is demonstrated by the infant is a flexible, changing, valuing process, not a fixed system...Unlike many of us, he knows what he likes and dislikes, and the origin of these value choices lies strictly within himself. He is the center of the valuing process, the evidence for his choices being spplied by his own senses... He likes a food and then dislikes the same food. He values security and then rejects it in favor of new experience. He is not influenced by anyone but is reacting as a biological organism operating within an environment in which it must satisfy its ultimate need for self-actualization. The 'values' expressed by the infant are 'operative' values. The 'operative values' are the values chosen on the basis of the organism's inherent tendency toward self-actualization. (Carl Rogers "Freedom to Learn" Charles Merrill Publishing Company, Columbus Ohio l969 From chapter l2 "A modern approach to the valuing process" 239-257). 

It is time to approach the problem of ethics from a holistic perspective of human nature... time for science and philosophy to merge as a 'science/philosophy' of human values or 'natural ethics'. The problem of ethics is a product of logical deduction from a false premise. It is the falsity of the premise which creates the moral dilemma. The dilemma is a pseudodilemma resulting from ignorance of the holistic perception of human nature. The age-old problem of ethics can be resolved if it is based on the assumption that human nature is potentially good and productive. The problem of ethics must be approached from the perspective of a science which incorporates the expanded consciousness of the human mind i.e. 'holistic science'. A scientifically objective approach is possible if the objectivity is based on a holistic view of the human organism as a social organism. ... Natural ethics is moral intelligence or 'morality'. Morality is moral consciousness or 'conscience'.  Conscience is an emergent property of the human 'brain'. The natural function of the brain is to make meaning of experience or 'learn'. The proper functioning of the brain as 'meaning maker' depends on complete cognitive development or spiritual growth ... spiritual or moral intelligence.... 'nature and nurture'...  Resolution of perplexing issues of 'ethics' and 'morality' is possible with analysis in terms of biological principles rather than in terms of philosophical speculation.

 "During normal human growth, the ideal human potentialities unfold and become actualised. In the process of 'self-actualisation', ethical values or 'norms' for excellent living are discovered according to the laws of nature." (Maslow)

According to the law of 'moral universality', ethics is a matter of universal morals which are applicable to any specific human situation. Humanists have attempted to construct a naturalistic value system that could be derived from a knowledge of human nature i.e. 'humanistic ethics'.

Evolutionary significance of morality ... favours equilibrium between the organism and its social environment i.e. 'socialisation'

"There is an important aspect missing form the study of moral development, that is an explanation of the 'genetic evolution of ethics'... what is missing is the 'evolution of ethics'!" (Wilson. Sociobiology 564)

 Human survival depends on productive social behaviour... social harmony and cooperation i.e. 'social intelligence'. Morality as social intelligence provides security for the human organism in a social context... Social harmony depends on free morality as adaptive thought and behaviour which favours greater equilibrium, reciprocity, balance or 'adaptation' in the interaction between organism and social environment i.e 'natural ethics'.  Free morality favours the adaptation of the self to perception of others toward the self i.e. 'socialisation'. Socialisation in its generalized form results from the human tendency towards equilibrium in the 'organism-environment interaction'... favours the adaptation of the human organism as a social organism i.e. social adaptation to a changing social environment or 'adaptability'. Human adaptability as social adaptability depends on intelligent evaluation and intelligent value choices... acts of 'social cognition' motivated by wisdom of compassion of social intelligence.

Human adaptability depends on normal personality development as 'mature growth' or 'self-actualisation'.   

"With the recognition of the potential universality of the organismic valuing process of the human organism the perplexing issues of 'values' and ethics could be resolved." (Rogers)

Moral science or the 'science of value' is the systematic investigation into the real nature of morality as a human characteristic of survival value to the human organism as a member of a social species. 

Moral science ...is the science of moral development or development of 'morality'. Morality is biologically based. The development of morality is the development of the natural valuing process which is a part of normal human development. The normal development of the natural valuing process results in the complete development of the human conscience. Development of the human conscience is a function of the integrated development of personality and character in the context of inner freedom. Morality is a function of normal human development in the context of inner freedom involves both intellectual and moral development. Moral development and intellectual development take place together.. Morality is a function of maturity and social intelligence. validity of humanistic ethics... knowedge of human nature does not lead to ethical relativism, but to the conviction that the sources of norms for ethical conduct are to be found in man's nature itself; that moral norms are based upon man's inherent qualities, and that their violation results in mental and emotional disintegration...the character structure of the mature and integrated personality, the 'productive' character, constitutes the source and the basis of 'virtue' and that 'vice,' in the last analysis is the indifference to one's own self and self-mutilation.'Self-love' and the affirmation of one's true self are the supreme values of humanistic ethics. If man is to have confidence in values, he must know himself and the capacity of his nature for goodness and productiveness.

 Moral science investigates the the biological basis of human values.. .natural origins of human values... development of moral consciousness or 'conscience'... investigates ethics from the perspective of  the biology of the human organism - homo sapiens -  a social species ... . Like other species of the animal kingdom, the human animal behaves according to an organismic valuing process which allows for adaptation to a changing environment.

 A rational analysis of the issues of morality as a characteristic which has survival value for the human, organism as a social organism... 'homo sapiens'. Homo sapiens is a social species which depends for survival on development of a social brain. The human brain evolved through a process of natural selection for the capacities of intelligent social behaviour or social cooperation or 'socialisation'. The human organism is a social organism which is instinctively motivated for socialisation in order to acquire the things whica characterh it needs for work and for defence. Motivation for socialisation is intrinsic to the nature of the human personality or 'human nature'Human nature is defined in terms of the instinctive motives for human behaviour i.e. 'human needs'.  

"Making choices and decisions according to his own organismic valuing process, the individual lives by values which facilitate his own survival, adaptation, self-enhancement and the enhancement of the human race. Like other species of the animal kingdom, Homo Sapiens, the social human animal, naturally behaves in accordance with an organismic valuing process which enables him to adapt to his changing social environment .... With the recognition of the potential universality of the organismic valuing process of the human being, the perplexing issues of 'values' and ethics could be resolved. (Rogers, C. "Person to Person: The Problem of Being Human" Real People Press, Lafayette, California l967)

Natural origins of human values... values are rooted in the 'human condition'... human awareness of his existential isolation produces myths etc.

The valuing process in the developing human being and the natural origins of human values and the human conscience: A 'value' is a value choice. In the developing human organism, value choices or 'values' are a function of the degree to which they are advantageous to the organism. As value choices, 'values' have no objective validity. The validity of values exists only within the context of human existence. There are no values outside the conditions of human existence - separation from the world...a disconnection from reality... .'existential isolation'... the 'human situation'... the so-called 'human condition'. All human beings share the existential dichotomies or dilemma inherent in the human condition.

  Means of coping: achievement of 'happiness'... There are two types of motivation: First is 'normal' motivation by growth needs or 'metaneeds' i.e. growth motivation or 'metamotivation'The mature individual separates from the existential dilemmas of human existence... affirming  autonomy. Affirmation of autonomy involves a sense of specialness and its intrinsic isolation... growth motivation... 'self-awareness' ... the awakening of one's senses and the awareness of one's connection with nature. Self-awareness is basic to the individual's capacity to express feelings. The ability for self-expression is helpul to the individual in two important ways. First it facilitates the capaciy for building interpersonal relationships and second it facilitates the capacity to wish ... conception of freedom... 'critical faculties' enable one to step out of the social and psychological contexts which contribute to one's anxieties... depict one's own self-protective strategies... ways of relating... no longer see the relational mode of being as threatening. Instead perceive relationships as opportunities for growth. ...results in an increased sense of belongingness providing one with a meaningful social context in which to deal with the problems of living. This provides the individual with the sense of purpose which has the power to sustain one's life despite the confusions and anxieties which living inevitably entails. Belonging provides one with a context. It provides a feeling that life is meaningful and this in turn gives rise to a sense of purpose. It is  the sense of purpose arising from the meaningfulness of context which has the power to sustain one's life despite its inevitable confusions.

Second is 'abnormal' motivation by deficiency of growth needs i.e. 'deficiency motivation'  or 'deficit motivation' ... (the maladjusted child partly is denied the right to self-expression and individuation... leads to neurotic anxiety and depression). Deficiency motivation is based on needs and expectations ...interdependence of self-esteem and esteem from and for others. ...experiences of approval and disapproval influence one's self-evaluation. Low self-esteem has a double impact on the individual's relationships with other people. Low self-esteem results in the individual having a low esteem of others and it also results in the individual being afraid that he will not be appreciated by other people. .. The immature individual seeks safety... searches for security... by denying... giving up autonomy... and fusing... merging with another force - the 'ultimate rescuer'. Denial of autonomy.. fusion is a means of denying isolation since others are valued for their 'usefulness' rather than for their whole being. 'Spiritual poverty' results in defensive strategy; all the energy is focused on what the person does not want. People using it are continually in a position of potentially compromising whatever they may truly want in their lives for the sake of safety, security and sense of peace. 'Circumstantial stimuli' are stimuli, external or internal, which seem to force people to take action. These sometimes evoke spontaneous reaction and at other times seem to call for 'appropriate' responses. This is the 'reactive-responsive orientation'. In this kind of situation, it seems that the circumstances are more powerful than the individual who must design  strategies in order to avoid immediate unwanted circumstances. They design longer range strategies in order to prevent unwanted circumstances from happening in the first place. This is called the 'pre-emptive strike'.     

It is the knowledge of the human condition which leads one to conclude that values have objective validity. The criteria for 'good' and 'bad', 'right' and 'wrong' etc. are ultimately derived from the meaningfulness of human existence and the conditions for human survival. The values which are rooted in the conditions for adaptation and survival are the 'organismic values'. Organismic values are components of a biologically based valuing process which is intrinsic to the human organism ...the 'organismic valuing system'.

The organismic valuing system is the intrinsic valuing system involving the natural organismic values.

"Values are rooted in the very conditions of human existence; hence our knowledge of these conditions, that is, of the 'human situation', leads us to estabishing values which have objective validity; this validity exists only with regard to the existence of man; outside of him there are no values." (Erich Fromm "Values, Psychology, and Human Existence" in Maslow A.H. (ed) New Knowledge in Human Values. New York: Harper, 1959 )

Like all biological organisms with biological needs for self-preservation and adaptation, the human organism has the natural capacity to adjust its behaviour to a continuously changing environmelnt. Value choices and decisions are made in accordance with the organismic valuing process. 

Given the opportunity to grow to maturity in a growth promoting climate of freedom and respect, regardless of culture, the human organism prefers goals which satisfy the ultimate need for self-actualization instinctively living by values which facilitate its own self-enhancement and the enhancement of its species. Clear at the outset, its approach to 'values' is a flexible, changing process of decision making in the form of value choices.

Operative values are related to the organism's inborn capacities and talents. The operative values are the value choices which make up the inner core of human nature. They are value directions which are common to all human beings who have complete freedom to choose their own value directions, regardless of cultural influences.

The human organism has a natural sense of responsibility for its own self-actualization, its own virtue and happiness. Instinctively aware of its own biologically based psychological needs, aware that its basic needs must be satisfied for the achievement of its potential as a 'whole' human being, its full 'humaness'.

The operative values are the human values or 'human needs'... the value choices which do not involve any cognitive or conceptual thinking.

 

Knowledge of value depends on knowledge of human nature The human species is a social species and the human organism is a social organism which depends on developed conscience for preservation of personality integration while adapting to changing social conditions i.e. human 'adaptability'. Human adaptability as social adaptability depends on normal personality development as 'mature growth' or 'self-actualisation'. The failure of growth results in failure of social adaptability leading to human wickedness or 'evil'.  The notion of human nature as evil is the basis for formulation of 'codes of ethics'.

The human species is a social species and the human personality or 'human nature' is intrinsically social. Like any other species, the human species depends for survival on the ability to adapt to changing environments and conditions i.e. 'adaptability'. Human adaptability depends on the ability of the individual to make correct evaluations of a changing social environment... reason of 'moral intelligence' or 'social intelligence'. Social intelligence is a function of the protection and preservation of personal integrity involving the intrinsic valuing process of moral consciousness or 'conscience'. Conscience is an 'emergent property' of the human brain as a 'social brain'. As a social organism the human organism depends for socialisation and survival on the social values or 'virtues'. The virtues are natural ethical values which are essential for creative and adaptive socialisation. The human organism is a moral or ethical being. The system of natural ethics evolved by a process of natural selection during the course of human evolution.

  "A full definition of human nature must include intrinsic values as part of human nature. These intrinsic  values are 'instinctoid' in nature i.e. they are needed a) to avoid illness and b) to achieve fullest humaness  or growth. The illness resulting from deprivation of intrinsic values - the 'metaneeds' - we may call 'metapathologies'. The highest values, the spiritual life and the highest aspirations of mankind are therefore proper subjects for scientific study and research. They are in the world of nature" (Abraham Maslow).

The human species or 'homo sapiens' is a social species which depends for adaptation and survival on social cooperation as ... connectedness between individuals... human solidarity possible with social values i.e. 'spiritual values' or 'spiritual needs'. Spiritual needs are the i.e. 'growth needs of being' or 'Being-needs'.... such as unconditional spiritual love or 'agape'. As spiritual needs for growth, the spiritual values are of survival value to the human organism and have a biological basis. As biological needs the spiritual values constitute the 'spiritual equipment' which evolved with the evolution of the human species. Human evolution is a function of the natural selection for human social values i.e. 'social intelligence'. Social intelligence is a function of the fulfillment of human needs for psychological or 'spiritual growth'. Spiritual growth is a function of 'moral development' or 'morality'. Morality is defined in terms of moral consciousness or 'conscience'. The human conscience or 'soul' represents the source of the morals or 'virtues' of the value life i.e. 'happiness'. Personal knowledge of morality depends on a wholistic understanding of the integration of the integrated  aspects of the human personality i.e. 'human nature'.

 Human nature is a function of intrinsic motives for behaviour or 'human needs'... The scientific formulation of a natural value system is based on understanding of  proper growth and development as dependent on respect for motives for behaviour or 'human needs' Human needs are  rooted in the instinct for self-preservation..  (See Abraham Maslow)

 Human needs include physical needs for survival, psychological needs for security and spiritual needs for growth and development of the social brain i.e. 'socialisation'. vary with respect to their urgency or 'prepotency' As motives for learning behaviour the human needs are built into the biological constitution of the human organism as a 'hierarchy of needs' which can be described in terms of varying degrees of urgency or 'prepotency'. One need is more prepotent than another if it is more urgent and inhibits other needs. In the order of urgency or 'prepotency', first are the physiological needs and physical needs for safety and survival and  - the 'survival needs'; second are the psychological needs for security - the 'security needs'; third are the needs for care and affection or 'unconditional love' - the 'belongingness needs'; fourth are the needs for self-respect or 'self-esteem' - the 'ego needs'; fifth are the needs for spiritual growth and development of the social brain or 'socialisation' - the 'spiritual needs' or 'metaneeds'.

Psychological needs include the basic needs for security and belongingness and the growth needs for creativity and productivity i.e. the spiritual needs or 'metaneeds'. The metaneeds are the biologically based constitutional ethical impulses for wholeness, perfection, joy, aliveness, richness, simplicity, beauty, goodness, uniqueness, self-sufficiency, freedom, love, truth, justice i.e. the 'metavalues'. The metavalues are the 'human values'. Human psychological needs vary in strength in terms of urgency. The basic psychological needs are more urgent than the spiritual needs. The urgency of human needs determines the individual's type of interest or 'motivation'. Motivation depends on the extent to which the individual's human needs have been met. During normal growth and development, the individual relies on external sources and depends on others to meet the basic psychological needs also known as the deficit or 'deficiency needs'. Motivation by the deficiency needs is 'deficiency motivation.' For the deficiency motivated individual, gratification of the deficiency needs is more urgent than the gratification of the metaneeds. The deficiency motivated individual must rely on changeable factors in a non-reliable social environment. They must be flexible and responsive to peoples' reactions. Their interpersonal relations are based on need gratification. They perceive other people in terms of their usefulness as sources of gratification for their need deficiencies rather than in terms of their own intrinsic qualitites. Their personal relationships are limited and interchangeable. As a result, they are prone to anxiety, to hostility and a lack of freedom. Ultimately they lead lives which are unethical. If the basic psychological needs are met, the individual learns to gratify the metaneeds and their dependency on others decreases. The individual relies on their inner resources for gratification of the metaneeds. Motivation by the metaneeds is growth motivation or 'metamotivation'.

The physiological needs are more urgent more pressing or 'prepotent' to the basic or 'lower' psychological needs and the spiritual growth needs or 'higher' psychological needs. The lower psychological needs are the needs for needs for love, respect and care which provide for safety or 'security', sense of belongingness, self-esteem self-respect. They vary in terms of urgency or 'prepotency' and they are related to each other in hierarchical fashion.

Safety needs are prepotent to the growth needs and curiosity. Fear and anxiety inhibit curiosity and growth. Freedom from anxiety and fear is the pre-requisite to curiosity, exploration and growth through knowledge. The child will give up growth to retain the security of approval from significant adults. In a normal growth process, once the basic needs for security are fulfilled, the organism becomes less dependent on others for growth needs of creation and production..

The 'lower' needs rely on sources outside the individual and depend on others for their gratification. They are also known as the 'deficit' needs or deficiency needs (D-needs) because if they are  not gratified they remain the source of motivation in later life.  The individual who is motivated by deficiency needs can be described as 'deficiency motivated'. The individual makes personal decisions on the basis of the need which must be gratified before being motivated by other 'higher' needs. Decisions are made within the framework of the equivalent value system of 'deficit-values' (D-values). Motivation by deficiency needs is deficiency motivation or 'deficit motivation'. The deficiency motivated individual perceives other people in terms of their usefulness as sources of gratification for his need deficiencies rather than perceiving them in terms of their own intrinsic values. Since they depend on others they must be flexible and responsive to their reactions. The 'deficiency motivated' individual who relies on changeable factors in a non-reliable social environment is prone to anxiety, hostility and ultimately to a lack of freedom.. His interpersonal relations are limited and interchangeable because they are based on need gratification. During normal development, once the basic 'lower' needs are gratified, the individual becomes less dependent on others for the gratification of the 'higher' needs for growth, creativity and productivity - the spiritual growth needs opr'metaneeds also known as 'Being needs' or  B-needs. For gratification of the B-needs the 'growth motivated' individual relies on inner resources and is motivated to make their personal decisions and choices within the framework of the equivalent value system, that of the Being-values or B-values. The  individual is independent of others for the gratification of their growth needs for spiritual maturity and independence or 'self-actualisation'. The self-actualising individual is characteristically autonomous and self-sufficient, experiences and enjoys the pleasure of insight, creativity and productivity or 'work' i.e. true 'freedom'.   In the process of successfully adapting to changing social environment,They have the capacity to make decisions in their 'true' self interest;At the same time, those same decisions are in the interest of others and the society at large....    to perceive others objectively as unique individuals with their own  intrinsic qualities, to have a non-judgmental, non-interfering attitude towards others, to perceive reality holistically. Their comprehensive understanding of others forms the basis for meaningful interpersonal relations. The self-actualised individual has superior perception of reality; increased acceptance of self, of others and of nature; increased spontaneity; increased problem-centering; increased detachment and desire for privacy; increased resistance to enculturation; greater freshness of appreciation and richness of emotional reaction; higher frequency of so called 'peak-experiences'; increased identification with the human species;  more democratic 'character structure'; greatly increased creativeness; 'ethical' value system. Generally enjoying life in all of its aspects, these people lead ethical lives. Capable of a holistic perception of reality, their reasoning transcends the opposites, the dichotomies, the polarities, the contradictions and incompatibles. Perceiving these as interpenetrating facets of a whole, the self-actualised person lives by the 'Being-values' of wholeness, perfection, truth, justice, aliveness, richness, simplicity, beauty, goodness, uniqueness, self-sufficiency etc.

 The self-actualised individual lives in accordance with natural biological laws and the evolutionary process.

     The 'higher' values are those biologically based constitutional ethical impulses revealed during the proper development of psychological health. They enable the individual to adjust to the realities of a changing social environment. For gratification of the B-needs, the individual relies on his own inner resources. Making his personal decisions on the basis of B-needs, he naturally makes his choices within the framework of the equivalent value system, that of the 'Being-values' (B-values). Motivation by the Being needs... spiritual needs or 'metaneeds'... for growth is 'growth motivation'... Motivation by the metaneeds for ethical living is 'metamotivation'. A full definition of human nature includes metamotivation by the metaneeds because it is biologically based and instinctive.

 The human values are actually intrinsic human needs which include the biologically based spiritual needs 'growth needs' or 'metaneeds'. .

 Morality is defined by the morals or 'virtues' of the value life. Personal knowledge of morality depends on a wholistic understanding of the integration of all aspects of the personality of the human species as a social species i.e. 'human nature'. Human nature is defined in terms of human values for living i.e. 'human values'.

Human nature is defined in terms of human values for living. Man's value judgements - his criteria for good and evil- are derived from the meaningfulness of his own existence. Man finds fulfillment and happiness through love - the power by which he relates to the world through his fellow man."Living' as an art: the process of developing into that which one is potentially. "Humanistic ethics is the applied science of the 'art of living' based upon the theoretical 'science of man'. (Erich Fromm. Man For Himself: An Inquiry into the Psychology of Ethics 18)

Understanding of human growth and development depends on knowledge of human needs. Human needs are 'value choices' rooted in the instinct for self-preservation.They are functional or 'operative' in the organism's inherent striving for wholeness' or 'health' i.e. and the organismic striving for 'mature growth' i.e. 'self-actualisation'...  'operative values'.  Human operative values are behaviour preferences related to the organism's inherent capacities and talents which are functional in the unfolding of human powers and the achievement of the human potential for self-actualisation.  Self-actualisation depends on gratification of the 'higher psychological needs' for 'ego-transcendance' - the instinctive 'growth needs' or 'spiritual needs' i.e. 'metaneeds' as well as the basic psychological needs' for self-respect and self-esteem - the 'ego needs' (safety and security, for belongingness - love, respect and care and for self-esteem and self-respect). The so-called 'lower' needs vary in strength in terms of urgency or 'prepotency'. The 'lower' needs rely on sources outside the individual and depend on others for their gratification. The metaneeds function as 'social values' or 'moral values' - truth, beauty, logic, knowledge, compassion, justice i.e. 'human values'...  required for resolution of social problems and social cooperation ('socialisation') and successful adaptation to changing social conditions ('adaptability'). Denial and frustration of metaneeds produces 'immature growth' as 'neurotic development' or 'neurosis' the source of pathological behaviour which results in human wickedness or 'evil'. In neurotic development the individual is motivated by the lower needs and makes personal decisions on the basis of needs which have not been gratified... for this reason the ego needs are also known as 'deficit' needs or deficiency needs (D-needs) and their equivalent values are 'deficit-values' (D-values). Motivation by deficiency needs is deficiency motivation or 'deficit motivation'.  The deficiency motivated individual perceives other people in terms of their usefulness as sources of gratification for his need deficiencies. Dependence on others requires  flexiblility and responsiveness to their reactions. Reliability on changeable factors in a non-reliable social environment leads to anxiety, to hostility and ultimately to a lack of freedom. Interpersonal relationships are limited and interchangeable because they are based on need gratification.

During normal development, once the basic 'lower' needs are gratified, the individual becomes less dependent on others for the gratification of the 'higher' needs for growth, creativity and productivity - also known as 'Being needs' (B-needs ).

 Spiritual needs or 'metaneeds'

the self-actualised individual live by the 'higher' human values... a natural value system a function of the natural laws of the  human organism as a social organism...

The metaneeds of the value-life i.e. the spiritual, ethical and moral values, are instinctive biological components of the human organism. The human organism is instinctively aware of its own basic biological and biologically based psychological needs. The human individual is instinctively aware that the basic needs must be satisfied in order for him to achieve his full humaness, his potential as a 'whole' human being in a process of self-actualisation. The human organism has an instinctive responsibility to its own needs.

 The metaneeds are the biologically based constitutional ethical impulses revealed during harmonious human development...... the spiritual needs of the value-life. They are the guiding moral or 'ethical' values of humaness - the 'divine' values of the moral being. also known as 'Being-values' or 'B-Values' - 'Being needs' (B-needs) the needs for truth, beauty, goodness, justice, transcendance, wholeness, perfection, truth, 'love' as human fellowship, justice, aliveness, richness, simplicity, uniqueness, self-sufficiency etc.

They must be satisfied for a person to become mature, to express the potentialities of human nature, to become fully 'human'. Individuals who have had their lower needs gratified during normal growth are less dependent on others for the gratification of the higher needs for spiritual growth, creation and production. The individual who is motivated by the Being needs for growth, is 'growth motivated.' The growth motivated individual relies on their inner resources and is independent of others for the gratification of growth needs.

 

Human needs for ethical living must be met for effective socialisation, adaptation and survival... Denial or frustration of human needs... failure to satisfy human needs capacities or yearnings leads to undeveloped conscience leads to pathologies of diminished humanness... psychopathologyies which manifest as the wickedness of human behaviour or 'evil'.

   

Human needs have evolved on the basis of their survival value

 They determine the individual's full functioning as a socially intelligent being. Social intelligence and adaptation depend on proper growth and development. Individuals whose needs are met can be described by those human attributes, the ethical values, which have survival value for the human organism as a social organism - self-respect, self-directedness, self-discipline, sense of purpose, sense of worthiness... Ethical values for communal living are characteristic of maturity and self-actualization. With complete growth, individuals become self-actualised. 

Psychological wholeness and personality integration achieved through proper development of the intrinsic human conscience is the basis of social intelligence.A culture which recognizes and respects the human needs for socialization and provides the necessary conditions for fostering proper human growth and development is a 'healthy culture'. As a result of culturally fostered human development, the individual becomes 'self-actualized' - living according to the 'higher' ethical values of a rational conscience. Ethical individuals can live together in peace and justice because they naturally do what is right and necessary for communal living.

 If the instinctive tendency for growth and productive life is thwarted, then there is a transformation of the blocked constructive energy into destructive energy. Those individual and social conditions which make for the blocking of productive energy produce the destructive energy which is the source of evil. Growth in a social environment which does not satisfy the human need for security results in the individual's anxiety, hostility and ultimate lack of personal freedom.

The insecure individual learns to rely on the changeable factors in the environment, becoming motivated by the deficiency of security needs i.e. 'deficit motivation'. Deficiency motivation results in involvement which is limited and interchangeable because it is based on need gratification. When need gratification becomes the basis for human education and teaching methodology, the result is failure to develop the potential of the human organism.

Development of the conscience is a function of personality or 'moral development'.

The various needs - survival needs, security needs, belongingness needs, ego needs and  metaneeds - are interrelated in a process of meaningful living.

The aim of life and the art of living  As intrinsic motives for behaviour the human needs are the source of 'motivation' for learning i.e. 'intrinsic motivation'. Intrinsic motivation - unlike 'extrinsic motivation' - engages personality growth and development. At the different stages of developmental growth and personality development - 'socio-cognitive stages' - the human needs rise to the surface of consciousness and become motivational for behaviour. The individual's behaviour is dominated by the need which is motivational at the particular sociocognitive stage which they have reached. Living becomes an art of developing into that which is one's potential. The art of living is the application of the human values which are the defining characteristics of human nature. The aim of human life is the unfolding of human powers according to the laws of human nature and the human spirit which is the human conscience. The human conscience is the source of human spiritual values. The characteristic 'humanness' or 'humanity' of the human organism is based on complete development of the human conscience or 'soul'. Construction of conscience is a function human personality development which depends on the facilitative methods of education for 'wholeness' i.e. 'holistic education'. Holistic education is education for complete personality development... i.e. personality health or 'wellness'.

The humanity of the whole or 'healthy' personality...the self-fulfilled... self-actualised individual is expressed in the core of human values which are shared with all other individuals of the human species.

 

Human values are fundamental to development of SOCIAL INTELLIGENCE' or 'creative intelligence' as a function of intuition Knowledge of human values - 'self-knowledge' - depends on the long period of normal psychological development in infancy and childhood i.e. ' spiritual growth'. Spritual growth depends on the provision of growth promoting environmental conditions i.e. 'education'. The root of the word 'education' is derived from the Latin 'e-ducare' literally meaning 'to lead forth' in the sense of bringing out from within something which is potentially present. Education is cultivation of the human potential for understanding of reason and wisdom of compassion i.e. 'creative intelligence' of 'compassionate genius' or 'social intelligence'. Holistic education is based on respect for the individual's value system as the product of the totality of their thought processes in the context of experience in a changing social environment.  

Moral science is concerned with the biological basis of moral consciousness or 'conscience' as protective mechanism for personality integration during process of adaptation to changing social conditions.

 The sources of norms for ethical conduct are to be found in human nature. Violation of natural moral norms results in mental and emotional disintegration. The character structure of the mature and integrated personality - the 'productive' character - constitutes the source and the basis of 'virtue'. 'Vice' is the indifference to one's own self and self-mutilation. 'Self-love' and the affirmation of one's true self are the supreme values of humanistic ethics. For the human organism to have confidence in values, he must know himself and the capacity of his nature for goodness and productiveness.

  'Humanistic ethics'is a universal value system based on the need of each individual to be true to the humanity of their own conscience... 'freedom of conscience' as 'true freedom'.   

"Humanistic ethics is the applied science of the 'art of living' based upon the theoretical 'science of man'. (Fromm Man For Himself 18)

  "Humanists for thousands of years have attempted to construct a naturalistic, psychological value system that could be derived from man's own nature, without the necessity of recourse to authority outside thehuman being himself. Many such theories have been offered throughout history. They have all failed." (Maslow Psychology of Being 149)

'developmental-genetic conception' of ethical behaviour. The child moves from a primary dependence on external controls and sanctions to an increasingly sophisticated set of internalised standards.

"Our knowledge of human nature does not lead to ethical relativism, but to the conviction that the sources of norms for ethical conduct are to be found in man's nature itself; moral norms are based on man's inherent qualities, and their violation results in mental and emotional disintegration... the character structure of the mature and integrated personality, the 'productive ' character, constitutes the source and the basis of 'virtue' and 'vice' in the last analysis is the indifference to one's own self and self-mutilation." 'Self-love' and the affirmation of one's true self are the supreme values of humanistic ethics. "If man is to have confidence in values, he must know himself and the capacity of his nature for goodness and productiveness." (Fromm Man For Himself : Psychology of Ethics p.7)

Humanistic conscience is based on the knowledge of man's nature. The great tradition of humanistic ethical thought is based on a wholistic perspective of man in his 'physico-spiritual totality'. It is based on the belief that man's aim is to be himself, and that the condition for attaining this goal is that man be for himself. It is based on the premise that one has to know the nature of man in order to formulate valid ethical codes. Based on the validity of man's autonomy, valid ethical norms are formed by man's reason." (Fromm Man For Himself 7)

Humanistic ethics is a universal value system which is based on each person's need to be truthful to their own humanity - their own real self.  

"The aim of man's life is the unfolding of his powers according to the laws of his nature" In humanistic ethics 'good' is the affirmation of life, the unfolding of man's powers. 'Virtue' from 'virtus' is 'responsibility toward one's existence, excellence of one's achievement." 'Vice' is "irresponsibility toward one's own existence." (20)

Ethical intuitionism is the direct awareness of true right and wrong which can be formalized in the mind by logic and translated into rules of social action.

The formulation of valid ethical norms by reason is based on the knowledge of human nature. Based on the respect for the dignity of human existence, the moral norms of humanistic ethics lie within the productive character which values the affirmation of the true human self. Valid ethical norms are formulatd on the basis of the inherent qualities of human nature which are manifest in the mature and integrated personality, the 'productive' character. Education based on knowledge of human nature is education for ethics... for morality.... ethical or moral education... 'holistic education' ... for 'freedom'.

 HUMANISTIC ETHICS universal human ethics AND RATIONAL AUTHORITY(use of reason) The source of rational authority is competence. "The person whose authority is respected functions competently in the task with which he is entrusted by those who conferred it upon him." (Fromm Man For Himself 10)

Rational authority depends on performance and requires constant scrutiny.

"If man is to have confidence in values, he must know himself and the capactity of his nature for goodness and productiveness." (Fromm Man For Himself 7

Humanistic conscience is based on the knowledge of man's nature. The great tradition of humanistic ethical thought is based on a wholistic perspective of man in his 'physico-spiritual totality'. It is based on the belief that man's aim is to be himself, and that the condition for attaining this goal is that man be for himself." (Fromm Man For Himself 7)

 It is based on the premise that one has to know the nature of man in order to formulate valid ethical codes. Based on the validity of man's autonomy, valid ethical norms are formed by man's reason. 1. naturalistic value system (Maslow) 2. organismic valuing process (Rogers)

 "...the full exploration of the neural machinery of ethical judgement is desirable and already in progress."(Edward O. Wilson "Sociobiology: The New Synthesis" Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, l975

 Morality of developed conscience as a function of perception of the whole or 'holistic perception'of reality Morality as spiritual intelligence perception which results from nondistorted perception of reality health or wholeness and which does not perceive dichotomies i.e.  'holistic perception'. Holistic perception involves both intellect and emotion related to moral development.  Morality is a function of holistic perception and  'complete cognition'.

a function of sanity - necessary for correct evaluation of the social environment - eliminates distorted perception of reality and incorrect dichotomous perception of human values perception of reality -'unsane' human conscience is the human 'spirit'...to know, to love, and to serve is the trinomial of all religions, but the child is the true maker of our spirituality... in the child we see how conscience is constructed to determine behaviour and character...according to natural laws of development...the conscience is constructed during growth with inner freedom and concentration on productive work ...what matters is the will... during human development, the components of the human conscience are constructed through concentration and work... interference with concentration, growth and development create obstacles to the free development of the human conscience...and contribute to the mind's imprisonment ...the child becomes human in the true sense only if allowed to grow and develop in freedom...the aim of human development is the self-realization of human productiveness ... experiencing the world both mentally through reason - understanding all dimensions, and emotionally through 'love' - with respect, knowledge, care and responsibilty.

"Humanistic conscience is based on the knowledge of man's nature. The great tradition of humanistic ethical thought is based on a wholistic perspective of man in his 'physico-spiritual totality'. It is based on the belief that man's aim is to be himself, and that the condition for attaining this goal is that man be for himself. It is based on the premise that one has to know the nature of man in order to formulate valid ethical codes. Based on the validity of man's autonomy, valid ethical norms are formed by man's reason." (Fromm Man For Himself 7)

"Acting out of freedom does not exclude the moral laws; it includes them, but shows itself to be on a higher level than those actions which are merely dictated by such laws".(Rudolph Steiner)

Morality is a function of self-actualisation and ego-transcendance... beyond the 'ego level' of consciousness... higher level of consciousness - the spiritual level.

Survival value of social needs or 'values': human adaptability depends on accurate evaluation of  complex situations which arise in a changing social reality i.e. 'moral situations' The human organism depends for survival on the ability to make accurate evaluations of changing social realities... social situations or 'moral situations'. The practical meaning of a moral situation - apppropriate decisions and actions for problem resolution - is not immediately apparent... not self-evident. The situation must first be evaluated and assessed before decisions can be made from a choice of various options. Deciding on the right course of action depends on intelligent inquiry based on intense interest in the environment - 'curiosity'. Curiosity combined with accurate evaluation depends on the moral sense or 'ethical sense'... 'ethics' of moral intelligence or 'morality'.

Morality is empathic awareness...'empathy'... of the other's need for growth i.e. 'justice'  The biological concept of survival value of the moral sense is equivalent to the philosophical concept of morality. The development of morality depends on inner freedom translates into 'free morality'. Morality as 'free morality' is not the same as the instruction of moral behaviour i.e. 'moralism'. Free morality is equivalent to the responsibility of freedom or 'ethics'. The term 'morality’ comes from the Latin word 'moralitat, moralitas' derived from ‘moralis’ for meaning both 'custom' and 'ethic'. The concept of morality as free morality can be defined in terms of its various different aspects: living in truth, living by virtues, spiritual intelligence, moral rationality, empathy, holistic perception.

"In the cognitive-developmental view, morality is a natural product of a universal tendency toward empathy or role-taking... toward putting oneself in the shoes of other conscious beings. It is also a product of a universal human concern for justice, for reciprocity or equality in the relation of one person to another." (Lawrence Kohlberg)

 As a social organism, the human organism depends for survival on socially intelligent behaviour or moral intelligence. Morality as moral rationality is the natural human concern for reciprocity or equality in the relation of one person to another... the understanding of the humanity of the other... i.e. 'social consciousness' or 'sense of justice'... the universal human tendency to put oneself in the place of another and to understand  them as in some way like oneself i.e.  'empathic awareness' or 'empathy'. Empathy is a natural process which occurs in all social interactions and communication situations.

Morality is a function of spirituality  Morality is the instinctive sense of responsibility for living in the 'truth' i.e. 'free morality'. Morality as 'free morality' is a function of the development of moral rationality or 'moral intelligence' - an 'emergent property' of the human brain. The human brain is a social brain which depends on ''moral consciousness' or 'conscience' for accurate evaluation of the social environment. The development of conscience is a function of spiritual development... attainment of the highest consciousness state... 'conscience - the human 'soul'. The conscience is the guardian of personal integrity, the source of human values i.e. moral intelligence or 'ethical reasoning' i.e. 'social intelligence'. Social intelligence produces moral or ethical behaviour or 'ethical living'. Ethical living engages the individual's instinctive awareness of its psychological needs. Value choices are made on the basis of the inherent tendency toward full humaness of 'mature growth' i.e. 'self-actualisation'.

Morality is moral rationality of moral consciousness or 'conscience'... moral intelligence Morality is a function of normal human development... development of  conscience in the context of conditions of freedom as inner freedom... involves both intellectual and moral development. Morality as social or piritual intelligence is a function of ethical reasoning or 'moral rationality' of rational conscience or 'mature conscience'. The normal growth and development of the human conscience or 'moral development' involves both cognitive and moral development. Cognitive and moral development unfold together in a developmental process which involves the alignment and harmony of powerful emotional forces to which the individual is subjected... a necessary precondition for rational thought. The selection and arrangement of emotional interactions and experiences occurs through the power of thinking or 'cognition'. The harmonizing process is achieved through social interactions which are emotionally significant and also harmonious.

Morality is a function of development of conscience in conditions of freedom as 'inner freedom'...   'autonomous nature of ethics'   Morality is a function of normal human development in the context of inner freedom.

"The free man acts morally because he has a moral idea; he does not act in order that morality may come into being. Human individuals, with the moral ideas belonging to their nature, are the prerequisites of a moral world order. The human individual is the source of all morality. State and society exist only because they have arisen as a necessary consequence of the life of the individuals. ...the social order arises so that it in turn may react favorably upon the individual." (Steiner, R. Philosophy of Freedom: Philosophy of Spiritual Activity. The Basis for a Modern World Conception. (Some results of introspective observation following the methods of Natural Science). London: Rudolf Steiner Press, 1970, 144)

 "We all have an 'intrinsic conscience' which is based on the unconscious and preconscious perception of our own nature, of our own destiny, of our own capacities, of our own 'call' in life." (Maslow, A. Toward a Psychology of Being, Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. New York: 1962, 7) "Acting out of freedom does not exclude the moral laws; it includes them, but shows itself to be on a higher level than those actions which are merely dictated by such laws." (Steiner, R. Philosophy of Freedom)

 "...the 'free spirit' - the moral being - is the purest expression of human nature." "We are men (human) in the true sense only in so far as we are free. Knowledge of oneself - self-knowledge - overcomes the division between the subjective self and the objective world. During normal growth and development - with self-knowledge- the individual "brings the concept of himself to expression in his outer existence." (Steiner, R. Philosophy of Freedom: Philosophy of Spiritual Activity. The Basis for a Modern World Conception: Some Results of Introspective Observation Following the Methods of Natural Science. London: Rudolf Steiner Press, 1970, 141)

 "Man's value judgements - his criteria for good and evil - are derived from the meaningfulness of his own existence.

 Free morality is based on inner freedom

 Normal human development in the context of inner freedom involves both intellectual and moral development. (Steiner, R. Philosophy of Freedom) "Real freedom is a consequence of development; it is the consequence of latent guides, aided by education. It is the construction of the personality, reached by effort and one's own experiences; it is the long road which every child must take to reach maturity... Development cannot be taught." (Montessori Absorbent Mind)

 

Rational conscience is a function of ethical reasoning... depends on holistic perception Ethical reasoning is a mental process in which the conscious mind is synchronized with the unconscious mind.  Powerful emotional forces become aligned and harmonized through intrinsically non-rational engagement of the individual's emotional motivation which interacts with harmonious relationships of emotionally significant others. The rational intellect selects and arranges the experience. The crux of the interaction is the emotional experience of alignment and harmonization of the intellectual forces of the conscious mind with the motivational forces of the unconscious mind or 'motivational state'. The resulting conscience is rational or irrational depending on the degree of maturity of the individual's motivational state.

 The rational conscience is a naturally flexible system of ethical rationality characterized by a perception of reality which is global or 'holistic' i.e. 'holistic perception'. Holistic perception emphasizes connections and relationships... eliminates the distortions of ego-centeredness and the dichotomous perception of human nature. Holistic perception is necessary for the accurate evaluation of the social environment or 'sanity'.

Sanity is a function of 'health' or 'wholeness' i.e. 'wellness'.

Holistic perception depends on education which facilitates meaningful work   An educational environment which favours creativity and productivity or 'work' also provides the conditions which are necessary for the promotion of spiritual growth and morality of a rational conscience. the psychological development of moral consciousness or 'spiritual growth... As part of normal human development and psychological growth, spiritual growth is a process of construction of the rational conscience... and is based on the fundamental dignity of human existence and the human need for concentration on work in the context of inner freedom. The unobstructed development of conscience through work depends on the biologically based human need for 'spiritual love' (also 'universal love', 'universal brotherhood', 'agape') or 'unconditional love' - the source of security necessary for normal psychological growth.

Unconditional love is the solidarity between human beings based on the fundamental respect for the dignity of human existence and human needs.

 Ethics is a concern of education for 'moral development' as development of human potential for moral intelligence or 'morality'... so 'moral education'  

Moral education involves development of conscience or 'soul'

Holistic education fosters the development of human intelligence as the combination of wisdom of compassion with understanding of reason i.e. 'conscience' or 'soul'.

Education for happiness as harmony or 'oneness' with the world and preserving the integrity of one's 'self'... finding the answer to the problem of human existence... the productive realisation of one's potentialities and thus simultaneously....  "Happiness is man's greatest achievement; it is the response of his total personality to a productive orientation toward himself and the world outside".(Fromm)

In the paradigm of holistic education the teacher's role is defined as 'facilitator of learning'.

Lowry, Richard J., "A.H. Maslow: An Intellectual Portrait" Brooks/Cole Publishing Co., Monterey, California, l973

Maslow, Abraham. Toward a Psychology of Being. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. New York: 196

Ethical values of moral consciousness or 'conscience'  Ethics is a matter of 'conscience' - not the authoritarian conscience or 'superego' which represents the internalization of parental or societal authority.

As the inner core of human values the rational human conscience represents 'human nature'

The science of value is the study of the natural valuing process as a part of normal human development... Moral development is development of the human 'conscience'...  Ethics is a matter of natural human values shared by all human individuals... the human conscience.

The development of the human 'conscience' is the basis for moral development or the development of 'morality'. Moral development is development of the human conscience. The understanding of the development of morality depends on the understanding of the human being as a biological social organism The human brain is a 'social brain'.

 Ethics are values.

 Morality is biologically based. The development of morality is the development of the natural valuing process which is a part of normal human development. The normal development of the natural valuing process results in the complete development of the human conscience. Conscience is the biological mechanism for maintenance of integration of the human personality in a complex social environment.

As organismic values, human values are components of the biologically based value system, the intrinsic valuing system of the human organism...

 Ethics is a matter of 'humanistic conscience'... 'rational conscience' - the inner core of human values which is common to all human beings - natural value judgements of the human organism i.e. 'natural ethics'.

The complete development of the intrinsic valuing system coincides with the full development of the human 'conscience' ... 'social intelligence'. Social intelligence is a function of the full development of the human conscience.

 Normal psychological growth involves the development of a natural valuing process which is manifest in the proper development of the human conscience.

 THE SCIENCE OF ETHICS IS THE STUDY OF MORALITY ...COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT (INTELLIGENCE) AND MORAL DEVELOPMENT (MORALITY) GO TOGETHER.

The natural valuing process is a part of normal human development. Cognitive and moral development go together. Development of morality and intelligence go together.

Morality is a function of intelligence and inward freedom...Morality is a function of maturity and social intelligence.  Psychological health - 'self-actualization'- is prerequisite for social intelligence and healthy society and culture. Development of morality and the human conscience depends on unconditional productive love.

 The development of morality is the development of the natural valuing process which is a part of normal human development The normal development of the natural valuing process results in the complete development of the human Development of the human conscience is a function of the human need for unconditional love . The human individual is the source of all morality.

 moral development . The valuing process of the human organism is a function of the psychobiological development of the human conscience... .The normal development of the natural valuing process results in the complete development of the human conscience... development of morality resuts from the full development of the human conscience.

 man has a 'natural personality' which is basically good.. manifest in the natural unfolding of human potentialities in normal human development during which the natural norms for ethical living are discovered according to the laws of nature. the good or clear conscience produces a feeling of inner approval... of rightness resulting from actions, thoughts, and feelings which are conducive to the integration of the whole personality. The guilty conscience is a feeling of inner disapproval ...of wrongness resulting from actions, thoughts, and feelings which are injurious to the integration of the total personality producing a feeling of uneasiness and discomfort. In addition to the conscience, each individual has a unique potentiality manifested in a personal decision making process which is based on his own will, responsibility, strength, courage and needs.

 Biological basis of the so-called 'higher' values... human nature as the mature mind...

Biological basis of natural valuing process or organismic valuing process... 'biology of ethics'...

Fundamental sincerity is the basis of morality... 'intrinsic conscience' is based on the unconscious and preconscious perception of human nature

Natural outcome of normal human development is the human conscience... the characteristic 'humanness' or 'humanity' of the human organism is based on complete development of the human conscience - human self-development and self-fulfillment ...

..the absence of fear, and is obtained only by the man who has prudence and foresight and thus is ready to reject immediate gratification for the sake of permament and tranquil satisfaction

Human development: valuing process (natural science of ethics) normal psychological growth coincides with development of the 'conscience'...'intrinsic conscience' - humanistic conscience: ...need for unconditional love and integrated development of personality and character for development of 'conscience' ...

Morality is a function of the development of conscience.

Development of the human conscience is a function of the integrated development of personality and character in the context of inner freedom...obedience to one's own conscience

 In the developing human organism, the proper development of the intrinsic conscience depends on the integrated development of personality and character. As the basis for the proper development of the intrinsic conscience, integration of the whole personality and character depends on the complete development of a psychologically healthy personality. The product of optimal psychological growth is the integrated personality with properly developed intrinsic conscience - the psychologically healthy personality or 'whole' personality (the word 'healthy' comes from 'hael' meaning whole.) An individual's value system is the product of the totality of thought processes within the context of experiences in a changing social environment.

 

Incomplete psychological development means incomplete development of the human conscience...

 Human development and natural human values... 'morality'.

 Maturity of conscience results from healthy human psychological development. ...accurate evaluation of the social environment depends on fully developed... integrated personality with mature conscience..

Development of the human conscience is confluent with natural respect for the dignity of human existence.

 

The human conscience is the human 'spirit'. Developed conscience is the source of 'divine' values...

development of the human conscience - human self-development and self-fulfillment ... the 'humanity' of the self-actualized individual is characterized by the core of human values which are shared with other individuals of the human species

One cannot place a whole person on a continuum, only an abstracted aspect of a person. Wholenesses are non-comparable. ... 'morality of evolution'...universal value system is based on each person's need to be truthful to their own humanity - their own real self. Development of the human conscience is a function of the human need for unconditional love... the integrated development of personality and character in the context of inner freedom. ...Natural outcome of normal human development is the human conscience...the characteristic 'humanness' or 'humanity' of the human organism is based on complete development of the human conscience - human self-development and self-fulfillment ... the 'humanity' of the self-actualized individual is characterized by the core of human values which are shared with other individuals of the human species.

the real and rational human conscience is the source of natural value judgements .. the inner core which is common to all human beings, our 'human nature' The rational conscience ...

 The nature of the productive character is nature of the human organism... the spontaneous process of self-realization results in the productive character orientation ...a mode of relatedness to the world... the individual recognizes his powers, identifies with them and puts them to productive use. Every human organism is born with the biological potential for development of a productive character and human conscience ...for that potential to be actualized during growth and development, the proper conditions for growth are required ...the 'free spirit' - free conscience - the moral being - is the expression of the basic nature of the human organism... In normal human development - in the context of inner freedom - intellectual and moral development take place together...construction of the conscience involves both intellectual and moral development...a naturalistic, psychological value system derived from the knowedge of human nature...need to recognize the intrinsic spirituality or conscience of the human organism - manifestation of the conscience depends on growth for inner freedom...free morality is based on inner freedom ..

An individual's value system is the product of the totality of the individual's thought processes within the context of experiences in a changing social environment.

 "A moral situation is one in which judgement and choice are required antecedently to overt action. The practical meaning of the situation - that is to say the action needed to satisfy it - is not self-evident. It has to be searched for. There are conflicting desires and alternative apparent goods. What is needed is to find the right course of action, the right good. Hence inquiry is exacted...This inquiry is intelligence." (Dewey The Quest for Certainty. 255)

The conscience is 'guardian of our integrity'.

The 'evolution of ethics' is a question for sociobiology... a science is the systematic study of the biological basis of all forms of social behavior in all kinds of organisms including the human organism. attributes of homo sapiens: of altruism, ethical values, 'ease of indoctrination' ... have a genetic basis.

The science of value or moral science is the study of the human valuing process. The normal development of the natural valuing process results in the complete development of the human conscience. The biological function of virtues and the value life is the preservation of the integrity of the human being as a social organism...According to the insight of moral universality', 'man is a creature of moral law'. Mature individuals can live together in peace and justice because they naturally do what is right and necessary for communal living.

The conscience is the the source of human 'spirituality'... the human 'spirit'.

Social values function in the  guidance of for human behaviour in the complexities of changing conditions. The conscience... the 'collective unconscious' (Jung) is common to all human individuals. Conscience is the 'voice within' - the intrinsic valuing procss of moral consciousness or 'morality'. Morality is a matter of the development of the conscience as moral consciousness or 'social intelligence'.

Virtue Virtue is the "unfolding of the specific potentialities of every organism; for man it is the state in which he is most human." Virtue is the responsibility for one's own existence.    'Vice' is "irresponsibility toward one's own existence."(Man For Himself 20)

The real and rational human conscience is the source of the natural, spiritual or 'divine' human values.

 

Self-actualisation humanistic psychologist Abraham Maslow The individual human being is instinctively responsible to himself for his own potential development or 'self-actualisation'. This natural responsibility to his own biological and psychological existence and self-actualisation constitutes the ethical value called 'virtue.' Sharing the existential dichotomies inherent in the human situation, all human beings have a natural sense of responsibility for their self-actualization, virtue and 'happiness'. Each has a unique way of solving his human problems depending on the unchangeable constitutional temperament and the changeable acquired character.

Proper growth and development is necessary for social intelligence and adaptation.  Ethical values for communal living are characteristic of mature growth or 'self-actualisation'.

The self-actualising individual Self-actualising individuals are self-transcending living in the realm of ethical values. Obeying their own conscience, they experience 'true' freedom. They are detached  and resist enculturation. self-sufficient autonomous have a desire for privacy and independent of other people....They are spontaneous and enjoy life in all its aspects, reacting with fresh appreciation and richness. of emotional reaction. They make decisions in their own 'true' interest while leading ethical lives. They are problem-centered, making personal decisions on the basis of B-needs, thus making choices which are in the 'true' interest of society. They are responsible to themselves and to others as well. They have democratic 'character structure' and identify with the human species. They perceive other people objectively as unique individuals with intrinsic qualities. They have a non-judgmental, non-interfering attitude towards others perceiving them as unique individuals with their own intrinsic qualities.  and successful adaptation to social changes. Their understanding of other people is comprehensive and makes for meaningful interpersonal relations. They accept their own nature and maintain their personal integrity while adapting to social changes.

     Holistic perception leads to holistic reasoning - transcending opposites, dichotomies, polarities, contradictions and incompatibilities perceiving these as interpenetrating facets of a whole. Holistic perception is a function of a decision-making process which is ethical because it is in the true interest of the individual as well as the society. .. . They are responsible to themselves.  creative, productive and therefore rationally 'ethical'. They enjoy the pleasure of insight and experience high frequencies of so called 'peak-experiences'. They have a capacity to perceive reality holistically... objective 'holistic perception'.They are creative and productive and define their full individuality in their 'work'.  

  natural 'science of values' or 'moral science' is the science of moral development i.e. development of moral knowledge or 'morality'... the systematic investigation... scientific analysis into the biological basis of morality in the evolution of social values i.e. morals or 'ethics' the study of intrinsic and instinctive natural valuing process as a part of normal human development... a 'science of value'...moral science.

First redifine 'science' differentiate between 'scientism' and science... ...in the history of science, the 'scientific method' as a manifestation of maturity in the development of the human species, demonstrates the human ability to change ideas in the face of new evidence... science of value in the paradigm of objective science becomes non-scientific in the paradigm of wholistic science..non-scientific ethics implies judgement good/bad etc... non-scientific ethics is a product of incomplete cognition ...ego-centered mental process which dichotomizes and distorts reality...perception of dichotomies is the incomplete cognition of immaturity therefore perception of dichotomies is neurotic perception of reality resulting from conflicts inherent on the culture.... science of values depends on transcendance of the intellect/emotion dichotomy...necessitates a humanistic approach to science... generates a different attitude... emotion can be a help in truth-finding... emotion is synergic with cognition...complete cognition is a function of wholistic perception of reality...and wholistic perception of knowledge includes subjective as well as objective knowledge...experiential knowledge includes subjective as well as objective aspects... the objective aspect of knowledge is experience... the subjective aspect of knowledge is understanding.... both aspects -experience and understanding - are necessary for complete cognition and complete knowledge.... experience (objective knowledge) is incomplete without understanding (subjective knowledge) which comes from meditation and thought in the mind of the fully developed human being. ;human values can be discovered in the ego transcendance realm

 natural ethics of the human organism -BIOLOGICAL BASIS OF THE NATURAL VALUING SYSTEM OF THE HUMAN ORGANISM....

Natural ethics is based on the natural valuing process of the human organism ...based on the natural laws of human nature and human existence for proper growth and development, instinctive needs must be understood and respected. The natural valuing process and the biological basis of morality. 'universal human ethics' or 'humanistic ethics', 'intrinsic conscience The natural valuing process is a part of normal human development. From a wholistic perspective, an individual's values system is the product of the totality of the individual's thought processes within the context the individual's experiences in the chnging social environment... The principles for morality and ethical values which are prescribed by religions and philosophies can be found within the biology of human nature. The natural system of ethics - natural ethics - is flexible, unlike philosophical systems which are fixed ...formulated on given premises). 

In the new paradigm of wholistic science, scientific knowledge is experiential wholistic knowledge... objective plus self-knowledge or experiential knowledge.... wholistic perception of the self-actualizing scientist transcends the dichotamous perception of reality and 'sees' the cyclical nature of reality ...transcends the dichotomy of subject and object ... of 'myself' and the world...from the perspective of wholistic science, the subject myself becomes one with the world and 'sees' the object as fused with the subject...As a self-actualizing human being, the 'psychologically healthy scientist' approaches his work with love, devotion, and self-abnegation, as if he were entering a holy of holies.... transcendence of the ego... with absolute morality and honesty the self-actualizing scientist searches for total truth... .. with peak-experiences, shudders of awe, religious attitudes of humility and smallness before the great mysteries of life... can be called sacred... 'peak-experiences' ...'Being-cognitions,' the 'psychologically healthy scientist' ...self-actualizing person seeking the truth of nature is a good scentist without trying to be one ... ... scientific study of ethics requires wholistic knowledge ... including both intimate knowledge of complete cognition as well as symbolic knowedge...scientific ethics is based on a wholistic perception of the human organism...a wholistic view of ethics...a scientific ethics... wholistic view is nonjudgemental wholistic scientific perception of ethics recognizes the unity of the world of ideas...science of ethics becomes synonymous with science of values...only with methods of wholistic science.....can a science of values be formulated.

.. the intrinsic valuing process of the human organism... natural system of ethics... 'natural ethics' Natural ethics is a function of moral development - development of moral consciousness or rational 'conscience'...

What is conscience? rational 'conscience is 'moral consciousness' - the source  inner coreof human valuesdivine'  and represents the unconscious perception of  'human nature'...  The word 'conscience' is derived from Latin ‘conscientia’ (‘con’ meaning 'with' and ‘scire’ meaning 'to know') which means 'knowledge within oneself' or 'self-knowledge'.  the conscience is the unconscious part of the mind which possesses the intrinsic knowledge of human values or'natural knowledge' of 'moral consciousness'... it is the part of the mind which is common to all humanity ...the 'collective unconscious' (Jung).  Self-knowledge is consciousness or awareness of the 'inner knowledge' of moral values or 'virtues'... 'moral awareness'...  'moral consciousness' - an emergent property of the social 'brain'. Conscience is the 'moral faculty' upon which the human organism depends for survival.

 Conscience is the guide for behavior based on the unconscious perception of human nature,

 The conscience is the natural expression of a biologically based interest in the properly integrated functioning of the whole personality -

Conscience is the 'voice' within - the intrinsic valuing procss of moral consciousness or 'morality'. Morality is a function of the development of the conscience as the moral consciousness of social intelligence. The biological function of the human conscience can be understood in terms of biological principles i.e. the evolution of the human organism as a social organism and the mechanisms of adaptation and natural selection.

The human organism as a social organism depends for survival on social cooperation and like any other biological organism, behaves according to an organismic valuing process which enables it to adapt to changing social conditions. Adaptation to changes in a complex social environment is possible with the full development of the conscience and its core of human values. Development of the human conscience is necessary for the preservation of the integrated personality in a complex social environment. Survival of the human organism as a social organism depends on the protection and preservation of the integrated personality in changing social conditions. A biological mechanism for the protection and preservation of personality integration is the intrinsic valuing process known as the 'intrinsic conscience'. The intrinsic conscience is an instinctive, naturalistic, psychological value system or valuing process which is based on the unconscious perception of human nature and human needs. Development of conscience is required for survival of the human organism as a social organism. The human conscience is the natural expression of a biologically based interest in the properly integrated functioning of the whole personality... the biological mechanism for the maintenance of the integration of the human personality in a complex social environment... a protective mechanism for the preservation of personal integrity in the complexities of social life.. intrinsic valuing system which functions as guardian of personality integration.

Conscience is the 'guardian of integrity' necessary for self-preservation and self-actualization... guardian of personal integrity and love for the self... the individual's true self-interest to fulfill their own human potential. The intrinsic conscience derives from the knowledge of human nature and functions as the guardian of personality integration as it matures in a process of psychological and moral or 'spiritual' growth. Spiritual growth is the process of development of the conscience i.e. of moral development and the conscious awareness of the human spiritual values prescribed by the religions i.e. truth, love, charity and so on. As the awareness of natural moral knowledge or 'moral consciousness' the human conscience is the human 'spirit' ... source of human spiritual values which are required for human survival because they ensure human interconnectedness. The function of the conscience is the preservation of the integrity of the core of human spiritual values or 'virtues'. Virtues have evolved through natural selection as a result of their survival value to the human organism as a social organism and its need to adapt successfully to the complexities of a social environment and to changing social conditions... for the successful adaptation of the organism to changing social conditions.

The pain of problems is experienced by the organism as a whole in its instinctive striving to reach its own potential for complete humanness. The organism reacts to its own functioning by means of the techniques of suffering such as shock, loneliness, depression etc. through suffering one works through problems... Social problems are then worked through and solved successfully by way of the rationality or 'reason'  of the developed conscience... rational conscience the 'real' conscience of human nature. The real and rational human conscience is the source of the natural, spiritual or 'divine' human values. With the guiding values of a rational conscience, the individual perceives the social predicaments and dilemmas as problems which can be solved... and not as having the power to destroy. Life is difficult  this is one of the greatest truths..because the process of confronting and solving life's problems is a difficult one. The basic set of tools required is discipline - discipline of the conscience and its inherent human values.

 Th. the biological mechanism for the maintenance of the integration of the human personality in a complex social environment... a protective mechanism for the preservation of personal integrity in the complexities of social life.. intrinsic valuing system which functions as guardian of personality integration.

 The human conscience is the natural expression of a biologically based interest in the properly integrated functioning of the whole personality... The human conscience is the biological mechanism for the maintenance of the integration of the human personality in a complex social environment. Conscience is the voice of the true self to live productively, to develop fully and harmoniously... to attain self-actualization ...for the successful adaptation of the organism to changing social conditions...The human conscience is a reaction of the whole human organism to its own functioning... through the conscience the organism reacts to itself... a reaction of the self to the self...  to reach to fulfill one's human potential

The human conscience is a biologically based intrinsic valuing system which is developed as a protection for the integrated human organism. a biologicasl phenomenon which is the guardian of the individual's integrity...Biologically based value system is the intrinsic valuing system based on the full development of the conscience. The characteristic 'humanness' or 'humanity' of the human organism is based on complete development of the human conscience - human self-development and self-fulfillment ... the 'humanity' of the self-actualized individual is characterized by the core of human values which are shared with other individuals of the human species. Ethics are values - operative values are organismic values.

Conscience is a reaction of ourselves to ourselves. It is the voice of our true selves, which summons us back to ourselves, to live productively, to develop fully and harmoniously - that is to become what we potentially are As a biological mechanism for the preservation of personal integrity, the function of the conscience is the successful adaptation of the human organism to changing social conditions. ...of the preservation of personal integrity... of the integration of the human personality...which is necessary for self-preservation and self-actualization... the guardian of human potential ... . ...and personality integration...the guardian of true self-interest... ..

.the function of the conscience is to preserve the integrity of the core of human values - 'virtues' - which have evolved through natural selection as a result of their survival value to the human organism as a social organism, to the human organism and its need to adapt to a complex social environment... to changing social environments... necessary for successful adaptation of the human organism to changing social conditions.

The human conscience is the core of human values which have evolved through natural selection as a result of its survival value to the human organism's need to adapt to changes in a complex social environment. Conscience is necessary for survival of the individual organism and survival of the species... Development of the human conscience is necessary for the survival of the human organism in a complex social environment... Survival of the human species depends on the specialized brain functions for learning and social intelligence...human intelligence is part of the human genetic heritage...

  the basis of human spiritual values...

 The guide for human behavior in a changing social environment... based on the unconscious perception of human nature, the human intrinsic conscience is the 'voice' of the natural valuing process within the human organism - the organismic valuing process...the normal development of the natural valuing process results in the complete development of the human conscience...

The human conscience is the human 'spirit'. The 'conscience' is moral consciousness. Biological function of the human conscience...the 'conscience' is the biological mechanism for the integration and preservation of the human personality. The conscience is the natural expression of a biologically based interest in the properly integrated functioning of the whole personality - the guardian of the individual's true self-interest. Conscience is the 'guardian of integrity' necessary for self-preservation and self-actualization... The human conscience is the core of human values which have evolved through natural selection as a result of its survival value to the human organism's need to adapt to a complex social environment. The human conscience is a biologically based intrinsic valuing system which is developed as a protection for the integrated human organism.

The human organism depends on the conscience  for survival of the individual organism and survival of the species. The human conscience is the basis of human spiritual values. The human conscience is the guardian of the integration of the human personality. ...guardian of the integration of personality and character ...for the maintenance of the integrated personality ...in a complex social environment... the function of the conscience is the successful adaptation of the human organism to changing social conditions... biologically based intrinsic valuing system... The conscience is the basis of the valuing process intrinsic to the human organism... The human conscience is the core of human values, 'virtues', which have evolved through natural selection as a result of its survival value to the need to adapt to a complex social environment.

The human conscience is a reaction of the whole human organism to its own functioning...has a strong influence on the affective (emotional) as well as intellectual (reasoning) components of the personality...value judgements of the human organism .. criteria for good and bad - are derived from the meaningfulness of human existence... the good or clear conscience produces a feeling of inner approval... of rightness resulting from actions, thoughts, and feelings which are conducive to the integration of the whole personality. The guilty conscience is a feeling of inner disapproval ...of wrongness resulting from actions, thoughts, and feelings which are injurious to the integration of the total personality producing a feeling of uneasiness and discomfort. The source of morality is the human organism... social intelligence as the basis for morality. Social intelligence is the basis of intrinsic valuing process.... survival depends on intelligent social behaviour or 'social intelligence' ...depends on morality...morality and intelligence...the words 'morality' and 'intelligence' describe different aspects of a totality..

The conscience is the source of the natural knowledge of human values ... 'divine' values.

 The intrinsic valuing process develops in terms of moral consciousness or 'conscience'. Moral consciousness is a matter of cognition of social values or 'social intelligence'. Human social intelligence evolved as part of the human genetic heritage.

The human conscience is a biologically based intrinsic  valuing system ..the basis of the valuing process intrinsic to the human organism...the core of human values ... the basis of human spiritual values... the guide for human behavior in a changing social environment... based on the unconscious perception of human nature, the human intrinsic conscience is the 'voice' of the natural valuing process within the human organism - the organismic valuing process...the normal development of the natural valuing process results in the complete development of the human conscience... the characteristic 'humaness' of the human organism is based on complete development of the human conscience. The human conscience is the guardian of the integration of the human personality... The conscience is the basis of the valuing process intrinsic to the human organism... The human conscience is the natural expression of a biologically based interest in the properly integrated functioning of the whole personality...

 involving the operative values... cognition or 'social intelligence'... human genetic heritage. Survival of the human organism as a social organism depends on the specialized brain functions for learning and social intelligence as a function of development of the conscience. Morality is a matter of conscience - not the authoritarian conscience or 'superego' which represents the internalization of parental or societal authority but the rational human conscience ...the inner core of human values or 'human nature'.

The intrinsic conscience... the knowledge of human nature and functions as the guardian of personality integration as it matures in a process of psychological and moral or 'spiritual' growth.  The human conscience is the expression of the instinctive valuing process based on the subconscious perception of the nature of the human personality or 'human nature'. Human nature is a social nature which is defined in terms of values for living i.e. 'human values'. Human values are the social values or 'spiritual values' which function in the interconnectedness of individuals.... and prescribed by the various religions - truth, love, charity, justice, beauty.

source of human morality and the spiritual values.The seat of the individual's intrinsic spirituality - the 'soul' - is the conscience or 'human spirit'. Human values are a function of natural psychological and spiritual development or 'spiritual growth'. Spiritual growth occurs in the context of freedom from the rigidity of dogmatic thinking i.e. 'spiritual freedom' or 'inner freedom'

Maturity of conscience is characteristic of the psychological integration of personality and the wholeness of complete human development i.e. intellectual, psychological, emotional, spiritual development or 'moral development' ...psychological health or 'wellness'. Wellness is psychological wholeness... the basis for the complete cognition of social reality i.e. 'holistic perception'. Holistic perception of social reality is a precondition for the human capacity to relate to others and forms the basis for socially adaptive behaviour or 'adaptability'. Adaptability is the ability to adapt to changing social conditions and leads to is beneficial, creative and amicable relations  between social groups. Understanding is possible between individuals who are morally free, living in love and understanding of the will of the other - also morally free. Freedom in this sense means obedience to one's own conscience (fully developed and therefore fully 'human')... 'free morality'. Individuals who are not free in this sense submit themselves to control. The failure to relate to others and to adapt successfully to changing social conditions results in behaviour which is socially 'unadaptive' -misunderstandings and unresolvable conflicts... which result in destruction or 'evil'. The so-called 'evil' of human nature results from the failure to achieve self-actualisation - realisation of human potential - the failure to achieve complete 'humanness' - a function of moral development or 'morality'. Morality is a function of developed human conscience - not the authoritarian conscience or 'superego' which represents the internalization of parental or societal authority but the rational human conscience - source of spiritual values which define the inner core of the human personality or 'human nature'.

"We all have an 'intrinsic conscience' which is based on the unconscious and preconscious perception of our own nature, of our own destiny, of our own capacities, of our own 'call' in life... The guiding values which have been prescribed by religions and philosophies can be found within a person's consciousness"(Maslow, A. Toward a Psychology of Being. page 7)   

 At the highest levels of personality and cultural development, a reality is perceived which is independent of distorted human perceptions. This is the 'ultimate reality' which is described in terms of the 'B-Values' or 'metavalues'.development'...

 

Development of the conscience is a function of human psychological, emotional, intellectual and moral development.

 The function of the human conscience... the human c

onscience has a biological  function... to preserve  the integrity of of the personality during the process of adaptation to complexities of changing social conditions.... 'ethical rationality'  the core of human values  'virtues' - have evolved through natural selection as a result of their survival value... necessary for successful adaptation of the human organism to changing social conditions... 'guardian of integrity' necessary for self-preservation and self-actualization ...the guardian of the individual's true self-interest...of survival value to the human organism as a social organism, the human conscience evolved as a mechanism for the integration of personality and character in a changing social environment.

can be understood in terms of biological principles i.e. the mechanisms of adaptation and natural selection in the evolution of the human organism as a social organism. The human organism like any other biological organism, behaves according to an organismic valuing process...'operative values' ... which enables it to adapt to changing conditions.

 Adaptation to changes in a complex social environment is possible with the full development of the conscience and its core of human values. Development of the human conscience is necessary for the preservation of the integrated personality in a complex social environment.

The human organism as a social organism depends for survival on social cooperation...  development of conscience is required for survival of the human organism as a social organism.

on the protection and preservation of the integrated personality in changing social conditions. A biological mechanism for the protection and preservation of personality integration is the intrinsic valuing process known as the 'intrinsic conscience'. The intrinsic conscience is an instinctive, naturalistic, psychological value system or valuing process ..which is based on the unconscious perception of human nature and human needs.

Development of the human conscience is necessary for the survival of the human organism in a complex social environment and the human species in a complex intercultural environment. The human organism depends on the conscience - the 'spirit - for survival of the individual organism and survival of the species. Human moral development - the development of 'morality' - is a function of the psychobiological development of the human conscience. Morality is a function of human moral development and the intrinsic valuing process of the conscience... the natural valuing process of the human organism... the organismic valuing process... human values are 'operative values'

 The human conscience is the biological mechanism for the integration and preservation... maintenance of the integration of the human personality in a complex social environment... for the preservation of personal integrity... a protective mechanism for the integration of the human personality... natural expression of a biologically based interest in the properly integrated functioning of the whole personality ... developed as a protection for the integrated personality of the human organism.

 Ethical living as 'ethicality' or 'morality' a function of social intelligence '...'moral intelligence' or  ( spiritual intelligence) of developed conscience

 Development of morality is naturally revealed with the unfolding of human potential in a normal process of psychological and moral development.  Moral development is a functon of development of the biologically intrinsic moral consciousness or 'conscience'.

The conscience is the 'inner voice' of a person's sense of responsibility, strength, courage and needs... the guiding values of 'free will'... the personal decision making process which is based on the organism's inherent tendency for growth with spiritual independence of maturity i.e. 'self-actualisation'.  'Self-actualisation' can be characterised in terms of ethical values for communal living... values for effective socialisation or 'social values'. Social values of ethical behaviour originate in a natural valuing system which is intrinsic to the organism. Ethical values do not involve cognitive or conceptual thinking... they are 'operative values'. As operative values human ethical values result from the intrinsic valuing process of the human organism... also known as the 'naturalistic' or 'organismic value system' which is shared by all members of the human species. Natural ethics of the developed conscience - rational conscience - is 'rational ethics'.

     Ethical behaviour is rooted in the morals of the rational human conscience. The biologically based constitutional ethical impulses which are revealed in normal development and which enable the individual to adjust to the realities of the social environment are 'natural ethics'.

The function of morality for the human organism as a social organism: morality is living by virtues as social values required for human survival Living in truth is living according to the one's real interests for self-preservation in a changing social environment. The survival interests of the human organism and of the human species are guaranteed by intelligent value choices and the productive use of human powers and potentialities or 'virtues'. Virtues are social values which allow for social cooperation i.e. 'socialisation'.

Development of morality is development of social intelligence. Cognitive and moral development go together. .. development of intelligence and morality go together ...wholistic perspective of complete cognition, no dichotomy ... Intelligence includes morality and vice versa. A moral value choice is intelligent... an immoral value choice is unintelligent... The social human organism depends for survival on socially intelligent behaviour. A value choice which is moral is socially intelligent; a value choice which is socially intelligent is moral. Moral-intelligent value choices are beneficial to the survival interests of the human organism and to the survival of the human species... Values can be determined only in relation to the human organism's real interests for self-preservation in a changing social environment... development of morality depends on inner freedom and the productive use of human powers and potentialities or 'virtues'. Psychological health - 'self-actualization'- is prerequisite for social intelligence and healthy society and culture. Development of the human conscience is confluent with natural respect for the dignity of human existence. The human conscience is the human 'spirit'. Developed conscience is the source of 'divine' values... Biologically based value system is the intrinsic valuing system based on the full development of the conscience. The characteristic 'humanness' or 'humanity' of the human organism is based on complete . Ethics are values - operative values are organismic values. The human conscience is a biologically based intrinsic valuing system ...the core of human values - the human 'spirit'... the basis of human spiritual values... The human individual is the source of all morality. Normal psychological growth involves the development of a natural valuing process which is manifest in the proper development of the human conscience. In addition to the conscience, each individual has a unique potentiality manifested in a personal decision making process which is based on his own will, responsibility, strength, courage and needs. Development of conscience depends on unconditional love and concentration through work.

 "A moral situation is one in which judgement and choice are required antecedently to overt action. The practical meaning of the situation - that is to say the action needed to satisfy it - is not self-evident. It has to be searched for. There are conflicting desires and alternative apparent goods. What is needed is to find the right course of action, the right good. Hence inquiry is exacted... This inquiry is iniintelligence." (Dewey The Quest for Certainty. 255)

Morality as 'virtuous living' is 'spiritual morality' or 'spiritual intelligence'. Morality as an aspect of spirituality is a function of highly awakened intelligence or 'intuition'. Intuition or the 'intuitive process' is the capacity to make adaptive and creative evaluation and effective decisions without conscious awareness of all the facts. Intuition is a function of the immediate processing by the whole brain... 'complete cognition'. Complete cognition is a function of the integration of the ego-self with the spiritual self... 'holiness'... 'health' or 'wholeness'. The human potential for wholeness incorporates not only the basic psychological needs but the higher spiritual, ethical and moral values of the value-life i.e. 'spiritual needs' or 'metaneeds'. Gratification of the metaneeds engages development of morality i.e. 'moral development'. Moral development is development of spiritual intelligence. A value choice which is moral is socially intelligent. A value choice which is immoral is socially unintelligent. Human behaviour, whether moral or immoral, involves a decision making process which precedes a given course of action.

     The assumption that the human individual is naturally unsocial is false. It makes no sense to assume that civilised social life is incompatible with freedom.

 The guiding values which have been prescribed by religions and philosophies can be found within a person's consciousness or 'conscience'.

    Each individual has a biologically inherited potential for moral consciousness i.e. 'intrinsic conscience'. Development of the conscience depends on recognition and  Development of a rational conscience is 'moral development'. Moral development depends on respect for the intrinsic biological necessities of human nature the human needs.

When human needs are met, the rest follows naturally because each individual has a unique potentiality for personal decision making based on their free will, their sense of responsibility, strength and courage. It is the rational human conscience which is the source of the guiding values sought by religions and philosophies. The human conscience is the source of a 'natural ethics'. True morality is the morality of free conscience i.e. 'freedom.

 The human conscience is the natural expression of a biologically based interest in the properly integrated functioning of the whole personality - the guardian of the individual's true self-interest. "Conscience is a reaction of ourselves to ourselves. It is the voice of our true selves, which summons us back to ourselves, to live productively, to develop fully and harmoniously- that is to become what we potentially are. It is the guardian of our integrity...of our love for ourselves". (Erich Fromm Man For Himself: An Inquiry into the Psychology of Ethics 159)

Morality is a function of normal human development of the integrated personality and character in the context of inner freedom.... morality is a function of the  full development of the human conscience... Proper development of the human conscience results in humanistic morality or 'free' morality...

Morality as a function of 'freedom' (spiritual freedom or 'freedom of conscience'): 'free morality' or 'ethical individualism' Morality as 'humanistic morality' or 'free morality' is  not  the same as morality based on external authority... authoritarian morality of 'authoritarian conscience' which represents the internalisation of an external authority such as a parent, nation or doctrine whether religious or secular i.e. 'moralism' and 'codes of ethics'.  Morality is exercising the human responsibility for living in reality as it is... not as one thinks it should be. Living in 'truth' requires objectivity of holistic perception.

Free morality is morality derived from freedom of 'moral consciousness' or 'conscience'.... freedom as 'inner freedom'...  freedom of the inner aspect of life - a state and quality of mind... 'freedom of the mind'... 'freedom of conscience'... Conscience is the source of guiding values for living which are defined by 'moral values' or 'spiritual values' i.e. 'human values'. Human values are a function of 'moral development'. The different stages of moral development - 'socio-cognitive stages' - represent stages of 'moral intelligence' or 'morality'. Morality is freedom. The free individual acts morally. Living in freedom is living by natural moral laws or 'natural ethics'. Natural ethics is a function of full development of the 'human personality' i.e. 'human nature'. Human nature as human conscience - the human 'soul' - is the source of all morality.  'Human' in the true sense means 'morally free'. The knowledge of human nature is knowledge of one's intrinsic morality or 'goodness'  i.e. 'self-knowledge'. Self-knowledge overcomes the division between the subjective 'self' or 'ego' and the objective world i.e. 'self-transcendance'. In the realm of self-transcendance the individual lives in 'complete freedom' or 'true freedom'. True freedom implies responsibility of 'moral conciousness' or 'morality' of developed  'conscience'... 'responsibility of freedom'. Freedom without responsibility is 'license'. True freedom with guidance of developed conscience... moral intelligence... 'moral intuition' or 'ethical intuition' is required for meaningful life. Intuition is a function of developed conscience as a source of 'natural ethics'... humanistic conscience - a function of normal or 'healthy' human psychological development... 'moral intelligence' or 'social intelligence'.

Free morality is equivalent to 'moral sense'... 'moral intuition'... 'ethical intuition'... 'ethical rationality'... 'ethicality'... 'moral rationality'... 'moral intelligence' - an emergent property of the human brain... a social brain specialised for adaptation to the complexities of changing social conditions i.e. adaptability of 'socialisation'. Human socialisation depends on the human faculty for moral intelligence and the capacity for making accurate evaluations of the social environment. 

 Effective socialisation depends on ethical behaviour which originates in a natural valuing system intrinsic to the organism. 

Free morality depends on development of the human conscience... natural human development with inner freedom of the organism to develop moral consciousness  required for social or 'emotional intelligence'... 'moral intelligence'.

Development of the human conscience results in humanistic morality or 'free' morality Free morality based on inner freedom...

 Development of humanistic conscience depends on natural or normal 'healthy' psychological development....  

Moral development is development of  conscience...  Moral development is a process in which the conscious mind is synchronized with the unconscious mind... powerful emotional forces are aligned and harmonised through intrinsically non-rational means of emotional motivation interacting with harmonious relationships of emotionally significant people - an experience which is selected and arranged by the rational intellect or 'reason'. The crux of the interaction is the emotional experience of alignment and harmonisation of the intellectual forces of the conscious mind with the motivational forces of the unconscious mind. The result is a rational conscience - a   naturally flexible system of ethical rationality characterized by a wholistic perception of reality which is required for the correct or 'sane' evaluation of the social environment. The wholistic perception eliminates the distortions of ego-centeredness.

The individual who is inwardly free - the moral being and the 'free spirit' - obeys a fully developed humanistic and free 'rational' conscience which is the expression of basic nature of the human personality or 'human nature'.  The moral being is a 'free spirit' with free conscience. 

"Man is free in so far as he is able to obey himself in every moment of his life." (Erich Fromm. Escape From Freedom. p. 255)

  "Acting out of freedom does not exclude the moral laws; it includes them, but shows itself to be on a higher level than those actions which are merely dictated by such laws. Why should my action be of less service to the public good when I have done it out of love than when I have done it only because I consider serving the public good to be my duty? The mere concept of duty excludes freedom because it does not acknowledge the individual element but demands that this be subject to a general standard. Freedom of action is conceivable only from the standpoint of ethical individualism." (Steiner, R. The Philosophy of Freedom. London: Rudolph Steiner Press. 138)

The conscience has a strong influence on the affective or 'emotional' component of the personality as well as the reasoning or 'intellectual' component.

The level of development of conscience has a profound effect on the affective and intellectual aspects of the learning process. It is therefore of great significance to the theoretical basis of 'holistic education'. Holistic education focuses on the development of the whole person including the spirituality of their intrinsic conscience thereby resolving the so-called 'problem of ethics'.

.maturity of conscience results from healthy human psychological development. In the developing human organism, the proper development of the intrinsic conscience depends on the integrated development of personality and character. As the basis for the proper development of the intrinsic conscience, integration of the whole personality and character depends on the complete development of a psychologically healthy personality. The product of optimal psychological growth is the integrated personality with properly developed intrinsic conscience - the psychologically healthy personality or 'whole' personality. the word 'healthy' comes from 'hael' meaning whole.) the 'inner voice' of human values. The conscience is a protective mechanism for personality integration The human conscience is the guardian of personality integration or 'personal integrity'. "We all have an 'intrinsic conscience' which is based on the unconscious and preconscious perception of our own nature, of our own destiny, of our own capacities, of our own 'call' in life." (Abraham Maslow. Toward a Psychology of Being. page 7)

human organism as a member of a social species...

 natural values chosen on the basis of the organism's inherent tendency toward self-actualisation. Development of the conscience is a function of human psychological, emotional, intellectual and moral development. The biologically based constitutional ethical impulses revealed in normal development enable the individual to adjust to the realities of the social environment... 

 conscience  constiI tutes the biological basis of morality and ethics. The conscience is the natural source of  natural values and ethical behaviour..ethical principles for guidance in the solution of human problems. The human organism depends on the conscience in its efforts to adapt to the realities of a changing social environment. The conscience is a biological mechanism which enables the individual to make accurate evaluations of social conditions while at the same time preserving the integrity of the personality.  The conscience is the biologically based intrinsic valuing system or process...  biological mechanism which has survival value to the human organism...

the unconscious perception of the inner core of human values or 'spiritual values' which characterize human nature and human needs..As the basis for human spiritual values or 'spirituality', the conscience is the human 'spirit'. The human spirit, the conscience, is the source of human spiritual values which function in the guidance of for human behaviour in the complexities of changing social conditions. The conscience is that part of the mind which is referred to as the 'collective unconscious' (Jung) because it is common to all human individuals.

 The human conscience evolved through the evolutionary process of natural selection as a biological mechanism for the preservation and integration of the personality for sucessful adaptation to changing social conditions. The conscience is a biological mechanism whose function is to protect the integration of the personality. Personality integrity is a function of a decision making process which is based on the individual's own strength, courage, sense of responsibility and the degree to which their human needs have been met.

The biological basis of human values as components of a natural valuing process - the intrinsic conscience - and evolution of conscience as the source of human morality... a biological mechanism which has survival value .

Intelligence of developed conscience or 'intuition'  With the guiding values of a rational conscience, the individual perceives the social predicaments and dilemmas as problems which can be solved.. and not as having the power to destroy. Life is difficult because the process of confronting and solving life's problems is a difficult one. The basic set of tools required is discipline - discipline of the conscience and its inherent human values. The biological basis of human values as components of a natural valuing process - the intrinsic conscience - and evolution of conscience as the source of human morality:

Conscience is an emergent property of the human 'brain'.

Intuition of developed conscience is the basis for human rationality or 'reason'.

  Natural ethics as 'rational ethics' It is possible to use a scientifically objective approach to resolve the age-old philosophical problem of how to formulate a moral philosophy or ethics which is rational... theoretical ethical system or 'rational ethics'. The formulation of rational ethics is a function of natural human values and depends on knowledge of the human personality or 'human nature' defined in terms of  natural laws of human existence... human motives for behaviour or 'human needs' . This is revealed in the so-called 'productive' character which values the affirmation of the truly human self.

 "Humanistic conscience is based on the knowledge of man's nature. The great tradition of humanistic ethical thought is based on a wholistic perspective of man in his 'physico-spiritual totality'. It is based on the belief that man's aim is to be himself, and that the condition for attaining this goal is that man be for himself. It is based on the premise that one has to know the nature of man in order to formulate valid ethical codes. Based on the validity of man's autonomy, valid ethical norms are formed by man's reason." (Erich Fromm Man For Himself p.7)

  Valid ethical norms of a naturally human ethics is based on the respect for the dignity of human existence. Ethics is defined as both "the science of moral values and duties" and as "the study of the ideal human character, actions, and ends." As the ideal human potentialities naturally unfold and become actualized, ethical norms for excellent living are discovered according to the laws of nature and human existence. The actualization of an individual's particular potentiality and disposition reveals a core of human qualities which are common to all members of the human species.

It is the concept of evil which underlies the mutual exclusivity between the 'what is' and the 'what ought to be' of classical moral philosophy or 'classical ethics'. Classical ethics is based on the assumption that the interests of the individual are incompatible with those of society. Social problems are perceived in terms of the need to control peoples' intrinsic animal instincts or 'human nature'. A definition of the human needs provides the basis for     Rational ethics is a function of the intrinsic sense of right and wrong or 'morality'. Human morality is revealed in the natural unfolding of the human core of ethical values i.e. 'conscience'.

 Rational ethics is a natural outcome of the complete development of the moral sense of right and wrong i.e. 'moral development'. Moral development is a function of the development of the conscience and occurs naturally during proper growth and development  Education for moral development is education for understanding and intelligent adjustment to the realities of changing conditions in the social environment i.e. 'social intelligence'. Social intelligence is a function of natural biological laws or 'human values'. Human values are the basis for rational ethics. The human values are a product of the evolution of the human organ of learning i.e. the 'brain'. The human brain is a 'social brain' specialized for the function of raising consciousness or 'learning'. Effective learning is a function effective brain functioning in a context of free thought insight, creativity and productivity... conditions of 'spiritual freedom' which foster growth motivation of complete individuality ... mature growth or 'self-actualisation'......................................................................................

 Man finds fulfillment and happiness through love - the power by which he relates to the world through his fellow man. 'Living' as an art is the process of developing into that which one is potentially.

holistic 'health' comes from the joyful participation in the challenges of life and the challenges of living.

behavioural characteristics which emerge as persons become more mature... number of value directions which appear to be common to all human beings, regardless of cultural influences. They all have in common the tendency to favor their own self- development... of others in the community and the tendency to contribute to the survival and evolution of the human species.

 With complete freedom to choose their own value directions, mature human beings tend to live by a valuing process with characteristic tendencies... Negatively valued are pretense, defensiveness, imperative behaviour ("I ought"), and concern with expectations of others. Positively valued are an individual's authenticity, self-direction in decision making, sense of worthiness of oneself and one's feelings, excitement in the process of growth and of potentialites in the process of unfolding, openness to one's own feelings, sensitivity to and acceptance of others, deep relationships, openness to all their inner and outer experience and to the realities of the objective world.

These and others constitute an underlying thread of commonality observed in human beings who grow to maturity within an environment of respect for their inner freedom and prizing of their individuality. Those objects and experiences which contribute to the individual's own growth and development, and the growth and development of others are naturally valued. In a growth promoting climate, regardless of culture, the human organism seems to prefer goals which contribute to his own self-actualization and socialization. Given the opportunity to grow to maturity... making choices and decisions according to his own organismic valuing processin a climate of freedom and respect, the individual would be devoid of conceived values... the individual lives by values which facilitate his own survival, adaptation, self-enhancement and the enhancement of the human race. Like other species of the animal kingdom, Homo Sapiens, the social human animal, naturally behaves in accordance with an organismic valuing process which enables him to adapt to his changing social environment -the nature of man. The natural valuing process is a part of normal human development.                 

The individual's value system is the product of the totality of the thought processes within the context of experiences in a changing social environment "VALUE SYSTEM BASED ON THE CONCEPT OF WHAT Albert Schweitzer called the 'reverence for life'. Valuable or good is all that which contributes to the greater unfolding of man's specific faculties and furthers life. Negative or bad is everything that strangles life and paralyzes man's activeness."(Erich Fromm The Revolution of Hope :Toward a Humanized Technology. New York, London: Harper & Row,1968 p.89)

 "Obedience is no mechanical thing, but a natural force of social cohesion, intimately related to the will, even its sublimation. Obedience of the right kind is a sublimation of the individual's will, a quality in the human soul without which society could not exist. But an obedience without true self-control, an obedience which is not the consequence of an awakened and exercised will, brings whole nations to disaster." (Maria Montessori To Educate the Human Potential 123)

. Implications for education... the role of education in the construction of conscience...  psychological value of creativity and productiveness or 'work' in human development as moral development... 'self-actualisation' ... 'holistic education' 

Education is a human enterprise involved with the development of human potential and human values.

 "Full maturation of the 'productive' character and the individual's self-realization is the aim of the biological process of human development and therefore of education and humanistic ethics." The characteristic 'humanity' of the human organism - human self-development and self-fulfillment - is a natural outcome of the development of the 'mind'. Normal human development in the context of inner freedom involves both intellectual and moral development.

"The free man acts morally because he has a moral idea; he does not act in order that morality may come into being. Human individuals, with the moral ideas belonging to their nature, are the prerequisites of a moral world order. The human individual is the source of all morality. State and society exist only because they have arisen as a necessary consequence of the life of the individuals...the social order arises so that it in turn may react favorably upon the individual."

Education for the development of the mind is education for self-development and self-fulfillment. Education for development of the mind is based on the natural wholistic functioning of the human brain. Education for natural human development is based on natural biological functions and processes of the brain.

Children become socially intelligent - responsible and communicative - as well as individually mature.  Education for natural human development is based on respect for the natural biological functions of the brain. Education for both cognitive and moral development - 'holistic education' - is based on the natural wholistic functioning of the human brain

Education for human potential depends on teaching methodology which is based on the recognition and respect for the individual's instinctive human needs as operative values - values which make up the inner core of human nature... 'human conscience'. Education is raising consciousness from sub conscious to conscious level of awareness... 'enlightenment'. Failure results  ignorance.Responsible education for responsible freedom The individual's perception of themselves is based on the nature of their education.The aim of education is to foster the individual's instinctive responsibility to themselves and their needs.  provides the necessary conditions for learning... 'learning environment'.... a function of 'culture'  which fosters natural human development and responsibility... ethical living ... living according to the natural ethical values... responsible education which fosters universal self-actualisation and responsible freedom... depends on construction of conscience through creativity and productiveness or 'work'.  Construction of the human conscience is dependent on the right environmental conditions.   Development of conscience is the basis for human rationality or 'reason'

  natural unfolding of human nature during proper psychological development of self-actualisation of the natural ethical core of the human organism i.e. 'humanness'. Education for self-actualisation ...holistic education ... Healthy culture - education - fosters universal self-actualisation. 

Education for moral knowledge of a rational conscience... Intrinsic conscience must be properly developed for ethical living. Development of the conscience is a part of normal human development growth with total freedom and love. The process of education for proper human development involves the fostering of an individual's instinctive responsibility to himself and his own needs. It therefore depends on the creation of an environment which fosters self-discipline, self-actualization and the full development of 'humanness,' the natural ethical core of every human being. A healthy social and cultural environment which recognizes and respects the individual's human needs can provide the necessary conditions for fostering proper human growth and development. the individual becomes self-actualized as the result of a culturally fostered human development... living according to the higher Being values which comprise his natural system of ethics. The self-actualized individual lives in accordance with natural biological laws and the evolutionary process.The evolution of the human species as a social species is based on the natural selection of capacity for loving kindness of compassion and understanding of reason i.e. social intelligence or 'creative intelligence'. The human capacity for creative intelligence is a function of the 'moral faculty' or moral sense of the human brain or 'mind' i.e. moral rationality' or 'moral intelligence'. Morality is a matter of the development of the conscience as the moral consciousness of social intelligenceMoral intelligence or required for successful adaptation to changing social conditions is a   function of socio-cognitive development ... 'sociocognitive stages'. The natural development of morality as moral intelligence is directly related to the process of natural learning in the context spiritual freedom. Education for freedom is natural education for both cognitive and moral development or 'holistic education'. Holistic education is based on the natural wholistic functioning of the human brain and its  instinctive tendency to search for meaning in the complexities of the social reality or 'learn'. Meaningful learning involves emotional as well as intellectual stimulation of the brain... 'brain-based learning'. Brain-based learning is natural learning which engages the psychological value of creativity and productivity... the productive use of human powers and potentialities or 'work'. Meaningful work in the context of inner freedom is the basis for moral development or 'personal development' ... a function of 'holistic education'. Holistic education is education for free morality as the a function of the answer to the search for guiding values in the resolution of human problems... the so-called 'problem of ethics'.

Education for rational ethics... ethical reasoning... morality or rational conscience... depends on provision of conditions appropriate for metamotivation  

 "The criteria for morality depend on the needs for individual growth. Attitudes which are conducive to a person's growth are 'moral' and those which are obstructive to a person's growth are 'immoral.' Growth and self-realization are not possible without truthfulness to oneself." (Karen Horney. Neurosis and Human Growth)

 "There is only one problem, and it is human development in its totality; once this is achieved in any unit - child or nation - everything else follows spontaneously and harmoniously."(Maria Montessori. To Educate the Human Potential.Adyar, Madras, India: Kalakshetra Publications, 1961. p.13)

References

Erich Fromm Man For Himself: An Inquiry into the Psychology of Ethics

Lawrence Kohlberg Stage and Sequence: the Cognitive-Develomental Approach to Socialization. l969 in D.A. Goslin, ed., Handbook of Socialization Theory and Research, pp. 347-480. Rand McNally Co., Chicago. .

 Edward O. Wilson Sociobiology: The New Synthesis Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, l975 (p. 562)

Steiner, R. The Philosophy of Freedom. London: Rudolph Steiner Press.

 

  Evolutionary Origins of Morality (ed) Leonard D. Katz