The key to motivation is recognition of needs.

                                                                

                                        HUMAN MOTIVATION  as SOURCE OF INCREASED COMPLEXITY or 'INTEGRATION'

 "One of the most important issues of 'education' in its broad context (developing the mind) revolves around the matter of faith in the educability of humanity. There are those who do not have this faith in people's educability. They believe in the 'inherent inequality' of people - only some people can be responsible with an 'education'. and the rest should be 'acculturated and socialized'. There are others who do have faith in peoples' educability. They believe that everyone can be educated to be free and responsible. They believe that it is the responsibility of the 'educators' to provide the necessary conditions which allow all people to develop their human potential." (David Purpel, 1989. The Moral and Spiritual Crisis in Education: A Curriculum for Justice and Compassion in Education. MA.: Bergin and Garvey Publishers, Inc. 10)

                                                                                                                                                      homepage www.HolisticEducator.com

 

 the traditional paradigm of education and the task-oriented perception of education

 

 

  motivation as intrinsic to the human organism as a social organism...  

human organism

   human motives for learning or 'human needs' which define human nature...  

  range of human needs... human needs give rise to the different 'learning emotions'

  hierarchy of human needs in terms of urgency or 'prepotency'...   

                   basic needs as 'ego needs'...  

   growth as function of fulfillment of needs...     extent of devlopment determines character...   

                      mature growth or 'self-actualisation'...     self-actualising individual... 

 range of motivational states

                                        highest consciousness state most effective for adaptability...

   motivation for extrinsic goals or 'extrinsic motivation'...   motivation by deficiency of growth needs:‘deficit motivation' ... neurotic development or 'neurosis'  limited human relationships...

 unconscious motivation for learning or 'intrinsic motivation'  (biological basis: prefrontal lobes...   'brainmind)

                            motivation by growth needs or 'metaneeds': 'metamotivation' also known as 'abundance notivation'

   'problem of motivation' as key to 'educational crisis'...

'Theory of metamotivation: the biological rooting of the value-life  Abraham Maslow

 implications for education...    human needs and education...    culture of consumerism depends on denigration of human values and motivation: adult immaturity   

Human growth is a function of two psychological processes:one is movement towards separation from others i.e. uniqueness or ‘differentiation’; the other is movement beyond the self and towards connectedness with others i.e. ‘integration'. Both differentiation and integration are necessary for effective adaptability to life's challenges. Life must have meaning.

Meaning of life Building Self Confidence through Flow, the source of joy or ‘happiness’. To gain personal control over the quality of experience, one needs to learn how to build enjoyment into daily activities. Routine activities of everyday life can be transformed into enjoyable experiences with meaning and purpose. These result in feelings of strength and the integration of the self or ‘wholeness’ which makes for increased self-confidence. Focus on realistic goals and development of skills which match the opportunities for action add up to to a sense of participation or ‘mastery’ in determining the content of one’s life the basis for joy or ‘happiness’. Happiness is a function of interpretation of experience… freedom from fear and anxiety and boredom... or ‘flow’. The experience of flow engages total involvement and absorpton without distraction… disciplined concentration and full attention. Mastery of life is necessary for effective adaptation to the challenges of living.  Flow is control of consciousness which directly benefits (improves, determines) the quality of life …. because it involves the sense of exercising control in the difficult situations of everyday challenges…  Flow is the process of enjoying life in the present and involves the optimal state of inner experience or ‘optimal experience’ in which information coming into awareness is confluent with feelings and thoughts on which one is focused.  The experience of ‘flow’ is about achieving mastery of one’s life through integration of the self...about building self-confidence through control of inner consciousness or inner experience of subjective reality… about controlling psychic energy which seems to flow without effort…. and creating order out of consciousness… in terms of goals and intentions. Flow experiences progressively free up the person so they can continue to transform the moments of everyday life into events which function to integrate the self.  Flow experience is intrinsically rewarding because there is immediate feedback. The self approves of itself and this positive feedback builds confidence. Flow gives value to life … to subjective experience. Enjoying life, harmony of mind is life itself. The person who knows how to find flow from life is able to enjoy even desparate situations. Ability to transform problems into enjoyable challenges… learning opportunities… is essential for survival and quality of life. Alleviate stress and gain strength from stress by transforming the situation into a new flow activity that can be controlled and become a source of enjoyment. Requires humility. When feelings, thoughts and actions are congruent the result is inner strength and inner harmony or 'serenity'.  Life  with purpose and resolution is transformed into a flow experience and acquires meaning. This is ordered consciousness. Material conditions become secondary… they become indirectly influential by way of experience.  Material advantages improve life only if the person has attitudes of autotelic personality goals which originate within the self and maintain harmony by seeing problems not as potential threats but as enjoyable challenges. Everything one does adds to order of consciousness  as flow activity involves the self to such an extent that it emerges on a higher level of complexity. Following a flow experience the organization of the self is more complex than it was before. Flow increases complexity of self and psychological integration or ‘growth’.

(adapted from Flow by Michael Czicksentmihayi)

.................................................................................................................................................................

Motivation is about adaptation to changing environmental conditions i.e. 'adaptability'.

A practicable solution to the so-called 'problem of motivation' depends on shifting the direction of inquiry to a holistic perspective of the human organism as a social organism.

Motivation is intrinsic to the organism... functional in the process of adaptation The nature of any biological organism is a function of the instinctive motivation for learning which leads to adaptive learning and behaviour i.e. 'adaptability'. Any biological organism is intrinsically motivated for behaviour which is adaptive to its environment. The human organism is similarly motivated for adaptability. Human adaptability depends on the capacity for initiative and sustained concentration on a specific goal with a view to delayed response i.e. 'intrinsic motivation'. Intrinsic motivation maintains a proper balance between action and restraint and provides the individual with the sense of direction and the energy which they need in their efforts to adapt to changing social conditions.  Motivation for action… motivated by goals or ‘intentions’ which are intrinsic to the self is ‘intrinsic motivation’. Intrinsic motivation is a function of the individual's unconscious or 'intrinsic' motives for behaviour i.e. 'human needs'. "Human evolution is rooted in man's adaptability and in certain indestructible qualities of his nature which compel him never to cease his search for conditions better adjusted to his intrinsic needs" (Fromm. Man For Himself, 23)            

theme: The human organism is a social organism with a social brain. As a social organism the human individual is instinctively motivated to relate to others - to 'socialise' and to 'assimilate' - in order to acquire the things which it needs for work and for defence. Motivations for socialisation and assimilation are intrinsic to the nature of the human personality i.e. 'human nature'.

The unique feature which differentiates the brain of humans from other primates is its capacity for concentrated attention for a long period of time i.e 'motivation'. Motivation for human behaviour lies in emotional forces at the unconscious level of the psyche - intrinsic motives for learning i.e. 'intrinsic motivation'. Intrinsic motivation is a function of development of moral consciousness or 'conscience'. Development of conscience or 'soul' is required for creative adaptation to changing social conditions i.e. 'adaptability'. Human adaptability depends on gratification of motives for behaviour rooted in the instinct for self-interest and self-preservation which depends on the organismic striving for 'mature growth' or 'self-actualisation' i.e. 'human needs'. Human needs include biologically based psychological needs... both 'lower psychological needs' or 'ego-needs' and 'higher psychological needs' - the growth needs or 'spiritual needs' i.e. 'metaneeds'. Human needs are 'value choices' or 'operative values' which function in the unfolding of human powers and human potential for 'wholeness' or 'health' i.e. 'well-being' or 'wellness'. Human wellness depends of satisfaction of developmental needs... In the presence of suitable conditions for growth normal motivation by growth needs is growth motivation or 'metamotivation'. (In the absence of suitable growth conditions abnormal motivation is by deficiency of growth needs i.e. 'deficiency motivation' or 'deficit motivation'... the basis for neurotic development or 'neurosis'.) Metamotivation is functional in development of the integrated personality. Education for the person as a whole is 'holistic education'.

Throughout human history... "While people's reactions and responses changed radically as a result of new external circumstances such as political revolutions and technological breakthroughs, their underlying assumptions remained essentially unchanged. They continued to assume that the predominantly creative force in their lives was external to them; it came from somewhere other than themselves...'circumstantial stimuli'... any stimuli, external or internal, which seem to force people to take action. These sometimes evoke spontaneous reaction and at other times seem to call for 'appropriate' responses. This is the 'reactive-responsive orientation'. In this kind of situation, it seems that the circumstances are more powerful than you are. Strategies are designed to avoid immediate unwanted circumstances. Longer range strategies are designed to prevent unwanted circumstances from happening in the first place. This is called the 'pre-emptive strike'. Spiritual poverty results in defensive strategy; all the energy is focused on what the person does not want. People using it are continually in a position of potentially compromising whatever they may truly want in their lives for the sake of safety, security and sense of peace. Spiritual richness results in creative strategy; all the energy is focused on what the person does want. People using it are positive and creative, accomplishing things which enhance their own welfare and happiness as well as that of others". (Robert Fritz The Path of Least Resistance  DMA Inc. Pickering Way, Salem MA 0l970 l984)

    "The 'normalized' child's activities of work (are) related to the inner construction of the personality. The motivation to learn derives from this source. Teaching which corresponds to this motivation is functional in the child's development. The child's response is the best guide for the teacher. The child's interest and concentration indicates the extent of effectiveness of the teaching methodology in practice. The child loses motivation when the work is directed to an external goal. Teaching for external goals is not functional in the child's development." (Mario Montessori. Education for Human Development. Schocken Books, New York. 1967 page 67)

The traditional paradigm of education and the task-oriented perception of education This task-oriented perception of the environment is reflected in the task-oriented approach to education or 'carrot and stick' approach... first learn the skills... get the education... get the grades and then you can get the job which means money and material comfort. With task-oriented education the individual works towards external goals... learns to depend on motivating devices  which are external or 'extrinsic' to the action of learning and study - tests, exams and rewards expressed as grades, scores, grade averages, credentials and diplomas and the promise of future jobs as well as the avoidance of disciplinary measures in the form of low grades and punishment i.e. 'extrinsic motivation'. Extrinsic motivation is motivation by extrinsic rewards. Extrinsic motivation is the same as motivation for learning the best way to satisfy a deficiency of unfulfilled needs...  deficiency needs i.e. 'deficiency motivation' or 'deficit-motivation'. The deficiency motivated individual makes repeated attempts to acquire from the outside world satisfactions of their motivational deficiencies... of their deficient needs.

 Education is offered in the context of the culture or 'cultural context'. In the context of a capitalist consumer culture the individual learns to perceive... is encouraged to perceive the (social) environment in terms of - what is 'threatening' and what is 'useful'... forms the basis for value system... 'economic values' which replace authentic 'human values'. These economic values of the culture are then translated into educational 'policy'. The perception of the environment is reflected in the task-oriented approach to education or 'carrot and stick' approach... first learn the skills... get the education... get the grades and then you can get the job, the money and the material comfort. The external motivating devices are designed to motivate extrinsically towards goal objects which are external to the activities of study. good grades means college and college education is preparation for a 'good job' which means good money and a comfortable material life. The individual works towards these external goals and learns to depend on motivating devices and rewards which are external or 'extrinsic' to the action of learning and study - tests, exams and rewards expressed as grades, scores, grade averages, credentials and diplomas and promises for the future... i.e. 'extrinsic motivation'. Extrinsic motivation is the same as motivation for learning the best way to satisfy a deficiency of unfulfilled needs...  deficiency needs i.e. 'deficiency motivation' or 'deficit-motivation'. The deficiency motivated individual makes repeated attempts to acquire from the outside world satisfactions of their motivational deficiencies.

 In the framework of the official pedagogy of the behavioural paradigm, motivation is assumed to be outside or 'extrinsic' to the action of study. The ultimate effect is to alienate the learner from the learning process. The alienation leads to demotivation and disempowerment... decline in motivation and decline in academic standards which is explained away as 'student mediocrity'.  Student mediocrity is ultimately derived from the pressure of the demands of administrators. Stalemates and power struggles develop amongst students, teachers and administrations. Teachers are pressured by the demands of administrations for examination results, test scores etc. Both teachers and administrations become concerned with student performance as a reflection of teacher performance rather than as a reflection of student progress. Student results are used to monitor teachers' job performance.Students do not cooperate because they are not encouraged to experience motivation while learning. (Education for Human Development. Mario Montessori. Schocken Books, New York. 1967 Traditional education is education for manipulation and social control. Traditional teaching methods are justified by behavioural science or 'behaviourism'. Emphasis is based on the notion that education is a matter of conditioned learning or 'conditioning'. Conditioning is dysfunctional if it  allows the individual to perceive the details but not the whole to see all there is to be seen of the surface features - the sum total of what is apparent and has already materialized.  

Motivation is intrinsic to the human organism as a social organism which depends on fulfillment of human needs... social intelligence... for social adaptability for survival  An understanding of human learning behaviour depends on the holistic perspective of the human organism as a social organism i.e. 'human nature'. The  nature of any biological organism is a function of the instinctive motivation for learning which leads to  adaptive learning and behaviour i.e. 'adaptability'. The human organism is similarly motivated for adaptability. Human adaptability depends on the capacity for initiative and sustained concentration on a specific goal with a view to delayed response i.e. 'intrinsic motivation'. Intrinsic motivation maintains a proper balance between action and restraint and provides the individual with the sense of direction and the energy which they need in their efforts to adapt to changing social conditions.  Intrinsic motivation required for adaptation and survival ...

 For the human organism, adaptation and survival depends on creative or productive and therefore adaptive behaviour. Human adaptive behaviour is based on the instinctive need to make meaning of the complexity of environmental stimuli... to 'learn'. Learning is a natural function of the 'meaning-maker' or 'brain'. The human brain is a social brain which is specialized for motivation to learn with a view to making accurate evaluations for adaptation to a changing social environment. Social adaptability depends on the capacity for accurate evaluation. Accuracy of evaluation depends on unconscious motivations which indirectly determine the degree of adaptability of thought and behaviour. The natural capacities for inquiring, observing and thinking can be 'critical', or 'uncritical', creative or destructive and the corresponding behaviour which results will be adaptive or non-adaptive depending on the degree of accuracy of evaluation. Inaccurate evaluation produces behaviour which is destructive and 'non-adaptive'. Accurate evaluation produces behaviour which is creative and 'adaptive'. Adaptive behaviour depends on motivation. Motivation is directly related to the problem of adaptation to a changing environment. Motivation is naturally related to compelling interest in exploring or mastering a subject, topic or skill. 'Optimal motivation' or 'metamotivation' is characteristic of the balanced personality and a function of developed 'moral consciousness' or 'conscience'. The conscience is the source of human values required for effective social adaptation.

The human organism is a social organism which depends for survival on successful adaptation to changes in the social environment i.e. 'adaptability'. Human adaptability depends on intelligent behaviour based on social adaptation and cooperation i.e 'social intelligence'. Social intelligence is a function of personality development and psychological wholeness... moral consciousness or 'morality'. Morality depends on spiritual maturity or 'self-actualisation' resulting from psychological wholeness or 'health' i.e. 'wellness'. Psychological wholeness depends on fulfillment of developmental needs - intrinsic capacities, talents, yearnings, preferences and values i.e. motives for human behaviour or 'human needs'. There is a range of human needs which includes the most urgent physiological and psychological needs or 'lower' needs and the less urgent spiritual needs or 'higher' needs.

 Human needs are instinctive human motives for behaviour or 'motivations'. Human motivations lie at the subconscious level of brain functioning. Unconscious motivations give rise to emotional forces known as 'deep meanings' or 'drives' of human behaviour i.e. the 'learning emotions'.  Deep meanings and drives are at the core of intrinsic motives for behaviour.The subconscious emotions determine the nature of the individual's thinking or 'cognition'. Depending on the nature of the individual's motivation, cognitive activity leads to interpetation and evaluation of the environment and subsequent  behaviour or 'action' which can be creative and 'adaptive' or destructive and 'non-adaptive'. Learning emotions  provide the sense of direction and the energy required for learning and adapting to changes in the social environment. Human needs must be met for the organism to function fully as a socially intelligent integrated being able to adapt to changing social conditions

There is a range of human needs which vary in terms or urgency or 'prepotency'. Though all human  needs are interrelated, there is a hierarchy of needs in terms of urgency or 'prepotency'. The most prepotent are the obvious physiological needs for  physical survival, physical security and physical growth... the needs for food, water, clothing, shelter and so on... 'survival needs'. The basic physiological of the human organism are derived from the biological instinct for self-preservation. They include firstly the 'basic physiological needs' related to the physical needs for survival of the organism and the species - physical needs for safety and development - food, water, warmth, sleep, protection and right conditions for reproduction;

Then there are the psychological needs  related to psychological growth... the lower psychological needs the urgent so-called 'basic psychological needs' or 'ego-needs' for psychological security and belongingness or 'self-esteem - care and affection

and the 'higher' psychological needs the spiritual growth needs or 'metaneeds' less urgent 'higher psychological needs' or 'growth needs' - the 'spiritual needs' (spiritual love, lovingkindness or 'compassion') for 'ego  or self-transcendance' i.e. 'metaneeds' for mature growth or 'self-actualisation'. Self-actualisation is not the end of growth... not the path to maturity but the path of maturity.

...by all members of the human species.  

The 'lower' needs are the 'basic psychological needs' for psychological security and belongingness... self-respect and 'self-esteem - care and affection... i.e. t'security needs' for belongingness and self-esteem or 'ego needs'. The basic psychological needs are the needs for security, belongingness and self-esteem. The most prepotent is the need for freedom from fear and anxiety - the need for safety or 'security'. Security needs include the need to admire an ideal and to strive for perfection. Security is communicated through loving care and a sense of 'belongingness'... parental love i.e. spiritual or 'unconditional love' which communicates the security, approval, respect, esteem and sense of belongingness basic to faith in the persistence of the self, respect and approval of one's identity and expectations of oneself i.e. 'self-respect' or 'self-esteem' - the 'ego needs'. Fulfillment of the ego needs establishes a natural condition of self-identity or 'healthy ego' which is required for  normal psychological growth. Satisfaction of the 'basic psychological needs' depends on others for communication of security through 'unconditional love'.

The 'higher' psychological needs for spiritual growth... 'growth needs' or 'spiritual needs' for moral consciousness or 'conscience... needs for spiritual love, lovingkindness or 'compassion'. The 'higher' spiritual needs ('higher' because they are related to consciousness) are motivations for spiritual growth and ego-transcendance. The spiritual needs are also known as 'growth motivations' or 'metaneeds' - from the Greek word 'meta' meaning 'of a higher order'.  The metaneeds are the growth needs of natural values of moral consciousness or 'conscience'. They are the intellectual, moral and 'ethical' needs related to the values of truth, goodness, perfection, justice, simplicity, love, compassion and so on taught by religions and philosophies. Each of the metaneeds or 'Being-needs represent different facets of the wholeness of Being. Each can be defined in terms of the others. The metaneeds are related to  transcendance of the ego i.e. 'self' or 'ego-transcendance. Metaneeds are the needs for 'spiritual growth  as 'normal growth' or 'mature growth' i.e.  'self-actualisation' i.e. 'human values'. The human values are 'social values' of social cooperation or 'socialisation' required for successful adaptation to changing social conditions i.e. 'adaptability'. Human adaptability depends on education for development of the 'spiritual equipment' which combines the understanding of reason with the wisdom of compassion and ensures the connectedness of human beings as social beings i.e. 'creative intelligence' or 'social intelligence'. Satisfaction of the 'higher psychological needs' depends on autonomy and self-reliance. secondly the 'basic psychological needs' or 'emotional needs' for security and belongingness which come from parental approval and lead to rational faith in the persistence of the self i.e self-respect or 'self-esteem' - the 'ego needs'; thirdly, the needs for mature growth or 'self-actualisation' - growth needs or 'spiritual needs' for spiritual growth and 'self-transcendance'. Motivations by the different needs - spiritual needs as well the physiological and psychological needs - originate in the instinct for self-preservation. The biologically based human needs are the source of human motivation for learning behaviour i.e. 'intrinsic motivation'.

 The prepotent more urgent basic psychological needs - 'deficiency needs' - ..motivation for the ego needs of self-esteem - 'deficiency motivations' are prerequisite to the metaneeds - the 'growth motivations'. In a cultural environment which focuses on the basic physiological and psychological needs, 'metamotivation' is inhibited by forces external to the individual. The individual in a cultural environment which focuses on the basic needs is deprived of the means for gratification of the 'metaneeds which are repressed ...denied... in an environment in which conditional love is refused.. the environment is feared ...is dreaded... is perceived as a menace to the organism's individuality, development, instinctive strivings to grow for freedom and happiness...basic anxiety develops... the child's free use of energies is thwarted, self-esteem and self-reliance are undermined, fear is instilled by intimidation and isolation, expansiveness is warped through brutality or overprotective 'love'...fear is grounded in reality..

 Human adaptability: the role of unconscious motivation or 'intrinsic motivation'... drive behind process of knowing or 'knowledge'  The motivations underlying an individual's actions and behaviour lie in emotional forces at the unconscious level of the human mind - the intrinsic motives for learning or 'intrinsic motivation'. Intrinsic motivation is based on the developmental needs of the human organism - the 'higher psychological needs' or 'spiritual needs' as well as the 'lower psychological needs' or 'ego-needs'. Spiritual needs are needs for spiritual growth or 'maturity'   essential for human adaptation to changing social conditions i.e. 'adaptability'.  

 "The 'normalized' child's activities of work (are) related to the inner construction of the personality. The motivation to learn derives from this source. Teaching which corresponds to this motivation is functional in the child's development. The child's response is the best guide for the teacher. The child's interest and concentration indicates the extent of effectiveness of the teaching methodology in practice. The child loses motivation when the work is directed to an external goal. Teaching for external goals is not functional in the child's development." (Mario Montessori. Education for Human Development. Schocken Books, New York. 1967 page 67.)

Human adaptability depends on effective learning driven by 'curiosity', accurate interpretation or 'perception' and correct evaluation or 'critical thought'. Whatever the motivational state, intrinsic motivation is driven by the instinctive need to make meaning of the environment or 'learn'. Learning is the capacity for observation and inquiry (curiosity) which is necessary for the organism to acquire the information, knowledge and understanding upon which it depends for accurate interpretation or 'perception' of the social reality. Curiosity is a function of the  attention on the environment for the knowledge which  can be derived from it - an instinctive emotion because it is rooted in the instinct for  'self-preservation'.

 

Perception depends on the individual's thought patterns which can be critical, constructive and accurate (complete cognition of 'holistic perception') or else non-critical, destructive and inaccurate (incomplete cognition of non-holistic perception). Accuracy of perception leads to evaluation of the social reality (accurate or inaccurate) and subsequent behaviour (creative and 'adaptive' or destructive and 'non-adaptive') depending on the extent of completeness behaviour. Behaviour is creative and adaptive or non-creative and non-adaptive depending on the individual's capacity for observation and inquiry or 'critical' thinking. Critical thought patterns produce accurate evaluations and creative or 'adaptive' behaviour. Non-critical thought patterns produce inaccurate evaluations and destructive or 'non-adaptive' behaviour. Adaptability of behaviour which depends on accuracy of evaluation (knowledge) and perception (understanding) ultimately depends on the individual's motivational state which is a function of the individual's unconscious motivations and how they affect the individual's thought patterns - their capacity for 'critical thinking' or 'reason'.

 

The highest consciousness state - 'transpersonal state' - is the most effective for human responsiveness to change i.e. 'adaptability'  The different types of motivation or 'motivational states' depend on the extent to which the human needs have been met in the individual's development. The range of motivational states is a function of the level of personality development or 'mental health'. An individual's mental health depends on the sociocognitive level of moral development or 'morality' i.e. their level of moral consciousness or 'consciousness state'. Fully functioning consciousness of the so-called 'highest consciousness state' is the most effective for human adaptability. Attainment depends on complete personality development which is a function of development of conscience - the human 'soul'. Development of conscience which is required for adaptability of the human organism as a social organism is a function of appropriate education based on the human potential for holistic learning i.e. 'optimalearning'.

 

  "Two stonecutters were engaged in similar activity. Asked what they were doing, one answered "I'm squaring up this block of stone." The other replied, "I'm building a cathedral." The first may have been underemployed; the second was not. Clearly what counts is not so much the work a person does, but what he perceives he is doing it for." (Abraham Maslow. Toward a Psychology of  Being. 1968)

Human needs give rise to the different 'learning emotions'  "The purest act of cognition relies upon interest from the affective side to energize it. An emotion generated from within the moral sphere will derive its meaning to the individual from the sociocognitive stage of moral development that he is at." (Rosen)

 

Human needs determine the nature of the different types of motivation or 'motivational types' which give rise to different 'learning emotions'. Motivational type depends on the individual's level of psychological or 'moral development' i.e. 'sociocognitive stage' of 'personality development'. If personality development is thwarted then the individual is motivated by 'negative learning emotions' characteristic of thwarted growth which leads to 'neurotic development' or 'neurosis' - fear, frustration, confusion, disorientation and agony.  

 

If personality development is encouraged then the individual is motivated by the 'positive learning emotions' characteristic of self-actualisation - curiosity, wonder and reverential fear or 'awe'

 Natural curiosity is the source of 'intrinsic motivation' for learning. "...It is in fact nothing short of a miracle that the modern methods of instruction have not yet entirely strangled the holy curiosity of inquiry; for this delicate little plant, aside from stimulation, stands mainly in need of freedom; without this it goes to wrack and ruin without fail." (Albert Einstein cited in Carl Rogers. Freedom To Learn. Columbus, Ohio: Charles Merrill Publishing Co. 1969)

"The purest act of cognition relies upon interest from the affective side to energize it. An emotion generated from within the moral sphere will derive its meaning to the individual from the sociocognitive stage of moral development that he is at." (Rosen)

 Both 'lower' and 'higher' needs are shared ...

The hierarchy of human needs in terms or urgency or 'prepotency': There is a range of instinctive human motives or 'human needs'. Human needs are psychological and spiritual as well as physiological. The physiological needs are those needs which are related to physical growth. Psychological needs are those needs related to psychological growth. They include the 'lower' needs for self-esteem i.e. the 'ego needs' and the 'higher' needs for spiritual growth i.e. the growth needs or 'spiritual needs'. The spiritual needs are related to spiritual growth and transcendance of the ego or 'ego-transcendance'. The lower and higher psychological needs are interrelated. Human needs must be fulfilled for proper growth and development to full human awareness or 'humanness'. The fulfillment of psychological needs is a part of the healthy psychological development required for successful adaptation to changing social conditions i.e. 'social intelligence'. Social intelligence is a function of fully expanded awareness of the growth needs of the value-life... 'social values' of 'humanness' i.e. mature growth or 'self-actualisation' 

 Both 'lower' and 'higher' needs are shared by all members of the human species. 

Human needs must be met during development: role of 'education' Human needs must be fulfilled for proper growth and development to full human awareness or 'humanness'. The fulfillment of psychological needs is a part of the healthy psychological development required for successful adaptation to changing social conditions i.e. 'social intelligence'... depends for survival on social intelligence. Social intelligence is a function of fully expanded awareness of the growth needs of the value-life... 'social values' of 'humanness'. Social intelligence depends on growth motivation based on human needs which are intrinsic to the organism i.e. 'intrinsic motivation'.  

 

During development, each set of needs becomes apparent as the more urgent needs are met and motivations for behaviour shift from a strong expression of motivation of deficiency - 'deficiency motivation' - to the subtle expression of motivation of sufficiency - 'growth motivation'or 'metamotivation'..metamotivation is motivation by the metaneeds... is the most effective type of motivation for adaptation to rapidly changing social conditions... characteristic of the well developed or 'balanced' personality. 

 Motivation by the growth needs or 'metaneeds': 'metamotivation' the most effective type of motivation for adaptation to rapidly changing social conditions. 'Metamotivation' is motivation by the needs for psychological or spiritual growth i.e. the 'metaneeds'. The metaneeds are the spiritual needs or 'growth needs' of the value-life. They represent an intrinsic part of human nature. A description of the metaneeds is fundamental to the full definition of the human personality or 'human nature'.                                                                                                                                    

  "In A Theory of Metamotivation: The Biological Rooting of the Value-Life Abraham Maslow lays out a number of hypotheses about the nature and experience of self-actualizers and self-transcenders. He first describes the hierarchy of needs and suggests that higher needs (metaneeds, being-Values or B-values) for truth, beauty, transcendence, etc. are just as biologically based as are the lower, more obviously physiological ones such as thirst and sex. Further, he proposes that the failure to satisfy metaneeds may result in corresponding forms of pathology (metapathology) analagous to those resulting from unsatisfied lower needs. Thus he concludes that transcendant, religious, esthetic, and philosophical facets of life are as real and intrinsic to human nature as any biological needs". (Walsh 121)

Authentic knowledge is developed through learning which involves the construction and negotiation of meaning or  'dialogue' 

Social intelligence is a function of rational negotiation of meaning... 'dialogue' ... 'inner dialogue' or 'contemplation' and 'outer dialogue' as verbal expression and discussion in a process of acquiring knowledge which is valid or 'authentic'.

Knowledge is not finite but changes. Knowledge as 'meaning' is constructed  through 'inner dialogue' of contemplation and the meaning is negotiated with others through 'outer dialogue' of discussion.

   Biological basis of intrinsic motivation: 'prefrontal lobes'  The human organism is a social organism which belongs to the primate order of the human species - knowing man or 'homo sapiens'. One of the most striking features which differentiates homo sapiens from its ancestral species - upright man or 'homo erectus' is the high forehead. The high forehead of homo sapiens is associated with the development of the frontal lobes of the brain. Evolution of the frontal lobes probably  occurred rapidly in the Middle Pleistocene era.

The frontal lobes play an important part in the development of balanced personality. Associated with development of the human personality, frontal lobe development is a function of the unique human capacity for 'motivation'. As a unique feature of human personality development, motivation is the characteristically human capacity to perform actions which produce delayed responses and rewards. Motivation is the expression of the capacity for initiative and sustained attention and concentration of one's attention on a goal. As a capacity related to causes of action and motives for behaviour, the human capacity for motivation is required for adaptive behaviour and for survival. The extreme front part of the frontal lobes - the prefontal lobes - is responsible for motivation.

 Motivation is an intrinsic function of the development of the prefontal lobes.The prefrontal lobes are responsible for initiative and the maintenance of the proper balance between actions and restraint - sustained attention and the resulting delayed responses and rewards. The proper functioning of the prefrontal lobes is the biological basis for the ability to concentrate for long periods on demanding tasks. It is the basis for the characteristically human ability for productivity or 'work'.

As a function of the development of the prefrontal lobes, motivation is a characteristically human capacity which is necessary for adaptive behaviour and survival of the human organism as a social organism. Human survival depends on the human capacity for motivation. Like any other biological organism, the human organism is intrinsically motivated for behaviour which is adaptive to its environment. The human organism as a social organism is similarly motivated for behaviour which is adaptive to its social environment. Adaptive behaviour depends on the accuracy of the individual's perception of the social environment and on the way in which the individual thinks about it. Accuracy of the individual's knowledge and understanding depends on the unconscious motivations and thought patterns... 'cognitive structures'. The individual's thought patterns determine the accuracy of evaluation which in turn determines the degree of adaptability of behaviour. Human survival depends on the capacity for adaptation to a changing social environment and social adaptability depends on the capacity for motivation and work.

Intrinsic motivation is a function of the individual's unconscious or 'intrinsic' motives for behaviour i.e. 'human needs'.     

 The key to motivation is recognition of needs. "Human evolution is rooted in man's adaptability and in certain indestructible qualities of his nature which compel him never to cease his search for conditions better adjusted to his intrinsic needs" (Fromm. Man For Himself, 23)

 Mature growth or 'self-actualisation' Self-actualisation involves the harmonisation of psychic forces (such as the 'digestion of memory' as 'storytelling') which frees the individual from the limitations of the 'ego-life' and allows them to live in the spiritual realm of human existence i.e. the realm of 'self-transcendance' or 'being'. Self-actualisation is a function of the unfolding of human 'values for living' - the 'social values' or 'morals' of 'morality' - the moral faculty for accurate evaluation of the social environment... and leads to effective decision-making and successful adaptation i.e. 'social intelligence'.  Social intelligence depends on motivation by the metaneeds i.e. 'metamotivation'. Metamotivation is functional in the process of self-actualisation as mature growth and development of 'moral consciousness' or 'conscience'. Development of conscience or 'character' - the human 'soul' - depends on creativity and productivity or 'work'. Through meaningful work, the growth motivated or 'mature' individual is 'self-actualised' or 'self-actualising'.

The self-actualising individual is motivated by the growth needs and lives in the realm of being values of morality or 'ethics' Motivated by the growth needs, their motivation is synonymous with self-actualisation. Their whole being is motivated. Their productivity results from the effects of profound 'being-motivation' or 'metamotivation'. Metamotivation is a function of communion with what transcends the ego and makes it easily possible to live in the realm of the Being-needs of growth. They naturally make choices within the framework of the intrinsic system of human values which are equivalent to the B-needs i.e. the 'Being-values' or B-values ...the 'higher' spiritual values or metaneeds which satisfy the human longing fo freedom, love, certainty wholeness, perfection, truth, justice, aliveness, richness, simplicity, beauty, goodness, uniqueness, self-sufficiency and so on. Living in the realm of the metaneeds self-actualising individuals lead ethical lives. They live by a rational ethical value system - 'rational ethics'. They are responsible to themselves making decisions in their own true interest, and at the same time responsible to others making decisions in the interest of society. They have a genuine desire to be responsible to others, to help others... 'altruism'. Metamotivation contrasts with the control of motivation by deficiency of the basic psychological needs i.e. deficiency or 'deficit motivation'. Deficit motivation is a function of dependence on others as sources of supply for their gratification needs... requires constant adaptability to fit the environment which they perceive as non-reliable and this contributes to their general anxiety, hostility and lack of freedom.

Learning with personal meaning Learning of personal involvement is self-initiated, is pervasive, is evaluated by the learner and has meaning as its essence. "When is one free from tests or other types of institutional press?..... only when one submits oneself to them and rises above them." (41) "Changingness, a reliance on process rather than upon static knowledge, is the only thing that makes sense as a goal for education in the modern world."(104) The facilitation oflearning is the aim of education." (105) "The facilitation of significant learning rests upon certain attitudinal qualities which exist in the personal relationship between the facilitator and the learner."(106) The attitudinal qualities: the most important is 'genuineness,' congruent. - to be real about oneself. He is a vital person, with feelings and convictions. He can be authentic, expressing feelings of enthusiasm, boredom, anger, sensitivity, sympathy - accepting these feelings as his own without needing to impose them on the students; able to share feelings of anger and frustration as well as feelings of sweetness and light. An important attitude: having a basic trust, 'prizing' the learner, his feelings, his opinions, his person; caring without being possessive. "The facilitator's prizing or acceptance of the learner is an operational expression of his essential confidence and trust of the human organism." Another important attitude: 'empathic understanding' - understand what's it is like to in the other's shoes. (157- 165)

 The educational process for the child means the instinctive development of his individuality and so must allow for the complete emotional and psychic as well as intellectual maturation into an adult personality with self-determination, self-respect, and self discipline. The educational process becomes effective when a child enjoys learning for learning's sake. He can enjoy learning in the framework of creation which comes from his own powers of imagination and natural curiosity in the world around him. The teacher is a resource and provider of resources. And the educator, whether in the administrative or instructional capacities of school or government, has the very great responsibility of leading students to use their own minds - to learn to think.

"Real freedom is a consequence of development; it is the consequence of latent guides, aided by education. It is the construction of the personality, reached by effort and one's own experiences; it is the long road which every child must take to reach maturity... Development cannot be taught." (Montessori Absorbent Mind)

Human capacity for reason depends on brain development or 'intelligence  Human adaptability depends on development of the human organ specialised for processing of information and creation of meaning or 'learning'. Learning is a natural functionof the 'brain'. The human brain is a social brain with the potential capacity for development of the intelligence required for adaptation to changing social conditions i.e. 'social intelligence'. The human capacity for social intelligence depends on optimal functioning of the brain or 'optimalearning'.... a function of 'creative intelligence'.

Motivation is a function of the 'prefrontal lobes'.  

 Problem of arrested curiosity

"Arrested curiosity stays on the plane of interest in local gossip and prying inquisitiveness into other peoples' business". (John Dewey. How We Think: A Restatement of the Relation of Refelective Thinking to the Educative Process. Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath and Company , 1933 40)

 Motivation is a significant dimension of optimal health or 'wellness'

 "Motivation would also be a significant dimension of health. The most widely accepted transpersonal model of motivation owes a great deal to Abraham Maslow.

Self-actualisation as mature growth Self-actualisation is not the end of growth... not the path to maturity but the path of maturity... Self-actualisation involves the harmonisation of psychic forces (such as the 'digestion of memory' as 'storytelling') which frees the individual from the limitations of the 'ego-life' and allows them to live in the spiritual realm -  of human existence i.e. the realm of 'ego-transcendance' or  'being'. Self-actualisation is a function of the unfolding of human 'values for living' - the 'social values' or 'morals' of 'morality' - the moral faculty for accurate evaluation of the social environment and leads to effective decision-making and successful adaptation i.e. 'social intelligence'.  Social intelligence depends on motivation by the metaneeds i.e. 'metamotivation'. Metamotivation is functional in the process of self-actualisation as mature growth and development of 'moral consciousness' or 'conscience'. Development of conscience or 'character' - the human 'soul' - depends on creativity and productivity or 'work'.

Through meaningful work, the growth motivated or 'mature' individual is 'self-actualised' or 'self-actualising'.

The self-actualising individual is motivated by the growth needs and lives in the realm of being values or 'ethics' Motivated by the growth needs, their motivation is synonymous with self-actualisation. Their whole being is motivated. Their productivity results from the effects of profound 'being-motivation' or 'metamotivation'. Metamotivation is a function of communion with what transcends the ego and makes it easily possible to live in the realm of the Being-needs of growth. They naturally make choices within the framework of the intrinsic system of human values which are equivalent to the B-needs i.e. the 'Being-values' or B-values ...the 'higher' spiritual values or metaneeds which satisfy the human longing fo freedom, love, certainty wholeness, perfection, truth, justice, aliveness, richness, simplicity, beauty, goodness, uniqueness, self-sufficiency and so on. Living in the realm of the metaneeds self-actualising individuals lead ethical lives. They live by a rational ethical value system - 'rational ethics'. They are responsible to themselves making decisions in their own true interest, and at the same time responsible to others making decisions in the interest of society. They have a genuine desire to be responsible to others, to help others... 'altruism'. Metemotivation contrasts with the control of motivation by deficiency of the basic psychological needs i.e. deficiency or 'deficit motivation'.

Deficit motivation is a function of dependence on others as sources of supply for their gratification needs... requires constant adaptability to fit the environment which they perceive as non-reliable and this contributes to their general anxiety, hostility and lack of freedom.

 

If personality development is encouraged then the individual is motivated by the 'positive learning emotions' characteristic of self-actualisation - curiosity, wonder and reverential fear or 'awe'

 Natural curiosity is the source of 'intrinsic motivation' for learning. "...It is in fact nothing short of a miracle that the modern methods of instruction have not yet entirely strangled the holy curiosity of inquiry; for this delicate little plant, aside from stimulation, stands mainly in need of freedom; without this it goes to wrack and ruin without fail." (Albert Einstein cited in Carl Rogers. Freedom To Learn. Columbus, Ohio: Charles Merrill Publishing Co. 1969)

The highest consciousness state - 'transpersonal state' - is the most effective for human responsiveness to change i.e. 'adaptability'  The different types of motivation or 'motivational states' depend on the extent to which the human needs have been met in the individual's development. The range of motivational states is a function of the level of personality development or 'mental health'. An individual's mental health depends on the sociocognitive level of moral development or 'morality' i.e. their level of moral consciousness or 'consciousness state'. Fully functioning consciousness of the so-called 'highest consciousness state' is the most effective for human adaptability. Attainment depends on complete personality development which is a function of development of conscience - the human 'soul'. Development of conscience which is required for adaptability of the human organism as a social organism is a function of appropriate education based on the human potential for holistic learning i.e. 'optimalearning'.

 

  "Two stonecutters were engaged in similar activity. Asked what they were doing, one answered "I'm squaring up this block of stone." The other replied, "I'm building a cathedral." The first may have been underemployed; the second was not. Clearly what counts is not so much the work a person does, but what he perceives he is doing it for." (Abraham Maslow. Toward a Psychology of  Being. 1968)

 

Human adaptability depends on effective learning driven by 'curiosity', accurate interpretation or 'perception' and correct evaluation or 'critical thought'. Whatever the motivational state, intrinsic motivation is driven by the instinctive need to make meaning of the environment or 'learn'. Learning is the capacity for observation and inquiry (curiosity) which is necessary for the organism to acquire the information, knowledge and understanding upon which it depends for accurate interpretation or 'perception' of the social reality. Curiosity is a function of the  attention on the environment for the knowledge which  can be derived from it - an instinctive emotion because it is rooted in the instinct for  'self-preservation'.

 

Perception depends on the individual's thought patterns which can be critical, constructive and accurate (complete cognition of 'holistic perception') or else non-critical, destructive and inaccurate (incomplete cognition of non-holistic perception). Accuracy of perception leads to evaluation of the social reality (accurate or inaccurate) and subsequent behaviour (creative and 'adaptive' or destructive and 'non-adaptive') depending on the extent of completeness behaviour. Behaviour is creative and adaptive or non-creative and non-adaptive depending on the individual's capacity for observation and inquiry or 'critical' thinking. Critical thought patterns produce accurate evaluations and creative or 'adaptive' behaviour. Non-critical thought patterns produce inaccurate evaluations and destructive or 'non-adaptive' behaviour. Adaptability of behaviour which depends on accuracy of evaluation (knowledge) and perception (understanding) ultimately depends on the individual's motivational state which is a function of the individual's unconscious motivations and how they affect the individual's thought patterns - their capacity for 'critical thinking' or 'reason'.

Learning with personal meaning Learning of personal involvement is self-initiated, is pervasive, is evaluated by the learner and has meaning as its essence. "When is one free from tests or other types of institutional press?..... only when one submits oneself to them and rises above them." (41) "Changingness, a reliance on process rather than upon static knowledge, is the only thing that makes sense as a goal for education in the modern world."(104) The facilitation oflearning is the aim of education." (105) "The facilitation of significant learning rests upon certain attitudinal qualities which exist in the personal relationship between the facilitator and the learner."(106) The attitudinal qualities: the most important is 'genuineness,' congruent. - to be real about oneself. He is a vital person, with feelings and convictions. He can be authentic, expressing feelings of enthusiasm, boredom, anger, sensitivity, sympathy - accepting these feelings as his own without needing to impose them on the students; able to share feelings of anger and frustration as well as feelings of sweetness and light. An important attitude: having a basic trust, 'prizing' the learner, his feelings, his opinions, his person; caring without being possessive. "The facilitator's prizing or acceptance of the learner is an operational expression of his essential confidence and trust of the human organism." Another important attitude: 'empathic understanding' - understand what's it is like to in the other's shoes. (157- 165)

 The educational process for the child means the instinctive development of his individuality and so must allow for the complete emotional and psychic as well as intellectual maturation into an adult personality with self-determination, self-respect, and self discipline. The educational process becomes effective when a child enjoys learning for learning's sake. He can enjoy learning in the framework of creation which comes from his own powers of imagination and natural curiosity in the world around him. The teacher is a resource and provider of resources. And the educator, whether in the administrative or instructional capacities of school or government, has the very great responsibility of leading students to use their own minds - to learn to think.

"Real freedom is a consequence of development; it is the consequence of latent guides, aided by education. It is the construction of the personality, reached by effort and one's own experiences; it is the long road which every child must take to reach maturity... Development cannot be taught." (Montessori Absorbent Mind)

Human capacity for reason depends on brain development or 'intelligence  Human adaptability depends on development of the human organ specialised for processing of information and creation of meaning or 'learning'. Learning is a natural functionof the 'brain'. The human brain is a social brain with the potential capacity for development of the intelligence required for adaptation to changing social conditions i.e. 'social intelligence'. The human capacity for social intelligence depends on optimal functioning of the brain or 'optimalearning'.... a function of 'creative intelligence'.

Motivation is a function of the 'prefrontal lobes'.  

 Problem of arrested curiosity

"Arrested curiosity stays on the plane of interest in local gossip and prying inquisitiveness into other peoples' business". (John Dewey. How We Think: A Restatement of the Relation of Refelective Thinking to the Educative Process. Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath and Company , 1933 40)

 Motivation is a significant dimension of optimal health or 'wellness'  The most widely accepted transpersonal model of motivation owes a great deal to Abraham Maslow.

 

 Implications for education... spontaneous interest is crucial for motivation... education for responsibility of freedom... 'discipline' as self-discipline... education for responsibility of freedom... 'discipline' as self-discipline' 

 In the wholistic paradigm of education, understanding of the learning process is based on the consideration of the learner from a wholistic perspective of the human organism as a social organism... emphasis is placed on the learner's intrinsic motives for learning.

 PROBLEM OF MOTIVATION TO WORK: 'INTRINSIC MOTIVATION'

Education for adaptability depends on the understanding of the role of intrinsic motivation in effective learning. Intrinsic motivation is the driving force for creative learning and productive engagement with the environment i.e. ‘work’. Productive work engages the development of the personality through freedom for intrinsically motivated learning or 'meaningful learning'. Meaningful learning is the basis adaptability to the responsibilities of freedom i.e. 'responsible freedom'.

"Discipline is born when the child concentrates his attention on some object that attracts him and which provides him not only with a useful exercise but with a control of error." (Maria Montessori The Absorbent Mind 264)

Responsible freedom depends on education of the whole person i.e. 'holistic education.'                     

 

Deficiency motivation and the lack of faith in human potential the basis for manipulation and so-called 'banking education'... 'extrinsic motivation'. Faith in human potential and metamotivation is education for personal growth and freedom. Human potentialities for freedom, love, happiness, reason, justice and so on are like seeds. They are stifled and fail to develop if not given the proper conditions required for development.If not given the proper conditions. Education for freedom - 'holistic education'  - engages the metaneeds for spiritual growth as well as the basic psychological needs for security and self esteem.  Faith in human potential and metamotivation is education for personal growth and freedom.

 Traditional teaching methods effectively ruin the crucial factor for motivation towards effective learning and that is the individual's spontaneous interest. Ignorance of the validity of spontaneous interest results in the failure to recognize the learning potential of intrinsic motivation. Failure to acknowledge the potential of intrinsic motivation creates a gap between knowledge and personal growth. Since complete growth of the individual involves emotional, psychological and moral development as well as intellectual achievement, the failure to validate the individual's spontaneous interest leads to incompetence and incapacity.  

Teaching techniques which emphasize extrinsic motivation are ineffective in bringing about meaningful learning if they do not engage personality growth and development to self-actualisation. Growth to self-actualisation depends on work and study which is driven by intrinsic motivation and therefore involved in the inner construction of conscience. Developed conscience is an emegent property of the organ of learning or 'brain'. Teaching to the brain's rules for learning - 'brain-based learning' - engages the natural functioning of intrinsic motivation - optimallearning' - which is functional in growth and development or conscience. Development of conscience depends on a learning environment of freedom, empowerment and the facilitation of learning. The teacher's role is defined as 'facilitator'. The facilitative teacher uses the power of example rather than direction and their effectiveness depends on appropriate personal characteristics or ‘attributes’ as well as education or teacher training’.  

 

Education for adaptability depends on the understanding of the role of intrinsic motivation in effective learning. Intrinsic motivation is the driving force for creative learning and productive engagement with the environment i.e. ‘work’. Productive work engages the development of the personality through freedom for intrinsically motivated learning or 'meaningful learning'. Meaningful learning is the basis adaptability to the responsibilities of freedom i.e. 'responsible freedom'.

"Discipline is born when the child concentrates his attention on some object that attracts him and which provides him not only with a useful exercise but with a control of error." (Montessori The Absorbent Mind 264)

Responsible freedom depends on education of the whole person i.e. 'holistic education.' 

                    

The emotional forces of intrinsic motivation are the unconscious 'drives' which provide the individual with the sense of direction and the energy needed to carry out the tasks of living i.e. 'felt meanings' or 'deep meanings'. Deep meanings function as organizers of life experience. They determine the individual's way of perceiving the world... their way of organizing their own world and their own life. They describe the focal points around which thoughts and ideas are organized... they 'seed' the individual's thinking in the same way that a fragment of grit seeds the formation of a pearl in the oyster. They can be likened to 'thematic attractors' of the new 'science of complexity'. Access to the power of deep meanings of the unconscious gives people the direction and the power with which they perceive the work they do... their passions and their accomplishments. 

The extent to which the conscience is developed determines the individual's value system and the corresponding type of motivation or 'motivational type'.

The different types of motivation (motivational type) depend on the level of personality development  The motivational type or 'personality type' is determined by the extent to which the individual's human needs are met. The different types of motivation depend on the individual's level of psychological, intellectual and moral development i.e. 'sociocognitive stage'. The type of motivation is a dimension of personality development or 'mental health'. Mental health and personal development depends on the environmental conditions of 'education' which are offered to meet the range of human needs. Human needs which lie in the unconscious level of the mind extend from basic needs of survival and security through ego-needs of self-esteem and belongingness to spiritual needs of 'self-actualization' and 'ego-transcendance'. As needs are satisfied on the different levels, motives for behaviour shift from strong to subtle and from expressions of deficiency to expressions of sufficiency. As one level of needs is satisfied, the next level becomes apparent. Needs at the 'higher' end of the scale are the 'spiritual needs' or 'metaneeds'. Motivation by the metaneeds is 'motivation of sufficiency' or 'metamotivation'. Motivation by deficiency of the ego needs is 'motivation of deficiency' or 'deficit motivation'. The deficiency motivated individual perceives reality in terms of mutually exclusive classes and concepts or 'dichotomies' - male/female, selfish/unselfish, adult/child, kind/cruel, good/bad and so on while the self-actualised individual has a perspective of reality in terms of the relatedness of parts and wholes i.e. 'holistic perception'.

Motivational type determines individual's perception of reality and the way in which they think about it... their 'worldview'.

 The widely accepted transpersonal model of motivation is based on the work of  Abraham Maslow and his theory of  the 'hierarchy of needs' which ranges from basic survival through security, sense of belongingness, self-esteem, to expression of potentiality or 'self-actualization'. In the hierarchical organization of needs, instinctive motives are manifest sequentially during development according to the extent of urgency or 'prepotency'. As one level of needs is satisfied, the next level becomes apparent... motives shift from strong to subtle, and from expressions of deficiency to expressions of sufficiency. The needs at the higher end of this scale of sufficiency are the spiritual needs or 'metaneeds'. Motivation by the metaneeds is 'metamotivation.' Metamotivation is a significant dimension of optimal health or 'wellness'...

 Problem of motivation to work: key to educational crisis

 It is possible to resolve the problem of motivation with an understanding of education which is based on insights of human biology - the neurosciences, psychobiology and human psychology. Human motivation is a function of human personality development which in turn is a function of learning as a function of mature personal growth or 'self-actualisation' i.e. 'learning from experience... 'experiential learning' or 'meaningful learning'.

"The problem of motivation is at the heart of the teaching crisis in the States" (Paulo Freire)

What is the 'problem of motivation' The so-called 'problem of motivation' is a problem of the inability to adapt to changes in the environment... a problem of 'inadaptability' In the context of education... the 'problem of motivation' refers to the  decline in motivation resulting from the imposition of non-meaningful learning and student passivity. The passive role of the student is the cause of declining motivation which is at the root of the so-called 'educational crisis'. It is the problem of motivation which puts into question the hierarchical and mechanical methodology of the traditional paradigm of education. Schools are faced with a dilemma: how motivate students to work within the framework of the officially controlled instruction? What kind of instruction can be offered within the framework of a curriculum which meets the 'needs of society' and at the same time respects the learner's natural motivation for learning?

 The problem of motivation is related to 'values of capitalism'... culture of consumerism depends on education which engages motivation of deficiency... 'deficit motivation' The culture of consumerism depends on education which engages motivation by deficiency of needs or 'deficit motivation'... and its characteristically dichotomous perception of reality. In the traditional paradigm of task-oriented education - education as instruction - requirements are set for meeting the 'needs of society'. The accepted form of motivation is reflected in the carrot and stick approach to pedagogy - first learn the skills and get the education, then you can get the job. Good grades mean a good education, good education means a good job and a good job means good money and material comfort or 'happiness'. This is the official pedagogy which engages motivation for external goals or 'extrinsic motivation'

  Motivation by extrinsic goals rewards... : 'extrinsic motivation' (intrinsically motivated to depend for continued motivation on extrinsic goals) 

 In the behavioural paradigm of traditional education, the teacher teaches to behavioural objectives and students are motivated by external motivating devices i.e. 'extrinsic motivation'. Extrinsic motivation which alienates the learner from the learning process is ineffective in development of conscience or 'soul' required for growth and integrity - living by authentic human values. Extrinsic motivtion tends to erode intrinsic motivation.     

"The dominant curriculum treats motivation as outside the action of study. Tests, discipline, punishment, rewards, the promise of future jobs etc. are considerable motivating devices as alienated from the act of learning now." (Paulo Freire Politics of Education) 

The carrot and stick approach to education "first learn the skills then you can get the education and then you can get the job." Students do not cooperate because they are not encouraged to experience motivation while learning. (Education for Human Development. Mario Montessori. Schocken Books, New York. 1967

"The dominant curriculum treats motivation as outside the action of study. Tests, discipline, punishment, rewards, the promise of future jobs etc. are considerable motivating devices as alienated from the act of learning now." (Paulo Freire Politics of Education) 

 traditional paradigm of education...   educational crisis and the problem of motivation...   alienation of the learner from learning...  

decline in mediocrity explained away as 'student mediocrity'...   psychological value of work...   problem of motivation is a political one...

implications for education...

Educational crisis and the problem of motivation to work The general decline in motivation... 'problem of motivation'...at the heart of the 'educational crisis' is a direct result of the task-oriented approach of 'traditional education'. The educational crisis is ultimately derived from the economic theories and 'values' of capitalism as 'commercialism' and 'consumerism'.

As part of the official pedagogy, passive teaching is an effecive means for the disempowerment of students. While it disempowers students, passive teaching demotivates them as well. The behavioural approach to teaching and learning demotivates students against intellectual work.  Passive teaching for student disempowerment is equivalent to teaching for manipulation and control.  Passive teaching is poor pedagogical practice because it does not teach for personal freedom and growth.  does not involve changes of the whole personality... the learner is alienated from the act of learning. Any change which comes about is simply an addition or acquisition. 

Teaching techniques which emphasize extrinsic motivation are techniques of 'passive teaching' . most compatible teaching model is the lecture-based passive curriculum; Teachers become more concerned with student performance as a reflection of their own. Student grades become advantage points in teachers' struggles to keep their jobs and positions. Power struggles develop and teachers' energies are deflected away from student concerns for their own progress. With the decline of concern for students in their own progress there is decline in student cooperation. Because they are not encouraged to experience motivation while learning i.e. to depend on their natural capacity for motivation or 'intrinsic motivation' they do not cooperate and they refuse to perform. .

The official educational policy promotes the dominant authority in society by disempowering students with an education for the external rewards of good jobs and good money.

Ultimate effect of external motivating devices is to alienate the learner from the act of learning... to inhibit the learner from active involvement in the learning process and to cultivate passive learning. As the learner is alienated from the learning process they  become demotivated and disempowered.

Conditioned learning is ineffective for human adaptability because it results in limited perception of reality... 'perception problem'... Emphasis on extrinsic motivation prevents the individual from recognizing the social reality for what it is i.e. the way the dominant curriculum maintains that it should be.

Emphasis on extrinsic motivation is characteristic of teaching and learning techniques of the behavioural paradigm. The aim is to prevent the individual from developing those critical faculties which form the basis of accurate evaluation of the social environment required for constructive and adaptive behaviour.

Teaching for limited perception of reality Teaching techniques which emphasize extrinsic motivation teach for learning in terms of a given perception of the social environment. They teach for 'perceptual learning'... in the sense of 'limited perception'. They aim to teach the individual how they should perceive the cultural and social reality according to standards and perceptions of the dominant culture. They teach for the acceptance of perceptions of reality as the 'true' reality. They teach for the dichotomous perception of reality and for the 'incomplete cognition' of a dichotomized reality. The individual's limited perception of cultural and social reality is based on the ability to see all there is to be seen of the surface features of social phenomena - to perceive the sum total of what has already materialized as the 'reality'.  Their limited perception prevents them from penetrating  below the surface to the essential and to visualize what has not materialized and is not yet apparent i.e. 'vision'. The individual loses the capacity to enliven their perception from within and achieve a holistic perception of their social reali

Emphasis on extrinsic motivation hampers the development of an individual's capacity to recognize their social circumstances as products of a cultural reality which they have the power to change. The individual is disempowered and continues to perceive their social reality in the same way it is perceived by the dominant culture.  This type of learning prevents the individual from developing the critical faculties which are needed to form accurate evaluations of the social environment i.e.'critical practice'. They learn instead to depend on a calculating imagination which is able to combine the known factors and then infer how they might operate in a new situation... or 'scenarios'. The ability to see the details but not the whole - to see the trees but not the forest requires a calculating imagination to combine the known existing factors and then to infer how they might operate in the future.

 Extrinsic motivation does little for personal growth Extrinsically motivated learning does little if anything for personality growth and development as 'mature growth' or 'self-actualisation'

Learning for the construction of the personality requires insight and understanding, knowledge of self and the steady growth of conscience, increased synergy, integration and inner harmony.

Intuition required for adaptability depends on perception of the whole ... 'holistic perception'

 

Critical practice allows for the complete cognition which comes from perception of the whole i.e. ‘holistic perception’. Holistic perception leads to thought and behaviour which is productive and creative or 'adaptive' i.e. 'adaptability'. The individual's capacity for adaptability depends on their ability to recognize their situation as a social reality which they have the power to change. This depends on their capacity to penetrate below the surface features and to perceive the essential aspects of the reality. Perception of the essence of reality defines creative intelligence or 'intuition'. Development of intuition is inhibited with emphasis on extrinsic motivation. The individual is prevented from recognizing the social reality for what it 'is' rather than the way they are taught to expect that it 'ought to be'. Emphasis on extrinsic motivation is aleinating and demotivating because it prevents development of ‘social intelligence’. Social intelligence results from moral consciousness or 'conscience'. Conscience is the 'soul'.

 

 "The 'normalized' child's activities of work (are) related to the inner construction of the personality. The motivation to learn derives from this source. Teaching which corresponds to this motivation is functional in the child's development. The child's response is the best guide for the teacher. The child's interest and concentration indicates the extent of effectiveness of the teaching methodology in opractice. The child loses motivation when the work is directed to an external goal. Teaching for external goals is not functional in the child's development." (Mario Montessori. Education for Human Development. Schocken Books, New York. 1967 page 67.)

 

The psychological value of work in construction of the conscience or 'soul'  Development of conscience depends on creative productiveness or 'work'. Work represents interaction with the environment. Work is meaningful if it is of psychological value to the individual as the medium through which the conscience is constructed. Emphasis on extrinsic motivation is disempowering if it ignores the psychological value of work. If the work of learning is directed to external goals, it must also be functional in personality growth and development towards maturity or ‘self-actualisation’. Self-actualisation results from growth which involves not only the simple acquisition of additional habits or attributes one after the other but change of the whole personality.If teaching techniques do not recognise the importance of personality development they alienate the learner from the learning process... ‘dysfunctional learning’. Dysfunctional learning leads to decline in motivation. The result is

 incompetence or 'psychological impotence' and the incapacity for adaptability to changing social conditions... the inability to adapt to changing social conditions.  

The educational crisis is the result of a task-oriented perception of education - get the skills and the education, then you can get the job. Task-oriented perception of learning
promotes motivation towards external goals. Goal objects which are external to the activities of study - tests, exams, grades, grade averages, scores, credentials, diplomas and the promise of future jobs - become motivating devices which are designed to promote extrinsic motivation. Emphasis on extrinsic motivatiom is characteristic of teaching and learning techniques of the behavioural paradigm. The most compatible teaching model is the lecture-based curriculum of passive teaching. Passive teaching is an effecive means for disempowering students.


Teaching techniques which emphasize extrinsic motivation are promote passive learning. Teaching for student disempowerment, they teach for manipulation and control. The emphasis on extrinsic motivation does little if anything for personality growth and development towards self-actualization. Psychological value of work... when the work is directed to an external goal, there is a decline in motivation. This is because learning for external goals is not functional in personality development. Teaching techniques based on extrinsic motivation are not functional in personal growth and development because they alienate the learner from the learning process. .

Intrinsic motivation is derived from motives of human behaviour or 'human needs'. Accurate evaluation of the social environment depends on the individual's natural capacity to experience motivation while learning i.e. 'intrinsic motivation'. Intrinsic motivation is derived from the intrinsic motives for learning or 'human needs'. Human needs - including the spiritual needs for growth or 'metaneeds' - provide the basis for education for the whole person i.e. holistic education’. Holistic education is education for the responsibilities of self-knowledge, insight,  understanding and inner harmony or personal freedom i.e. 'inner freedom'. Inner freedom depends on personal integrity and the  'human values' or 'virtues' which are of survival value to the organism because they provide the guidelines of 'intuition' for adaptability to changes in the social environment. 

Adaptability to social changes requires authentic motivation for growth Learning for personality construction and adaptability to social change involves motivation from within for intrinsic goals of growth and maturity of conscience - source of authentic and real intrinsic motivation.

With intrinsic motivation of normal growth, work and study activities are connected to the inner construction of the personality. When the work is directed to an external goal, there is a decline in motivation. This is because learning for external goals is not functional in personality development.

Teaching techniques based on extrinsic motivation are not functional in personal growth and development because they alienate the learner from the learning process. As a result of dysfunctional learning and declining motivation, alienation from the learning process leads to psychological impotence and incompetence and the incapacity for adaptability to changing social conditions.

Teaching which corresponds to the child's natural function of intrinsic motivation is functional in the child's growth and development... growth and change through learning is not a matter of the simple acquisition of habits one after the other. Change involves a total change of the total person, i.e. a new person rather than the same person with certain additional attributes. Teaching for intrinsic motivation is teaching for freedom and learner empowerment. The teacher of freedom has the power of example which is far greater than the power of direction as a means of control.

The problem of motivation is a political one If education is for control and manipulation... tracitional education... then the aim is to prevent the individual from developing those critical faculties which form the basis of accurate evaluation of the social environment required for constructive and adaptive behaviour. Emphasis on extrinsic motivation prevents the individual from recognizing the social reality for what it is i.e. the way the dominant curriculum maintains that it should be. Emphasis on extrinsic motivation hampers the development an individual's capacity to recognize their social circumstances as products of a cultural reality which they have the power to change. The individual is disempowered and continues to perceive their social reality in the same way it is perceived by the dominant culture. Teaching techniques which emphasize extrinsic motivation teach for learning in terms of a given perception of the social environment. They teach for the dichotomous perception of reality and for the incomplete cognition of a dichotomized reality. Perception of cultural and social reality is based on the ability to see all there is to be seen of the surface features of social phenomena - to perceive the sum total of what has already materialized as the 'reality'. With this limited perception, the individual is unable to penetrate below the surface to the essential and to visualize what has not materialized and is not yet apparent. The ability to see the details but not the whole - to see the trees but not the forest requires a calculating imagination to combine the known existing factors and then to infer how they might operate in the future. In this way the individual learns to perceive the cultural and social reality according to the perceptions of the dominant culture... the individual is unable to enliven their perception from within and achieve a holistic perception of their social reality... In the traditional teaching paradigm, students are not encouraged to experience motivation while learning i.e. to depend on their natural capacity for motivation or 'intrinsic motivation'.

 If education is for freedom and growth  Teaching which respects the student's intrinsic motivation teaches for personal freedom and growth. Learning for the construction of the personality requires insight and understanding, knowledge of self and the steady growth of conscience, increased synergy, integration and inner harmony. Adaptability to social change involves motivation from within for intrinsic goals of growth and maturity of conscience - source of authentic and real intrinsic motivation. With intrinsic motivation of normal growth, work and study activities are connected to the inner construction of the personality. Teaching which corresponds to the child's natural function of intrinsic motivation is functional in the child's growth and development... growth and change through learning is not a matter of the simple acquisition of habits one after the other. Change involves a total change of the total person, i.e. a new person rather than the same person with certain additional attributes. Teaching for intrinsic motivation is teaching for freedom and learner empowerment (teacher as facilitator). The teacher as facilitator has the power of example which is far greater than the power of direction as a means of control.   

The behavioural psychology of learning is a limited body of knowledge, useful only to a limited degree and of real interest only to other so-called 'learning theorists'. The behavioural 'learning theory' is based almost entirely on deficit-motivation... extrinsic motivation the goal objects are external to the organism.

Compare learning theory of the behavioural paradigm with the learning theory of the holistic paradigm. Learning theory in the behavioural paradigm is learning the best way to satisfy a need. Learning theory in the holistic paradigm is learning to reach the goals one sets for oneself.

Teaching techniques which emphasize extrinsic motivation are ineffective in bringing about meaningful learning if they do not engage personality growth and mature development or 'self-actualisation'. Growth to self-actualisation depends on work and study which is driven by intrinsic motivation and therefore involved in the inner construction of conscience. Developed conscience is an emergent property of the organ of learning or 'brain'. Teaching to the brain's rules for learning - 'brain-based learning' - engages the natural functioning of intrinsic motivation - optimallearning' - which is functional in growth and development or conscience. Development of conscience depends on a learning environment of freedom, empowerment and the facilitation of learning. The teacher's role is defined as 'facilitator'. The facilitative teacher uses the power of example rather than direction and their effectiveness depends on appropriate personal characteristics or ‘attributes’ as well as education or teacher training’.  

                                                     

Educational crisis and the problem of motivation to work  The general decline in motivation for learning leads to the so-called 'problem of motivation'. The problem of motivation at the heart of the so-called 'educational crisis' is a direct result of the task-oriented approach of 'traditional education'. The educational crisis is ultimately derived from the economic theories and 'values' of capitalism as 'commercialism' and 'consumerism'.

 ("The problem of motivation is at the heart of the teaching crisis in the United States".... Freire)

 In the framework of the official pedagogy of the behavioural paradigm, motivation is assumed to be outside or 'extrinsic' to the action of study.

Teaching techniques which emphasize extrinsic motivation are techniques of 'passive teaching' .

 The carrot and stick approach to education "first learn the skills then you can get the education and then you can get the job." Students do not cooperate because they are not encouraged to experience motivation while learning.

Teachers become more concerned with student performance as a reflection of their own. Student grades become advantage points in teachers' struggles to keep their jobs and positions. Power struggles develop and teachers' energies are deflected away from student concerns for their own progress. With the decline of concern for students in their own progress there is decline in student cooperation. Because they are not encouraged to experience motivation while learning i.e. to depend on their natural capacity for motivation or 'intrinsic motivation' they do not cooperate and they refuse to perform.

The external motivating devices are designed to motivate extrinsically towards goal objects which are external to the activities of study. In school, good grades are the means to college and college education is preparation for a 'good job'. A good job means good money and a comfortable material life.

The official educational policy promotes the dominant authority in society by disempowering students with an education for the external rewards of good jobs and good money.

End result of extrinsic motivation is decline in motivation and decline in academic standards

Ultimate effect of external motivating devices is to alienate the learner from the act of learning... to inhibit the learner from active involvement in the learning process and to cultivate passive learning. As the learner is alienated from the learning process they  become disempowered and demotivated. The demotivation and disempowerment of students leads to declining academic standards.

The end result - decline in academic standards - is explained away as 'student mediocrity'.

Decline in motivaion is explained away as 'student mediocrity'  Student mediocrity is ultimately derived from the pressure of the demands of administrators. Stalemates and power struggles develop amongst students, teachers and administrations. Teachers are pressured by the demands of administrations for examination results, test scores etc. Both teachers and administrations become concerned with student performance as a reflection of teacher performance rather than as a reflection of student progress. Student results are used to monitor teachers' job performance.

Conditioned learning of traditional paradigm is ineffective for human adaptability because it results in limited perception of reality Emphasis on extrinsic motivation prevents the individual from recognizing the social reality for what it is i.e. the way the dominant curriculum maintains that it should be.

Passive teaching In the behavioural teaching paradigm the most compatible teaching model is the lecture-based passive curriculum;

As part of the official pedagogy, passive teaching is an effecive means for the disempowerment of students. While it disempowers students, passive teaching demotivates them as well. The behavioural approach to teaching and learning demotivates students against intellectual work. 

Passive teaching for student disempowerment is equivalent to teaching for manipulation and control.

 Passive teaching is poor pedagogical practice because it does not teach for personal freedom and growth.

Extrinsic motivation does not involve changes of the whole personality... In the process of extrinsic motivation, the learner is alienated from the act of learning. Any change which comes about is simply an addition or acquisition. 

Emphasis on extrinsic motivation is characteristic of teaching and learning techniques of the behavioural paradigm. The aim is to prevent the individual from developing those critical faculties which form the basis of accurate evaluation of the social environment required for constructive and adaptive behaviour.

 Traditional education is education for manipulation and social control. The characteristic teaching model is the lecture-based curriculum. Traditional teaching methods are justified by behavioural science or 'behaviourism'. Emphasis is based on the notion that education is a matter of conditioned learning or 'conditioning'. Conditioning is dysfunctional if it  allows the individual to perceive the details but not the whole - to see the trees but not the forest - to see all there is to be seen of the surface features - the sum total of what is apparent and has already materialized.  

Teaching for limited perception of reality  Teaching techniques which emphasize extrinsic motivation teach for learning in terms of a given perception of the social environment. They teach for 'perceptual learning'... in the sense of 'limited perception'. They aim to teach the individual how they should perceive the cultural and social reality according to standards and perceptions of the dominant culture. They teach for the acceptance of perceptions of reality as the 'true' reality. They teach for the dichotomous perception of reality and for the 'incomplete cognition' of a dichotomized reality. The individual's limited perception of cultural and social reality is based on the ability to see all there is to be seen of the surface features of social phenomena - to perceive the sum total of what has already materialized as the 'reality'.  Their limited perception prevents them from penetrating  below the surface to the essential and to visualize what has not materialized and is not yet apparent i.e. 'vision'. The individual loses the capacity to enliven their perception from within and achieve a holistic perception of their social reality.

Disempowerment Emphasis on extrinsic motivation hampers the development of an individual's capacity to recognize their social circumstances as products of a cultural reality which they have the power to change. The individual is disempowered and continues to perceive their social reality in the same way it is perceived by the dominant culture.  This type of learning prevents the individual from developing the critical faculties which are needed to form accurate evaluations of the social environment i.e.'critical practice'. They learn instead to depend on a calculating imagination which is able to combine the known factors and then infer how they might operate in a new situation... or 'scenarios'. The ability to see the details but not the whole - to see the trees but not the forest requires a calculating imagination to combine the known existing factors and then to infer how they might operate in the future.

 Extrinsic motivation does little for personal growth Extrinsically motivated learning does little if anything for personality growth and development as 'mature growth' or 'self-actualisation'

Learning for the construction of the personality requires insight and understanding, knowledge of self and the steady growth of conscience, increased synergy, integration and inner harmony.

Intuition required for adaptability depends on perception of the whole ... 'holistic perception' Critical practice allows for the complete cognition which comes from perception of the whole i.e. ‘holistic perception’. Holistic perception leads to thought and behaviour which is productive and creative or 'adaptive' i.e. 'adaptability'. The individual's capacity for adaptability depends on their ability to recognize their situation as a social reality which they have the power to change. This depends on their capacity to penetrate below the surface features and to perceive the essential aspects of the reality. Perception of the essence of reality defines creative intelligence or 'intuition'. Development of intuition is inhibited with emphasis on extrinsic motivation. The individual is prevented from recognizing the social reality for what it 'is' rather than the way they are taught to expect that it 'ought to be'. Emphasis on extrinsic motivation is aleinating and demotivating because it prevents development of ‘social intelligence’. Social intelligence results from moral consciousness or 'conscience'. Conscience is the 'soul'.

 

 "The 'normalized' child's activities of work (are) related to the inner construction of the personality. The motivation to learn derives from this source. Teaching which corresponds to this motivation is functional in the child's development. The child's response is the best guide for the teacher. The child's interest and concentration indicates the extent of effectiveness of the teaching methodology in opractice. The child loses motivation when the work is directed to an external goal. Teaching for external goals is not functional in the child's development." (Mario Montessori. Education for Human Development. Schocken Books, New York. 1967 page 67.)

 

The psychological value of work in construction of the conscience or 'soul'  Development of conscience depends on creativity and productivity of 'work'. Work represents interaction with the environment. Work is meaningful if it is of psychological value to the individual as the medium through which the conscience is constructed. Emphasis on extrinsic motivation is disempowering if it ignores the psychological value of work. If the work of learning is directed to external goals, it must also be functional in personality growth and development towards maturity or ‘self-actualisation’. Self-actualisation results from growth which involves not only the simple acquisition of additional habits or attributes one after the other but change of the whole personality.If teaching techniques do not recognise the importance of personality development they alienate the learner from the learning process... ‘dysfunctional learning’.

 

Dysfunctional learning leads to decline in motivation, psychological and spiritual impotence, and the inability to adapt to changing social conditions.  

Intrinsic motivation is derived from motives of human behaviour or 'human needs' Accurate evaluation of the social environment depends on the individual's natural capacity to experience motivation while learning i.e. 'intrinsic motivation'. Intrinsic motivation is derived from the intrinsic motives for learning or 'human needs'. Human needs - including the spiritual needs for growth or 'metaneeds' - provide the basis for education for the whole person i.e. holistic education’. Holistic education is education for the responsibilities of self-knowledge, insight,  understanding and inner harmony or personal freedom i.e. 'inner freedom'. Inner freedom depends on personal integrity and the  'human values' or 'virtues' which are of survival value to the organism because they provide the guidelines of 'intuition' for adaptability to changes in the social environment. 

Adaptability to social change requires authentic motivation for growth Learning for personality construction and adaptability to social change involves motivation from within for intrinsic goals of growth and maturity of conscience - source of authentic and real intrinsic motivation.

With intrinsic motivation of normal growth, work and study activities are connected to the inner construction of the personality. When the work is directed to an external goal, there is a decline in motivation. This is because learning for external goals is not functional in personality development.

Teaching techniques based on extrinsic motivation are not functional in personal growth and development because they alienate the learner from the learning process. As a result of dysfunctional learning and declining motivation, alienation from the learning process leads to psychological impotence and incompetence and the incapacity for adaptability to changing social conditions.

Teaching which corresponds to the child's natural function of intrinsic motivation is functional in the child's growth and development... growth and change through learning is not a matter of the simple acquisition of habits one after the other. Change involves a total change of the total person, i.e. a new person rather than the same person with certain additional attributes. Teaching for intrinsic motivation is teaching for freedom and learner empowerment. The teacher of freedom has the power of example which is far greater than the power of direction as a means of control.

Denial of motivation based on human needs - 'intrinsic motivation' - results in alienation from one's own experience and ultimately to declining motivation or 'demotivation' which is the 'problem of motivation'.

"The official pedagogy is motivating students against intellectual work...  Students refuse to perform and the resulting power struggle (students vs. teachers and administration) leads to a stalemate in schools - called 'student mediocrity'."(Paulo Freire Politics of Education p 5)

The problem of motivation and the so-called 'educational crisis' The 'problem of motivation' at the heart of the so-called 'educational crisis' represents a general moral and spiritual crisis... a crisis of perception or 'paradigm'. As a 'paradigm crisis' the educational crisis is part of a general cultural crisis and must be analysed in its social or 'cultural context'. The problem of motivation in education is a politial problem which is connected with the economic theories and 'values of capitalism'. In a capitalist society motivation for learning is encouraged to coincide with a perception of the social environment in terms of what is 'threatening' and what is 'useful'. The encouragement of motivation for extrinsic reward is conscious 'extrinsic motivation'.

The problem of motivation is a politial one. Is education for control and manipulation or is education for freedom and growth? Cultures of capitalism as 'consumerism' which focus on the economy and ignore human needs encourage the cultural norm of 'adult immaturity' and its characteristic motivation  by deficiency of human needs or 'deficit motivation'.

   Compare learning theory of the behavioural paradigm with the learning theory of the holistic paradigm. The behavioural psychology of learning is a limited body of knowledge, useful only to a limited degree and of real interest only to other so-called 'learning theorists'. The behavioural 'learning theory' is based almost entirely on deficit-motivation otherwise known as extrinsic motivation because the goal objects are usually external to the organism.

...and dominates by disempowering students. Students are expected to depend on external motivating devices such as tests, rewards, grades, promises of future jobs etc. The dependency on extrinsic motivation denies the experience of motivation while learning... learning in the here and now 'experiential learning' or 'brain-based learning'.

Traditional paradigm of education is based on the assumption that knowledge is finite and can be possessed: passive role of student - 'student passivity' - is cause for declining motivation  The traditional paradigm of education is based on the moral codes or 'moralism' of 'Protestantism'. The Protestant moralist view perceives social problems in terms of the individual's lack of a moral sense of what is 'right' and 'wrong'. As a result social reform is conceived in terms of helping the individual through 'discipline' and enforcement of the 'law'. Institutionalisation of the law is the basis for moralistic aims of education such as bringing about desired 'behavioural outcomes' through conditioned learning or 'conditioning'. The notion of learning as conditioning is justified by principles of behavioural psychology or 'behaviourism'. The 'behavioural paradigm' of education is based on the assumption that knowledge is finite and can be possessed... and that as a possession it can be transferred from a person in authority - the 'teacher' to another person as the passive recipient - the 'student'... 'teacher/student contradiction'.

Teacher/student contradiction The student/teacher contradiction makes for education as domination and manipulation. Education is defined in terms of attendance at school or 'schooling'. Schooled learning is defined in terms of 'content' rather than as 'process'. The emphasis on the technical aspects of teaching...  fails to educate for the 'needs of the individual' as a member of constantly changing society. Traditional schooling has not provided adequate preparation required to meet the challenges of a changing global community.The result is the continued trivialisation of educational issues in the form of a so-called 'educational crisis'. There is a general decline in motivation and people are given the message that schools can make serious changes in education without making changes in the cultural assumptions concerning the purposes of education. But it is the passive role of the student which is the cause of declining motivation at the root of the educational crisis. The 'problem of motivation' puts into question the hierarchical and mechanical methodology of the traditional paradigm of education.   social organism. 

 The 'normalized' child's activities of work (are) related to the inner construction of the personality. The motivation to learn derives from this source. Teaching which corresponds to this motivation is functional in the child's development. The child's response is the best guide for the teacher. The child's interest and concentration indicates the extent of effectiveness of the teaching methodology in opractice. The child loses motivation when the work is directed to an external goal.

Learning is meaningful when it is based on the intrinsic motives for learning or 'human needs'...  Intrinsically motivated learning engages the psychological function of human creativeness and productivity or 'work'. Meaningful work engages personality development in all its interrelated aspects... physical, intellectual, emotional, psychological, moral, spiritual i.e. 'holistic education'. Holistic education is education for personal development in the context of 'personal freedom' or 'inner freedom'. The teacher's role is described as 'facilitator of learning'. The facilitative teacher utilises teaching methodologies which allow the learner to organize their learning experiences so that they become opportunities for personal development. Material is presented in terms of a focal point or 'theme' - the method of 'thematic teaching'. Thematic teaching enhances motivation because it engages the learner's real interest in the learning activities so that motivation becomes linked with 'self-empowerment'... biological model of Decroly...

Self-empowerment is a function of optimal motivation characteristic of the balanced personality with developed 'moral consciousness' or 'conscience'.

"The normalized child's activities of work are related to the inner construction of the personality. The motivation to learn derives from this source. Teaching which corresponds to this motivation is functional in the child's development. The child's response is the best guide for the teacher. The child's interest and concentration indicates the extent of effectiveness of the teaching methodology in practice. The child loses motivation when the work is directed to an external goal. Teaching for external goals is not functional in the child's development." (Mario Montessori. Education for Human Development. Schocken Books, New York. 1967 page 67.)

     

Function of the rational conscience is protection of personal integrity required for adaptability  Survival of the human organism as a social organism depends on the  ability to adapt to the complexities of changing social conditions i.e. social adaptation or 'adaptability'. Human adaptability depends on the capacity to make connections between learning and life experience and this involves intuition of rational conscience. Conscience is the biologically based cognitive system which evolved through natural selection as the 'moral faculty' of human intelligence. The conscience is the core of guiding values or 'social values' which have been sought by theologians and philosophers throughout human history i.e. 'human values'. Human values are values of the highest consciousness state of 'self-transcendance'. In the 'transcendental realm of consciousness' the individual is aware of the rational valuing process of  conscience - an emergent property of the brain. Developed conscience is the source of human morals or 'virtues' -  goodness,  beauty, justice, spiritual love, joy, 'truth' and so on. As the source of virtues, the conscience is the human 'spiritual equipment' with which the organism depends for adaptability to the complexities of changing social conditions i.e 'social intelligence'. Social intelligence is a function of moral 'intuition' - intuitive intelligence or 'creative intelligence'. Creative intelligence is based on awareness of the nature of the human personality or 'human nature' defined in terms of human needs. Individual awareness of human nature or 'self-knowledge' is required for accurate evaluation of the social environment and subsequent adaptation.

Construction of rational conscience depends on motivation by the metaneeds or 'metamotivation'.

Biological basis of metamotivation... 'subjective biology' Metamotivation is the human capacity for experiential richness... motivation by the metaneeds of developed conscience. The human conscience is an 'emergent property' of the maker of meaning or 'brain'. As a property of brain functioning, the human conscience or 'soul' is intrinsic to the nature of the human personality... 'human psychology' or 'human nature'...  therefore biologically based and  instinctive to the human organism. Human nature can be defined in terms of the biologically based metaneeeds. With metamotivation human obligations of love, truth, justice and beauty become its pleasures. What is 'good' for the individual is also good for the society. Motivation by the basic psychological needs (love and affection as communication of security necessary for growth) are obviously instinctive to human nature and are therefore included in the rubric of 'subjective biology.' Subjective biology must also include growth motivation or metamotivaton.

Since metamotivation is an intrinsic part of human nature, then the techniques of so-called subjective biology (contemplation or 'meditation') apply to human education.

Objective perception of human nature incorporates biological basis of metaneeds The objective perception of human nature is the same which is sought by philosophers, scientists, artists and spiritual leaders. The religious or 'mystic' experience of ego-transcendance involves the total acceptance of human nature and incorporates the concepts of 'transcendance of death' or 'immortality' in which the individual communicates with the spiritual aspect of their nature without recourse to a 'supernatural'. The experience of communion is the experience of ego-transcendance which makes it possible to live in the transcendant realm of Being-Values in which the individual can experience joy and happiness. In this way the functions of religious experiences can be explained by the biological basis of the metaneeds. The metaneeds can be adored, revered and celebrated and they can also be sacrificed just like the eternal values of religions. This wholistic perspective of human nature makes it possible to transcend dichotomies of human nature. Dichotomies imply mutual exclusiveness. Notions such as the 'forces of good' and 'the forces of evil' imply that good and evil are mutually exclusive. At the level of ego-transcendance, the mutual exclusiveness disappears.

An individual's level of awareness and perception of reality is determined by the level of consciousness which they have reached in their personal growth and evelopment... 'sociocognitive stage'.

Perception of reality at the transpersonal level of personality development  The metamotivation by the metaneeds produces a perception of reality at the highest level of consciouness - the transpersonal level of ego-transcendance. At the transpersonal level of personality development, the individual's perception of reality is free of the distorting effects of fear, envy and malice. This is the 'ultimate reality' which is described in terms of the ultimate values of being - the 'Being-Values' which satisfy the human longing for certainty - 'true', 'good', 'just', 'beautiful' and so on. Being-Values are identical with 'Being-Facts' concerning the nature of the universe, the nature of life and the nature of human nature.

It is easy to lose sight of the metaneeds in a social environment which does not approve of human nature.

Deprivation of psychological needs leads to dehumanisation Prerequisite to the 'metamotivation' for gratification of the 'metaneeds' or 'growth motivations... Metamotivation is inhibited when social forces in the environment are focused on physiological or basic psychological needs. Deprivation of the basic psychological needs - parental love and affection and the security which it communicates ... self-esteem or 'ego needs' - leads to psychological illness i.e. 'psychosis'. The prepotent more urgent basic psychological needs can be called 'deficiency needs' 'deficiencymotivation' The individual lacks the self-respect, self-discipline, self-directedness, sense of belongingness and sense of purpose and worthiness which are the basis for motivation by the metaneeds for spiritual growth. Feelings towards them become ambivalent. They are inspiring but frightening at the same time. The individual responds to them with reactions of internal repression and denial. These reaction responses inhibit metamotivation for spiritual growth and the individual is deprived of the opportunity to satisfy the metaneeds. Deprivation of the metaneeds leads to 'metapathologies' of value-starvation, psychological incapacitation, social incompetence and dehumanisation.

In the attempt to adapt to changing social environments the dehumanised individual is motivated by the deficiency needs and engages in immoral and destructive behaviour i.e. 'evil'.

 In a cultural environment which focuses on the basic physiological and psychological needs, 'metamotivation' is inhibited by forces external to the individual who is thus deprived of the means for gratification of the 'metaneeds.' As a result of the individual's ambivalent feelings towards the instinctive 'metaneeds' which can be both attractive and frightening, internal repression, denial and reaction responses can inhibit 'metamotivation.'

 "What is most unique about man is that his growth as an individual depends on the history of his species - not upon a history reflected in genes and chromosomes but, rather, reflected in a culture external to man's tissue and wider in scope than is embodied in any one man's competency. Perforce then, the growth of mind is always growth assisted from the outside. And since a culture, particularly an advanced one, transcends the bounds of individual competence, the limits for individual growth are by definition greater than what any single person has previously attained. For the limits of growth depend on how a culture assists the individual to use such individual potential as he may possess." (Jerome Bruner  The Relevance of Education. New York: W.W. Norton & Co., Inc. 1971 p. 5)

 Metamotivation as the human capacity for experiential richness is 'teachable' in the sense that it is enhanced in a social environment which recognizes the social nature of human nature. The individual's capacity for metamotivation can be fostered through the acknowledgement, encouragement and enforcement of the individual's instinctive yearning for love, truth, beauty etc... the education of the spiritual needs or 'metaneeds'. A social environment which respects the biologically based metaneeds fosters mature growth or 'self-actualisation'. Self-actualised individuals have self-respect, self-discipline, self-directedness and a sense of purpose and worthiness - characteristics of metamotivation for spiritual growth. It is possible to design an educational program based on the respect for metaneeds and the cultivation of metamotivation rather than sacrificing them in favor of the ego-needs and deficiency motivation i.e. 'holistic education'.

 "The value-life - spiritual, religious, philosophical - is an aspect of human biology and is on the same continuum with the 'lower' animal life, rather than being in separated, dichotomized, or mutually exclusive realms. It is probably therefore species-wide, supracultural even though it must be actualized by culture in order to exist." (Abraham Maslow)

 

References:

Abraham Maslow "A Theory of Metamotivation: The Biological Rooting of the Value-Life" in Walsh, Beyond Ego: Transpersonal Dimensions of Human Nature

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

 

Biological basis of so-called 'higher values' Abraham Maslow studied the nature and experience of self-actualizers and self-transcenders... hierarchy of needs ... higher needs for truth, beauty, transcendence, etc. (metaneeds, B for Being-Values) are just as biologically based as the more obviously physiological so-called 'lower' needs such as hunger and thirst. The failure to satisfy metaneeds may result in corresponding forms of pathology - 'metapathology' - analagous to those resulting from unsatisfied lower needs. The transcendant, religious, esthetic, and philosophical facets of life are as real and intrinsic to human nature as any other biological needs. (Walsh 121)

Human nature is the 'mature mind' The basic psychological needs for love and affection, self-respect, self-esteem and belongingness have a biological basis. Mature individuals whose basic psychological needs are gratified, have self-respect, self-discipline, self-directedness, sense of purpose and worthiness, are referred to as 'self-actualizing' individuals. They then beciome motivated by the 'metaneds' of the value-life. Motivation by the metaneeds is referred to as metamotivation. Motiovation by the metaneeds of the value-life is an intrinsic part of human nature and must therefore be included in a full definition of the human organism, the person and the individual. The biologically based basic psychological needs are instinctive. They must be gratified for a person to become more mature, more 'human' and 'self-actulaized'. Gratifications of the instsinctive 'metaneeds' are necessary for the prevention of 'illness' or 'metapathology', best defined as diminutions of humanness. Thus metyamotivation or 'motivation for the gratification of the 'metaneeds' of 'humanness' is biologically based and instinctive. In a cultural environment which focuses on the basic physiological and psychological needs, metamotivation is inhibited by forces external to the individual who is thus deprived of the means for gratification of the metaneeds. As a result of the individual's ambivalent feelings towards the the instinctive metaneeds which can be both attractive and frightening, internal repression, denial and reaction responses can inhibit metamotivation. Requisite to the metamotivation for gratification of the metaneeds or growth motivations, the prepotent more urgent basic psychological needs can be called 'deficiency needs'. "The metaneeds are equally potent among themselves, on the average i.e. I cannot detect a generalized hierarchy or prepotency. But in any given individual, they may be and often are hierarchically arranged according to idiosyncratic talents and constitutional differences." The metaneeds are also known as 'Being-values' or 'B'values'. They are related to the spiritual values of truth, goodness, perfection, justice, simplicity, lawfulness, dichotomy transcendance etc. Each one can be fully defined in terms of all the others. Thus they appear to represent different facets of a unified and composite whole. The 'metaneeds' along with the basic psychological needs are all biologically based. They are all components of our biological life. Consequently the spiritual or value- life of the human organism is natural and fact-based, legitimately qualified for scientific analysis. Necessitating a cultural environment for their actualization, the metaneeds and metamotivation can easily be lost in a culture which does not approve of human nature. A cultural environment which respects the human organism's basic psychological needs fosters the individual's growth toward self-actualization. A cultural environment which respects the human organism's instinctive metaneeds as well as basic psychological needs, fosters the individuals's metamotivation towards full human awareness or humanness. This notion lends itself to the potential transcendance of unnecessary dichotomies such as good and evil. Rather than belonging to a domain external to human nature, spiritual values and the value-life are components of the biological basis of human nature. Metamotivation and the gratificatioo n o the emtanedds for the B-values or valuelife are the owurce of the highest pleasures, metalp;easure which can also be called metahedonism. At this level metamotivation becomes the same for bioth the highest pleasurtes and the highest obkligations to truth, justice, beauty etc. t the level ofmetamotivation there is no lojnger a dichotomy between selfishness and unselfishness. Gratification of the metaneed of unselfishness is the source of the highest selfish metapleasure. The mutual exclusiveness disappears. With metamotivation, what is good for the individual (selfish) is gopod for others (unselfish) Hence the disappearance of the mutual exclusiveness implied in such a dichotomy. Obviously instinctive in nature, the basic physiological and psychological needs are under the rubric of 'subjective' biology.' The similalrly biologically based metaneeds come under the same rubric although they are less urgent and weaker than the basic psychological needs. Consequently the education of the spiritual needs, the metaneeds, can be fostered through the acknowledgement, encouragement and enforcement of the individual's instinctive yearning for truth, beauty etc. the indidvidual's capacity for metamiotivation. The individual's capacities for experiential richness should be 'teachable'. It should be possible to design an educational program around the instinctive needs of 'subjective biology'. the metaneeds, as well as the physiological and psychological basic needs. The B-values are defined as truth, goodness, justice, beauty etc. The metamotivation which arises from the biological metanededs for the values-life, B-values, Being-values, spiritual values, determines the individual's perception of 'ultimate reality' at the 'highest' levels of consciousness. In other words at the highest levels of personality and cultural development, a reality is perceived which is independent of distorted human perceptions. This is the 'ultimate reality' which is described in terms of the B-values. The reality is described as true, good, just, beautiful etc. Thus in the context of 'ultimate reality' the B-values become identical with B-facts. In the transcendental realm of consciousness, facts and values fuse and the words used to describe them are called 'fusion-words'. Contemplating the nature of the universe becomes equated with contemplating the ultimate values, the B-values. The aim of philosophers, scientists, artists, and spiritual leaders is to achieve the same objective perception of 'ultimate reality, a perception which is devoid of any contaminating effects of the observer's fears, wishes, calculations etc. The mystic of 'peak' experience involves the individual's total acceptance of his biological nature and his part in natural evolution. Without having to resort to the 'supernatural', the individual's "communion with what transcends him" becomes a biological experience which makes it easily possible for him to live in the relm of the B-values." The B-values "could conceivably satisfy the human longing for certainty". Like the eternal values of religions, they can be adored, revered, celebrated, and scrificed. The total acceptance of the human organism's biological nature becomes fused with the 'concept of 'transcendance of death' and 'immortality'. The greatest joy and happiness can be experienced in the contemplation of the B-values. Furthermore, it is proposed that the theoretical structure for the biological basis of metamotivation and the metaneeds of the value-life can assimilate all the functions of organized religions and religious experiences.... Maslow's theory of metamotivation.

 Motivation by the ego-needs for self-esteem: 'deficit motivation'  Faith in one's own identity or 'self-esteem' is the precondition for independence, freedom and solitude for communication with one's conscience as the source of inner approval and the guardian of personal integrity. Lack of 'self-esteem' originates in the lack of recognition of basic psychological needs or 'ego needs' also known as 'deficit needs'. Motivation by the deficit needs is 'deficit motivation' as opposed to growth motivation or 'abundance motivation' ... also 'metamotivation'.)

 "So-called learning theory in this country has based itself almost entirely on deficit-motivation with goal objects usually external to the organism, i.e. learning the best way to satisfy a need. For this reason among others, our psychology of learning is a limited body of knowledge, useful only in small areas of life and of real interest only to other 'learning theorists'. This is of little help in solving the problem of growth and self-actualization. Here the techniques of repeatedly acquiring from the outside world satisfactions of motivational deficiencies are much less needed. (Maslow Toward a Psychology of Being)

                                                                                                                     human organism as social organism...  human motivation...   range of motivational states...

 range of human needs...   urgency or 'prepotency'...  

growth as function of fulfillment of needs...   extent of devlopment determines character...   basic needs as 'ego needs'...   mature growth or 'self-actualisation'...   neurotic development or 'neurosis'...   limited human relationships...

implications for education...

Human needs are described in terms of urgency or 'prepotency' The range of human needs can be described in terms of a hierarchy of urgency or 'prepotency'. Lowest in the hierarchy of prepotency... most urgent are the physiological needs related to physical needs for survival. Survival needs are prepotent to the basic or 'lower' psychological needs for self-esteem or 'ego needs'. Gratification of the ego needs depends on unconditional parental love and affection which communicates security and a sense of belongingness. These conditions must be met for maturity of development... mature growth or 'self-actualisation'. Individuals whose basic psychological needs are met can be described by those human attributes which have survival value in a changing social environment - self-respect, self-directedness, self-discipline, sense of purpose, sense of worthiness and so on. Mature growth depends on gratification of the 'higher' psychological neeeds for spiritual growth -  the 'spiritual needs' or 'metaneeds'. Motivation by the metaneeds is 'growth motivation' or 'metamotivation'. If external social forces are focused on the more prepotent survival needs and ego needs then the least prepotent metaneeds are denied and metamotivation is repressed. In the course of human development, the repressed individual will give up growth to retain approval from significant adults.... problem of repression:

With freedom from repression, the individual is motivated by the metaneeds and lives by values on the level of ego-transcendance... the 'Being -values' or spiritual values. Spiritual values are 'social values'.

 The prepotent more urgent basic psychological needs - 'deficiency needs' - ..motivation for the ego needs of self-esteem - 'deficiency motivations' are prerequisite to the metaneeds - the 'growth motivations'. In a cultural environment which focuses on the basic physiological and psychological needs, 'metamotivation' is inhibited by forces external to the individual. The individual in a cultural environment which focuses on the basic needs is deprived of the means for gratification of the 'metaneeds which are repressed ...denied... in an environment in which conditional love is refused.. the environment is feared ...is dreaded... is perceived as a menace to the organism's individuality, development, instinctive strivings to grow for freedom and happiness...basic anxiety develops... the child's free use of energies is thwarted, self-esteem and self-reliance are undermined, fear is instilled by intimidation and isolation, expansiveness is warped through brutality or overprotective 'love'...fear is grounded in reality..

Motivation for human behaviour  Freedom from anxiety and fear... 'inner freedom'... is the precondition for growth through curiosity, exploration and learning... for independence and solitude for contemplation or 'meditation'.  Meditation is communication with oneself... one's moral consciousness or 'conscience'. The conscience is the source of inner approval and the guardian of personal integrity and the source of 'human values' . Awareness of human values provides the inner approval and the self-esteem which allows for continued growth and development. ... 'motivation'. Motivation has to do with the individual's ability to maintain a proper balance between actions and restraint required for adaptive behaviour. 

The motivations for behaviour are different for different individuals.There is a range of human behaviours - from adaptive to destructive - which depends on the different causes for action or 'motivation'. Individual differences in behaviour patterns are a function of type of motivation or 'motivational state'. The motivational state is a dimension of the individual's own conceptual system of values including meanings, goals, beliefs and assumptions. The configuration of the value system depends on the individual's experience, environment and extent of psychological and emotional growth and development. Personal decisions are made on the basis of the need which must be gratified and within the framework of an equivalent value system.

 

Range of motivational states  The range of motivational states is a function of the range of emotions which are associated with human needs and whether these are fulfilled or frustrated during growth. Motivational state is a function of 'mental health'. Mental health is a function of the extent of fulfillment of human needs.

 'wellness'. Wellness is a function of the complete development to maturity 'personality integration' of mature growth or 'self-actualisation'        

Extent of development determines 'character'  An individual's character is defined by the mode of orientation through which they relate to the world - whether through competition and 'hate' or cooperation and 'love'. Their mode of relatedness determines the framework of assumptions within which the individual thinks and behaves - their 'worldview' or 'paradigm'. Character formation is a function of the extent of fulfillment of the  biologically based physiological, psychological, emotional and spiritual needs. During development, the individual responds to the character of parents and their cultural backgrounds, adjusting to a particular social structure and acquiring a specific mode of feeling, thinking and acting i.e. 'behaviour.'

 Uniqueness of character is the result of the combined effects of constitutional temperament, personalities of parents and demands of the social environment.

 Human growth is a function of fulfillment of human needs The human organism has an instinctive sense of responsiblity for its own growth. During the growth process   each level of needs becomes apparent as the more urgent needs are fulfilled. As the various needs are met, motivations for behaviour shift from strong expression to subtle expression. An individual's type of motivation or 'motivational type' depends on the extent to which their personality has developed i.e. their 'motivational state' or 'character'. The range of motivational states is a function of the range of emotions which are associated with human needs and whether these are fulfilled or frustrated during growth. Character is a function of mental health and the extent of psychological development or 'personality development'.

The well developed and balanced personality is motivated by the metaneeds.

Extent of development determines 'character'  An individual's character is defined by the mode of orientation through which they relate to the world - whether through competition and 'hate' or cooperation and 'love'. Their mode of relatedness determines the framework of assumptions within which the individual thinks and behaves - their 'worldview' or 'paradigm'. Character formation is a function of the extent of fulfillment of the  biologically based physiological, psychological, emotional and spiritual needs. During development, the individual responds to the character of parents and their cultural backgrounds, adjusting to a particular social structure and acquiring a specific mode of feeling, thinking and acting i.e. 'behaviour.'

 Uniqueness of character is the result of the combined effects of constitutional temperament, personalities of parents and demands of the social environment.

Basic psychological needs are the 'ego needs' The ego-needs are the instinctive needs for responsiblity to the persistence of the self or 'ego' - the needs for freedom from fear and anxiety i.e. 'security'. Security needs are basic to self-respect or 'self-esteem'. Self-esteem is rational faith in oneself and  a precondition for growth through curiosity, exploration and learning i.e. optimal learning or 'optimalearning'.  Optimal learning is learning motivated by the metaneeds of growth. Conditions for growth include the gratification of the ego needs for security and self-esteem and depend on the communication of unconditional  approval of significant others - parents and teachers or 'facilitators of learning'.  Security is communicated through the intelligence of understanding and the kindness of compassion i.e. 'loving kindness' or 'love'.

Such conditions enable the individual to reach maturity through knowledge of their own nature or 'self-knowledge' i.e. 'human nature'.  Human nature is defined in terms of the fulfillment of human needs during development and especially at certain critical stages or 'sensitive periods'. If sensitive periods are  hindered by inner anxieties resulting from repressive social conditions then further psychological growth is thwarted and the result is dysfunctional or neurotic development or 'neurosis'. Neurosis is characterised by the pathology of deficit motivation. 

If gratification of psychological needs occurs in a normal growth process, the individual continues in a process of mature growth... achieves maturity i.e. 'self-actualisation'. The self-actualised individual is a well developed and balanced personality... or 'self-actualising'.

Mature growth or 'self-actualisation'  Individuals whose basic psychological needs are met can be described by those human attributes which have survival value in a changing social environment - self-respect, self-directedness, self-discipline, sense of purpose, sense of worthiness and so on. If gratification of psychological needs occurs in a normal growth process, the individual achieves maturity in the sense . of developed and balanced personality. Growth continues as 'mature growth' or 'self-actualising growth' i.e. 'self-actualisation'. The self-actualising individual is independent of others. They are motivated by the spiritual needs for creation and productivity or 'work'. Meaningful work intensifies their sense of cooperation with the environment and the individual continues in their authentic striving to work or 'calling'. Authentic work satisfies the human needs for creativity or 'meaning'. Motivation for productive work - 'metamotivation' - is facilitated with freedom from repression... the individual lives by spiritual values on the level of ego-transcendance. The individual who  is motivated by the prepotent more urgent basic psychological needs is not motivated by the metaneeds

 If external social forces are focused on basic physiological and psychological needs. metaneeds are denied and metamotivation is repressed. 

Failure to satisfy ego needs results in the pathology of 'neurotic development' or 'neurosis'... 'deficit motivation' Denial or frustration of ego-needs for self-esteem leads to the psychopathology of motivation by deficiency of needs i.e. 'deficiency motivation' or 'deficit motivation'.

Neurotic development or 'neurosis' is a function of  the control of motivation by deficiency of the basic psychological needs also known as 'deficiency needs' or 'deficit needs'. Failure to satisfy the ego needs results in lack of self-esteem which is threatening to the individual's 'sense of identity' or sense of 'self'. As a result the individual learns to depend on the approval of others for the approval of themselves. They will even give up their own growth to retain the approval of others.

Deficit motivation is pathological because it involves reliance on external sources for the gratification of need deficiencies...  results in human behaviour which is destructive and non-adaptive i.e. 'human wickedness' or 'evil'.

The individual who is motivated by deficit needs - described as 'deficiency motivated' - subscribes to the values which correspond to those needs i.e. 'deficit-values' - accumulation, personal attention, appreciation, recognition, importance, reputation, status, dominance, political power and so on.

Limitations in human relationship The deficiency motivated individual depends on others as sources of supply for their gratification needs. Since they depend on others for their own need gratification they perceive them in terms of  their usefulness as sources of gratification for their need deficiencies..  Their dependence on others requires flexibility and responsiveness to their reactions i.e. 'reactive-responsive behaviour'. They lack the freedom of self-reliance and they become anxious and hostile. They fail to perceive others in terms of their own intrinsic values.The deficiency motivated individual has to rely on changeable factors in a non-reliable social environment... They must constantly change to fit ...to react and respond... to 'adapt'. For them adaptability is 'fitting in'. Since their interpersonal relations are based on need gratification, their relationships are limited and interchangeable.

Self-reliance comes from freedom as 'inner freedom'. Lack of freedom results in lack of self-reliance which contributes to general anxiety and hostility.

Implications for education  Deficiency motivation and the lack of faith in human potential the basis for manipulation and so-called 'banking education'. Faith in human potential and metamotivation is education for personal growth and freedom. Human potentialities for freedom, love, happiness, reason, justice and so on are like seeds. They are stifled and fail to develop if not given the proper conditions required for development.If not given the proper conditions. Education for freedom - 'holistic education'  - engages the metaneeds for spiritual growth as well as the basic psychological needs for security and self esteem.  Faith in human potential and metamotivation is education for personal growth and freedom.

 Deficiency motivation and the lack of faith in human potential the basis for manipulation and so-called 'banking education'... 'extrinsic motivation'

Top of page / Introduction /  Homepage

_______________________________________________________________

 Mental health is a function of the extent of fulfillment of human needs. 

Years of living avoidance strategies undermines the sense of power and accounts for peoples drive to 'succeed.' The reactive-responsive orientation contains the basic premise that one is powerless. The power lies in the circumstantial stimuli. "Success is an empty victory" "Most people in our society were nurtered and trained within a reactive-responsive orientation." The majority of behavioral rules people were given as children were based on avoidance or prevention strategies. "Don't do this, that etc... Children are told either what they can't do or how bad they are because of what they are doing. Most educational systems also reinforce a reactive-responsive orientation. "One focus of education is to weave the child into the fabric of society"(26) "The power in the situation is clearly defined as being in the school or the parents. So the students are really learning about power. What they learn about power is that they are powerless. " They are learning about their purpose in life. Unfortunately what they learn is that they are only an insignificant one among many, and that they need to conform. Under these conditions, what purpose or meaning does their life ultimately have? One survey by the Carnegie Institute of Education reports that 90 percent of high school students in the US feel that their lives are useless. If you go along with the notion that things are the way you are told they are, and act appropriately - responsive behavior- you might be labeled a 'good student' or a 'nice person'. "Responsive students usually receive good grades in school, actively adapt to the norms and standards set by people in positions of authority." As adults, they continue to respond in certain ways. Result is that people don't master the skills they need to create their lives. They learn only how to respond and 'adapt' in the sense of 'conform'. "Reactive" behavior implies an active opposition to society's message that things are the way they are portrayed at home or at school, but reactive people are usually labeled as 'rebellious students' 'difficult people' 'political activists' 'extremists' and so on. (Robert Fritz. Path of Least Resistance).

 theme: Faith in one's own identity or 'self-esteem' is the precondition for independence, freedom and solitude for communication with one's conscience as the source of inner approval and the guardian of personal integrity. Lack of 'self-esteem' originates in the lack of recognition of basic psychological needs or 'ego needs' also known as 'deficit needs'. Motivation by the deficit needs is 'deficit motivation' as opposed to growth motivation or 'abundance motivation' ... also 'metamotivation'.)

 "So-called learning theory in this country has based itself almost entirely on deficit-motivation with goal objects usually external to the organism, i.e. learning the best way to satisfy a need. For this reason among others, our psychology of learning is a limited body of knowledge, useful only in small areas of life and of real interest only to other 'learning theorists'. This is of little help in solving the problem of growth and self-actualization. Here the techniques of repeatedly acquiring from the outside world satisfactions of motivational deficiencies are much less needed. (Maslow Toward a Psychology of Being)

  Human growth is a function of fulfillment of human needs The human organism has an instinctive sense of responsiblity for its own growth. During the growth process   each level of needs becomes apparent as the more urgent needs are fulfilled. As the various needs are met, motivations for behaviour shift from strong expression to subtle expression. An individual's type of motivation or 'motivational type' depends on the extent to which their personality has developed i.e. their 'motivational state' or 'character'. The range of motivational states is a function of the range of emotions which are associated with human needs and whether these are fulfilled or frustrated during growth. Character is a function of mental health and the extent of psychological development or 'personality development'.

The well developed and balanced personality is motivated by the metaneeds.

Extent of development determines character  An individual's character is defined by the mode of orientation through which they relate to the world - whether through competition and 'hate' or cooperation and 'love'. Their mode of relatedness determines the framework of assumptions within which the individual thinks and behaves - their 'worldview' or 'paradigm'. Character formation is a function of the extent of fulfillment of the  biologically based physiological, psychological, emotional and spiritual needs. During development, the individual responds to the character of parents and their cultural backgrounds, adjusting to a particular social structure and acquirng a specific mode of feeling, thinking and acting i.e. 'behaviour.'

 Uniqueness of character is the result of the combined effects of constitutional temperament, personalities of parents and demands of the social environment.

 

Basic psychological needs are the 'ego needs' The ego-needs are the instinctive needs for responsiblity to the persistence of the self or 'ego' - the needs for freedom from fear and anxiety i.e. 'security'. Security needs are basic to self-respect or 'self-esteem'. Self-esteem is rational faith in oneself and  a precondition for growth through curiosity, exploration and learning i.e. optimal learning or 'optimalearning'.  Optimal learning is learning motivated by the metaneeds of growth. Conditions for growth include the gratification of the ego needs for security and self-esteem and depend on the communication of unconditional  approval of significant others - parents and teachers or 'facilitators of learning'.  Security is communicated through the intelligence of understanding and the kindness of compassion i.e. 'loving kindness' or 'love'.

Such conditions enable the individual to reach maturity through knowledge of their own nature or 'self-knowledge' i.e. 'human nature'.  Human nature is defined in terms of the fulfillment of human needs during development and especially at certain critical stages or 'sensitive periods'. If sensitive periods are  hindered by inner anxieties resulting from repressive social conditions then further psychological growth is thwarted and the result is dysfunctional or neurotic development or 'neurosis'. Neurosis is characterised by the pathology of deficit motivation. 

If gratification of psychological needs occurs in a normal growth process, the individual continues in a process of mature growth... achieves maturity i.e. 'self-actualisation'. The self-actualised individual is a well developed and balanced personality... or 'self-actualising'.

Mature growth or 'self-actualisation'  Individuals whose basic psychological needs are met can be described by those human attributes which have survival value in a changing social environment - self-respect, self-directedness, self-discipline, sense of purpose, sense of worthiness and so on. If gratification of psychological needs occurs in a normal growth process, the individual achieves maturity in the sense . of developed and balanced personality. Growth continues as 'mature growth' or 'self-actualising growth' i.e. 'self-actualisation'. The self-actualising individual is independent of others. They are motivated by the spiritual needs for creation and productivity or 'work'. Meaningful work intensifies their sense of cooperation with the environment and the individual continues in their authentic striving to work or 'calling'. Authentic work satisfies the human needs for creativity or 'meaning'. Motivation for productive work - 'metamotivation' - is facilitated with freedom from repression... the individual lives by spiritual values on the level of ego-transcendance. The individual who  is motivated by the prepotent more urgent basic psychological needs is not motivated by the metaneeds

 If external social forces are focused on basic physiological and psychological needs. metaneeds are denied and metamotivation is repressed. 

Failure to satisfy ego needs results in the pathology of 'neurotic development' or 'neurosis' characterised by motivation by ego-needs i.e. 'deficit motivation' Denial or frustration of ego-needs for self-esteem leads to the psychopathology of motivation by deficiency of needs i.e. 'deficiency motivation' or 'deficit motivation'.

Neurotic development or 'neurosis' is a function of  the control of motivation by deficiency of the basic psychological needs also known as 'deficiency needs' or 'deficit needs'. Failure to satisfy the ego needs results in lack of self-esteem which is threatening to the individual's 'sense of identity' or sense of 'self'. As a result the individual learns to depend on the approval of others for the approval of themselves. They will even give up their own growth to retain the approval of others.

Deficit motivation is pathological because it involves reliance on external sources for the gratification of need deficiencies...  results in human behaviour which is destructive and non-adaptive i.e. 'human wickedness' or 'evil'.

The individual who is motivated by deficit needs - described as 'deficiency motivated' - subscribes to the values which correspond to those needs i.e. 'deficit-values' - accumulation, personal attention, appreciation, recognition, importance, reputation, status, dominance, political power and so on.

 Limitations in human relationship The deficiency motivated individual depends on others as sources of supply for their gratification needs. Since they depend on others for their own need gratification they perceive them in terms of  their usefulness as sources of gratification for their need deficiencies.. The deficiency motivated individual has to rely on changeable factors in a non-reliable social environment...  They must constantly change to fit ...to react and respond. Their dependence on others requires flexibility and responsiveness to their reactions i.e. 'reactive-responsive behaviour'. They lack the freedom of self-reliance and they become anxious and hostile. They fail to perceive others in terms of their own intrinsic values. Since their interpersonal relations are based on need gratification their relationships  are limited and interchangeable.

Self-reliance comes from freedom as 'inner freedom'. Lack of freedom results in lack of self-reliance which contributes to general anxiety and hostility.

Mature growth or 'self-actualisation'  Individuals whose basic psychological needs are met can be described by those human attributes which have survival value in a changing social environment - self-respect, self-directedness, self-discipline, sense of purpose, sense of worthiness and so on. If gratification of psychological needs occurs in a normal growth process, the individual achieves maturity in the sense . of developed and balanced personality. Growth continues as 'mature growth' or 'self-actualising growth' i.e. 'self-actualisation'. The self-actualising individual is independent of others. They are motivated by the spiritual needs for creation and productivity or 'work'. Meaningful work intensifies their sense of cooperation with the environment and the individual continues in their authentic striving to work or 'calling'. Authentic work satisfies the human needs for creativity or 'meaning'. Motivation for productive work - 'metamotivation' - is facilitated with freedom from repression... the individual lives by spiritual values on the level of ego-transcendance. The individual who  is motivated by the prepotent more urgent basic psychological needs is not motivated by the metaneeds

 If external social forces are focused on basic physiological and psychological needs. metaneeds are denied and metamotivation is repressed. 

Implications for education  Deficiency motivation and the lack of faith in human potential the basis for manipulation and so-called 'banking education'. Faith in human potential and metamotivation is education for personal growth and freedom. Human potentialities for freedom, love, happiness, reason, justice and so on are like seeds. They are stifled and fail to develop if not given the proper conditions required for development.If not given the proper conditions. Education for freedom - 'holistic education'  - engages the metaneeds for spiritual growth as well as the basic psychological needs for security and self esteem.  Faith in human potential and metamotivation is education for personal growth and freedom.

 Deficiency motivation and the lack of faith in human potential the basis for manipulation and so-called 'banking education'... 'extrinsic motivatio

_______________________________________________________________

 Mental health is a function of the extent of fulfillment of human needs. 

Years of living avoidance strategies undermines the sense of power and accounts for peoples drive to 'succeed.' The reactive-responsive orientation contains the basic premise that one is powerless. The power lies in the circumstantial stimuli. "Success is an empty victory" "Most people in our society were nurtered and trained within a reactive-responsive orientation." The majority of behavioral rules people were given as children were based on avoidance or prevention strategies. "Don't do this, that etc... Children are told either what they can't do or how bad they are because of what they are doing. Most educational systems also reinforce a reactive-responsive orientation. "One focus of education is to weave the child into the fabric of society"(26) "The power in the situation is clearly defined as being in the school or the parents. So the students are really learning about power. What they learn about power is that they are powerless. " They are learning about their purpose in life. Unfortunately what they learn is that they are only an insignificant one among many, and that they need to conform. Under these conditions, what purpose or meaning does their life ultimately have? One survey by the Carnegie Institute of Education reports that 90 percent of high school students in the US feel that their lives are useless. If you go along with the notion that things are the way you are told they are, and act appropriately - responsive behavior- you might be labeled a 'good student' or a 'nice person'. "Responsive students usually receive good grades in school, actively adapt to the norms and standards set by people in positions of authority." As adults, they continue to respond in certain ways. Result is that people don't master the skills they need to create their lives. They learn only how to respond and 'adapt' in the sense of 'conform'. "Reactive" behavior implies an active opposition to society's message that things are the way they are portrayed at home or at school, but reactive people are usually labeled as 'rebellious students' 'difficult people' 'political activists' 'extremists' and so on. (Robert Fritz. Path of Least Resistance).

"There can be no educational policy or practice independent of a social and cultural context and therefore there is no such theory as 'objective' educational theory'".  "...the single most powerful contribution that the holistic education movement is making to the field of educational theory is the power of the metaphor of holism, i.e. of being aware of the parts, the sum of the parts, and that which is more than the sum of the parts.. Further work is obviously needed to develop a more comprehensive theoretical framework that gives sufficient attention to all the important dimensions of human experience and education."  (Kesson)

 

    Four concepts which would apply to the field of education are taken from the area of motivation theory. First, once an individual's basic biological and psychological needs are met, he has the self-respect necessary for further motivation towards constructive behaviour and creativity. The general recognition of this fact alone would help formulate pedagogical principles which would foster effective motivation for learning in schools. It would also alleviate school social problems such as the so-called 'discipline problems.' Secondly, the person's intellectual and spiritual needs, like the basic needs, have a biological basis and are revealed in the unfolding process during the individual's normal growth. They form the basis for the individual's so-called 'meta-motivation' for the 'higher' needs and can be discovered in the productive character structure of the self-actualized individual involved in productive activity. Such an individual can live in harmony with his own real interests and can adapt effectively to a changing environment. Educational methods based on the natural motivation of intellectual and spiritual needs are effective in fostering the normal growth and development of an integrated individual, simultaneously living productively for himself and for others in his social environment.           Thirdly, the so-called 'higher needs' for transcendance, religion, aesthetics and philosophy, are intrinsic to every human being and therefore must have a biological basis. Consisting of mental components, the 'metaneeds' are

 The human organism is a social organism which depends for survival on social intelligence. 

    The human organism is a social organism with a range of instinctive human motives or 'human needs'. Human needs include psychological needs for psychological growth as well as physiological needs for physical growth. Psychological needs include the 'lower' needs for self-esteem and belongingness or 'ego needs' and the 'higher' needs for the value-life of  morality or spiritual growth i.e. the spiritual needs or ‘metaneeds’. The spiritual needs are related to transcendance of the ego or 'ego-transcendance'. The lower and higher psychological needs are interrelated.

   Human needs must be fulfilled for proper growth and development to full human awareness or 'humanness'. The fulfillment of psychological needs is a part of the healthy psychological development required for successful adaptation to changing social conditions i.e.'social intelligence'. Social intelligence is a function of fully expanded awareness of the growth needs of the value-life... 'social values' of 'humanness' i.e. mature growth or 'self-actualisation'  

 psychological and related to consciousness, determining the human organism's perception and level of awareness. For the social human organism, they form the basis of successful adaptation to a social environment. The psychological development of the human organism presupposes the cultivation of positive 'healthy' mental components and the discouragement of 'unhealthy' ones. The degree of a person's mental health is determined by the balance of 'healthy' and 'unhealthy' psychological factors. Applied to educational policy and the aims of education, the 'metaneeds' are associated with healthy psychological development which is the prerequisite to the person's full functioning as a socially intelligent being -  the aim of education. Fourthly, at the 'higher' levels of consciousness, the individual lives by the 'higher' values, justice, truth, beauty, freedom, generosity, love etc. People living by these values are in harmony with their 'real' self-interest, so in harmony with themselves as well as in harmony with their social environment. Living on the higher levels of consciousness, they cultivate their social intelligence, which is the 'true' aim of a natural education and a rational system of ethics. In harmony with the laws of nature, these values preserve the interconnectedness of human beings and the survival of the human species.

 

 MOTIVATION BY THE SPIRITUAL NEEDS OR 'METANEEDS': 'METAMOTIVATION'

 theme: 'Metamotivation' is motivation by the needs for psychological or spiritual growth  growth needs of the value-life (moral consciousness or ‘morality’) i.e. the spiriitual needs or 'metaneeds'. The metaneeds are the 'growth needs' of the value-life. They represent an intrinsic part of the human personality or 'human nature'.  The metaneeds are the spiritual needs which represent the core or ‘essence’ of the human personality or 'human nature'.  

"The value-life - spiritual, religious, philosophical - is an aspect of human biology and is on the same continuum with the 'lower' animal life, rather than being in separated, dichotomized, or mutually exclusive realms. It is probably therefore species-wide, supracultural even though it must be actualized by culture in order to exist." (Abraham Maslow)  

  "In A Theory of Metamotivation: The Biological Rooting of the Value-Life Abraham Maslow lays out a number of hypotheses about the nature and experience of self-actualizers and self-transcenders. He first describes the hierarchy of needs and suggests that higher needs (metaneeds, being-Values or B-values) for truth, beauty, transcendence, etc. are just as biologically based as are the lower, more obviously physiological ones such as thirst and sex. Further, he proposes that the failure to satisfy metaneeds may result in corresponding forms of pathology (metapathology) analagous to those resulting from unsatisfied lower needs. Thus he concludes that transcendant, religious, esthetic, and philosophical facets of life are as real and intrinsic to human nature as any biological needs". (Walsh 121)

human nature...    the human organism as a social organism...     human nature as the 'mature mind'...

human needs...     basic psychological needs or 'ego needs'...  higher psychological needs or 'metaneeds...

               development of conscience for adaptability...

               biological basis of metamotivation: 'subjective biology'...

               perception of reality at the transpersonal level of personality development...

theory of 'metamotivation' of Abraham Maslow..

            implications for education...

 'Basic' or 'lower' psychological needs: 'security needs' for belongingness and self-esteem or 'ego' i.e. 'ego needs'. The basic psychological needs are the needs for security, belongingness and self-esteem. The most prepotent is the need for freedom from fear and anxiety - the need for safety or 'security'. Security needs include the need to admire an ideal and to strive for perfection. Security is communicated through loving care and a sense of 'belongingness'... parental love i.e. spiritual or 'unconditional love'. Unconditional love communicates the security, approval, respect, esteem and sense of belongingness... basic to faith in the persistence of the self, respect and approval of one's identity and expectations of oneself i.e. 'self-respect' or 'self-esteem' - the 'ego needs'. Fulfillment of the ego needs establishes a natural condition of self-identity or 'healthy ego' which is required for  normal psychological growth.

'Higher' psychological needs are the spiritual needs or 'metaneeds' of moral consciousness or 'conscience' The 'higher' spiritual needs ('higher' because they are related to consciousness) are motivations for spiritual growth and ego-transcendance. The spiritual needs are also known as 'growth motivations' or 'metaneeds' - from the Greek word 'meta' meaning 'of a higher order'.. They are the same intellectual, moral and 'ethical' needs taught by religions and philosophies. They are related to the values of truth, goodness, perfection, justice, simplicity, love, compassion and so on. Also known as 'Being-Values', each of the metaneeds represents a different facet of the wholeness of Being. Each can be defined in terms of the others. The metaneeds are the growth needs of natural values of moral consciousness or 'conscience'.

Function of the rational conscience is protection of personal integrity required for adaptation to changing social conditions i.e. 'adaptability'  Survival of the human organism as a social organism depends on the  ability to adapt to the complexities of changing social conditions i.e. social adaptation or 'adaptability'. Human adaptability depends on the capacity to make connections between learning and life experience and this involves intuition of rational conscience. Conscience is the biologically based cognitive system which evolved through natural selection as the 'moral faculty' of human intelligence. The conscience is the core of guiding values or 'social values' which have been sought by theologians and philosophers throughout human history i.e. 'human values'. Human values are values of the highest consciousness state of 'self-transcendance'. In the 'transcendental realm of consciousness' the individual is aware of the rational valuing process of  conscience - an emergent property of the brain. Developed conscience is the source of human morals or 'virtues' -  goodness,  beauty, justice, spiritual love, joy, 'truth' and so on. As the source of virtues, the conscience is the human 'spiritual equipment' with which the organism depends for adaptability to the complexities of changing social conditions i.e 'social intelligence'. Social intelligence is a function of moral 'intuition' - intuitive intelligence or 'creative intelligence'. Creative intelligence is based on awareness of the nature of the human personality or 'human nature' defined in terms of human needs. Individual awareness of human nature or 'self-knowledge' is required for accurate evaluation of the social environment and subsequent adaptation. Construction of rational conscience depends on motivation by the metaneeds or 'metamotivation'.
 

Biological basis of metamotivation... 'subjective biology' Metamotivation is the human capacity for experiential richness... motivation by the metaneeds of developed conscience. The human conscience is an 'emergent property' of the maker of meaning or 'brain'. As a property of brain functioning, the human conscience or 'soul' is intrinsic to the nature of the human personality... 'human psychology' or 'human nature'...  therefore biologically based and  instinctive to the human organism. Human nature can be defined in terms of the biologically based metaneeeds. With metamotivation human obligations of love, truth, justice and beauty become its pleasures. What is 'good' for the individual is also good for the society. Motivation by the basic psychological needs (love and affection as communication of security necessary for growth) are obviously instinctive to human nature and are therefore included in the rubric of 'subjective biology.' Subjective biology must also include growth motivation or metamotivaton.Since metamotivation is an intrinsic part of human nature, then the techniques of so-called subjective biology (contemplation or 'meditation') apply to human education.

Objective perception of human nature incorporates biological basis of metaneeds The objective perception of human nature is the same which is sought by philosophers, scientists, artists and spiritual leaders. The religious or 'mystic' experience of ego-transcendance involves the total acceptance of human nature and incorporates the concepts of 'transcendance of death' or 'immortality' in which the individual communicates with the spiritual aspect of their nature without recourse to a 'supernatural'. The experience of communion is the experience of ego-transcendance which makes it possible to live in the transcendant realm of Being-Values in which the individual can experience joy and happiness. In this way the functions of religious experiences can be explained by the biological basis of the metaneeds. The metaneeds can be adored, revered and celebrated and they can also be sacrificed just like the eternal values of religions. This wholistic perspective of human nature makes it possible to transcend dichotomies of human nature. Dichotomies imply mutual exclusiveness. Notions such as the 'forces of good' and 'the forces of evil' imply that good and evil are mutually exclusive. At the level of ego-transcendance, the mutual exclusiveness disappears.An individual's level of awareness and perception of reality is determined by the level of consciousness which they have reached in their personal growth and evelopment... 'sociocognitive stage'.

Perception of reality at the transpersonal level of personality development... 'holistic perception'...  The metamotivation by the metaneeds produces a perception of reality at the highest level of consciouness - the transpersonal level of ego-transcendance. At the transpersonal level of personality development, the individual's perception of reality is free of the distorting effects of fear, envy and malice. This is the 'ultimate reality' which is described in terms of the ultimate values of being - the 'Being-Values' which satisfy the human longing for certainty - 'true', 'good', 'just', 'beautiful' and so on. Being-Values are identical with 'Being-Facts' concerning the nature of the universe, the nature of life and the nature of human nature.It is easy to lose sight of the metaneeds in a social environment which does not approve of human nature.

Deprivation of psychological needs leads to moivation by deficiency of needs...  'deficiency motivation' or 'deficit motivation'. ...dehumanisation   Prerequisite to the 'metamotivation' for gratification of the 'metaneeds' or 'growth motivations... Metamotivation is inhibited when social forces in the environment are focused on physiological or basic psychological needs. Deprivation of the basic psychological needs - parental love and affection and the security which it communicates ... self-esteem or 'ego needs' - leads to psychological illness i.e. neurosis... 'psychosis'. The prepotent more urgent basic psychological needs can be called 'deficiency needs' and motivation  As a result of deficit motivation, the individual lacks the self-respect, self-discipline, self-directedness, sense of belongingness and sense of purpose and worthiness which are the basis for motivation by the metaneeds for spiritual growth. Feelings towards them become ambivalent. They are inspiring but frightening at the same time. The individual responds to them with reactions of internal repression and denial. These reaction responses inhibit metamotivation for spiritual growth and the individual is deprived of the opportunity to satisfy the metaneeds. Deprivation of the metaneeds leads to 'metapathologies' of value-starvation, psychological incapacitation, social incompetence and dehumanisation. In the attempt to adapt to changing social environments the dehumanised individual is motivated by the deficiency needs and engages in immoral and destructive behaviour i.e. 'evil'.  

 So-called 'laziness' is really a question of not caring... lack of motivation.

Implications for education  Metamotivation as the human capacity for experiential richness is 'teachable' in the sense that it is enhanced in a social environment which recognizes the social nature of human nature. The individual's capacity for metamotivation can be fostered through the acknowledgement, encouragement and enforcement of the individual's instinctive yearning for love, truth, beauty etc... the education of the spiritual needs or 'metaneeds'. A social environment which respects the biologically based metaneeds fosters mature growth or 'self-actualisation'. Self-actualised individuals have self-respect, self-discipline, self-directedness and a sense of purpose and worthiness - characteristics of metamotivation for spiritual growth. It is possible to design an educational program based on the respect for metaneeds and the cultivation of metamotivation rather than sacrificing them in favor of the ego-needs and deficiency motivation i.e. 'holistic education'.

Biological basis of so-called 'higher values' Abraham Maslow studied the nature and experience of self-actualizers and self-transcenders... describes the hierarchy of needs... higher needs (metaneeds, B for Being-Values) for truth, beauty, transcendence, etc. are just as biologically based as the more obviously physiological so-called 'lower' needs such as hunger and thirst. The failure to satisfy metaneeds may result in corresponding forms of pathology - metapathology - analagous to those resulting from unsatisfied lower needs.

. The transcendant, religious, esthetic, and philosophical facets of life are as real and intrinsic to human nature as any other biological needs. (Walsh 121)

Human nature is the 'mature mind' The basic psychological needs for love and affection, self-respect, self-esteem and belongingness have a biological basis. Mature individuals whose basic psychological needs are gratified, have self-respect, self-discipline, self-directedness, sense of purpose and worthiness, are referred to as 'self-actualizing' individuals. They then become motivated by the 'metaneds' of the value-life. Motivation by the metaneeds is referred to as 'metamotivation'.

In a cultural environment which focuses on the basic physiological and psychological needs, metamotivation is inhibited by forces external to the individual who is thus deprived of the means for gratification of the metaneeds. As a result of the individual's ambivalent feelings towards the the instinctive metaneeds which can be both attractive and frightening, internal repression, denial and reaction responses can inhibit metamotivation.

Requisite to the metamotivation for gratification of the metaneeds or growth motivations, the prepotent more urgent basic psychological needs can be called 'deficiency needs'.

 Obviously instinctive in nature, the basic physiological and psychological needs come under the rubric of 'subjective biology.' The similarly biologically based 'metaneeds' come under the same rubric although they are less urgent and weaker than the basic psychological needs. Consequently the education of the spiritual needs, the 'metaneeds,' can be fostered through the acknowledgement, encouragement and enforcement of the individual's instinctive yearning for truth, beauty etc., the individual's capacity for 'metamotivation.'

"The metaneeds are equally potent among themselves, on the average i.e. I cannot detect a generalized hierarchy or prepotency. But in any given individual, they may be and often are hierarchically arranged according to idiosyncratic talents and constitutional differences."

The metaneeds are also known as 'Being-values' or 'B'values'. They are related to the spiritual values of truth, goodness, perfection, justice, simplicity, lawfulness, dichotomy transcendance etc. Each one can be fully defined in terms of all the others. Thus they appear to represent different facets of a unified and composite whole. The 'metaneeds' along with the basic psychological needs are all biologically based. They are all components of our biological life. Consequently the spiritual or value- life of the human organism is natural and fact-based, legitimately qualified for scientific analysis. Necessitating a cultural environment for their actualization, the metaneeds and metamotivation can easily be lost in a culture which does not approve of human nature. A cultural environment which respects the human organism's basic psychological needs fosters the individual's growth toward self-actualization. A cultural environment which respects the human organism's instinctive metaneeds as well as basic psychological needs, fosters the individuals's metamotivation towards full human awareness or humanness. This notion lends itself to the potential transcendance of unnecessary dichotomies such as good and evil. Rather than belonging to a domain external to human nature, spiritual values and the value-life are components of the biological basis of human nature.

 Metamotivation and the gratification of the metaneeds for the B-values of the value life are the source of the highest pleasures, metapeasure which can also be called metahedonism. At this level metamotivation becomes the same for both the highest pleasures and the highest obligations to truth, justice, beauty etc. At the level of metamotivation there is no longer a dichotomy between selfishness and unselfishness. The mutual exclusiveness disappears. Gratification of the metaneed of unselfishness is the source of the highest selfish metapleasure. With metamotivation, what is good for the individual (selfish) is good for others (unselfish)... hence the disappearance of the mutual exclusiveness implied in such a dichotomy.

Thus 'metamotivation' or motivation for the gratification of the 'metaneeds' of 'humanness' is biologically based and instinctive. In a cultural environment which focuses on the basic physiological and psychological needs, 'metamotivation' is inhibited by forces external to the individual who is thus deprived of the means for gratification of the 'metaneeds.' As a result of the individual's ambivalent feelings towards the instinctive 'metaneeds' which can be both attractive and frightening, internal repression, denial and reaction responses can inhibit 'metamotivation.'

The 'metaneeds' along with the basic psychological needs are all biologically based. They are all components of our biological life. Consequently the spiritual or value- life of the human organism is natural and fact-based, legitimately qualified for scientific analysis. Necessitating a cultural environment for their actualization, the metaneeds and metamotivation can easily be lost in a culture which does not approve of human nature. A cultural environment which respects the human organism's basic psychological needs fosters the individual's growth toward self-actualization. A cultural environment which respects the human organism's instinctive metaneeds as well as basic psychological needs, fosters the individuals's metamotivation towards full human awareness or humanness. This notion lends itself to the potential transcendance of unnecessary dichotomies such as good and evil. Rather than belonging to a domain external to human nature, spiritual values and the value-life are components of the biological basis of human nature. Metamotivation and the gratificatioo n o the emtanedds for the B-values or valuelife are the owurce of the highest pleasures, metapleasure which can also be called metahedonism. At this level metamotivation becomes the same for both the highest pleasures and the highest obligations to truth, justice, beauty etc. At the level of metamotivation there is no longer a dichotomy between selfishness and unselfishness. Gratification of the metaneed of unselfishness is the source of the highest selfish metapleasure. The mutual exclusiveness disappears. With metamotivation, what is good for the individual (selfish) is good for others (unselfish) Hence the disappearance of the mutual exclusiveness implied in such a dichotomy.  Obviously instinctive in nature, the basic physiological and psychological needs come under the rubric of 'subjective biology.' The similarly biologically based 'metaneeds' come under the same rubric although they are less urgent and weaker than the basic psychological needs. Consequently the education of the spiritual needs, the 'metaneeds,' can be fostered through the acknowledgement, encouragement and enforcement of the individual's instinctive yearning for truth, beauty etc., the individual's capacity for 'metamotivation.'

The B-values are defined as truth, goodness, justice, beauty etc. The metamotivation which arises from the biological metanededs for the values-life, B-values, Being-values, spiritual values, determines the individual's perception of 'ultimate reality' at the 'highest' levels of consciousness. In other words at the highest levels of personality and cultural development, a reality is perceived which is independent of distorted human perceptions. This is the 'ultimate reality' which is described in terms of the B-values.

 The reality is described as true, good, just, beautiful etc. Thus in the context of 'ultimate reality' the B-values become identical with B-facts. In the transcendental realm of consciousness, facts and values fuse and the words used to describe them are called 'fusion-words'. Contemplating the nature of the universe becomes equated with contemplating the ultimate values, the B-values.

The aim of philosophers, scientists, artists, and spiritual leaders is to achieve the same objective perception of 'ultimate reality, a perception which is devoid of any contaminating effects of the observer's fears, wishes, calculations etc. The mystic of 'peak' experience involves the individual's total acceptance of his biological nature and his part in natural evolution.

Without having to resort to the 'supernatural,' the individual's "communion with what transcends him" becomes a biological experience which makes it easily possible for the him to live in the realm of the 'B-Values.' The 'B-Values' "could conceivably satisfy the human longing for certainty." Like the eternal values of religions, they can be adored, revered, celebrated and sacrificed. The total acceptance of the human organism's biological nature becomes fused with the concept of 'transcendance of death' and 'immortality.' The greatest joy and happiness can be experienced in the contemplation of the 'B-Values.' Furthermore, it is proposed that the theoretical structure for the biological basis of 'metamotivation' and the 'metaneeds' of the value-life can assimilate all the functions of organized religions and religious experiences.

The individual's capacities for experiential richness should be 'teachable.' It should be possible to design an educational program around the instinctive needs of 'subjective biology', the 'metaneeds' as well as the physiological and psychological basic needs.

 references:   Walsh, Roger M.D. Ph.D and Frances Vaughan Ph.D.(eds) Beyond Ego: Transpersonal Dimensions in Psychology  J.P. Tarcher, Inc. Los Angeles l980

 A Theory of Metamotivation: The Biological Rooting of the Value-Life Abraham Maslow..

(from Walsh, Beyond Ego: Transpersonal Dimensions of Human Nature)

 The 'metamotivation' by the 'metaneeds' of the value-life is an intrinsic part of human nature and must therefore be included in a full definition of the human organism, the person and the individual. The biologically based basic psychological needs are instinctive. They must be gratified for a person to become more mature, more 'human' and 'self-actualized.' Gratifications of these instinctive basic needs are necessary for the avoidance of dehumanization as well as the avoidance of mental and physical illness. It appears that the 'metaneeds' of the value-life, spiritual, ethical and moral values, are also instinctive and have a biological basis. Gratifications of the instinctive 'metaneeds' are necessary for the prevention of 'illness' or 'metapathology,' best defined as 'diminutions of humanness.'

 Thus metamotivation or 'motivation for the gratification of the 'metaneeds' of 'humanness' is biologically based and instinctive.

 The person's intellectual and spiritual needs, like the basic needs, have a biological basis. The 'basic needs' of hunger and thirst are physiological needs for the physical survival
of the human organism. The 'basic needs' for reproduction are physiological needs for the survival of the human species. For the human species, 'homo sapiens' the intelligent animal, the basic psychological needs are for parental love and affection, for self-respect and self-esteem and for a sense of belongingness. The so-called 'higher needs' for transcendance, religion, esthetics and philosophy, are intrinsic to every human organism and therefore must have a biological basis. Consisting of mental components, 'the metaneeds' are psychological and related to consciousness, determining the human organism's perception and level of awareness. For the social human organism, they are basic needs for the successful adaptation to a social environment. The psychological development of the human organism presupposes the cultivation of positive 'healthy' mental components and the discouragement of negative 'unhealthy' ones. The degree of a person's mental health is determined by the balance of 'healthy' and 'unhealthy' psychological factors. The 'metaneeds' are associated with healthy psychological development which is the prerequisite to the person's full functioning as a socially intelligent being.

Abraham Maslow contends that the following thirteen theses related to the biologically based 'metaneeds' of the value-life are within the realm of science. Consequently he proposes that the theory of 'metamotivation' can be subjected to scientific investigation and verificaton.
 

l "Self-actualizing individuals, (more matured, more fully human) by definition already gratified in their basic needs,are now motivated in other higher ways, to be called 'metamotivation.'" The basic psychological needs for love and affection, self-respect, self-esteem, and belongingness have a biological basis. Mature individuals whose basic psychological needs are gratified, have self-respect, self-discipline, self-directedness, a sense of purpose and worthiness, are referred to as 'self-actualizing' individuals. They then become motivated by the 'metaneeds' of the value-life. Motivation by the 'metaneeds' is referred to as 'metamotivation.'

2. "The full definition of the person or of human nature must then include intrinsic values, as part of human nature." The 'metamotivation' by the 'metaneeds' of the value-life is an intrinsic part of human nature and must therefore be included in a full definition of the human organism, the person and the individual.

3. "These intrinsic values are instinctoid in nature, i.e they are needed (a) to avoid illness and (b) to achieve fullest humanness or growth. The 'illness' resulting from deprivation of intrinsic values (meta-needs) we may call metapathologies. The 'highest' values, the spiritual life and the highest aspirations of mankind are therefore proper subjects for scientific study and research. They are in the world of nature."
 

The biologically based basic psychological needs are instinctive. They must be gratified for a person to become more mature, more 'human' and 'self-actualized.' Gratifications of these instinctive basic needs are necessary for the avoidance of dehumanization as well as the avoidance of mental and physical illness. It appears that the 'metaneeds' of the value-life, spiritual, ethical and moral values, are also instinctive and have a biological basis. Gratifications of the instinctive 'metaneeds' are necessary for the prevention of 'illness' or 'metapathology,' best defined as 'diminutions of humanness.' Thus 'metamotivation' or motivation for the gratification of the 'metaneeds' of 'humanness' is biologically based and instinctive.


4."Value-starvation and value-hunger come both from external deprivation and from our ambivalence and counter-values." In a cultural environment which focuses on the basic physiological and psychological needs, 'metamotivation' is inhibited by forces external to the individual who is thus deprived of the means for gratification of the 'metaneeds.' As a result of the individual's ambivalent feelings towards the instinctive 'metaneeds' which can be both attractive and frightening, internal repression, denial and reaction responses can inhibit 'metamotivation'.


5. "The hierarchy of basic needs is prepotent to the metaneeds." Requisite to the 'metamotivation' for gratification of the 'metaneeds' or 'growth motivations, the prepotent more urgent basic psychological needs can be called 'deficiency needs'.


6. "The metaneeds are equally potent among themselves, on the average-i.e. I cannot detect a generalized hierarchy of prepotency. But in any given individual, they may be and often are hierarchically arranged according to idiosyncratic talents and constitutional differences."


7. "It looks as if any intrinsic of B-Value is fully defined by most or all of the other B-values. Perhaps they form a unity of some sort, with each specific B-Value being simply the whole seen from another angle." The 'metaneeds' are also known as 'Being-values'or 'B-values.' They are related to the spiritual values of truth, goodness, perfection, justice, simplicity, lawfulness, dichotomy transcendance etc. Each one can be fully defined in terms of all the others. Thus they appear to represent different facets of a unified and composite whole.


8. "The value-life (spiritual, religious, philosophical, axiological etc.) is an aspect of human biology and is on the same continuum with the 'lower' animal life (rather than being in separated, dichotomized, or mutually exclusive realms). It is probably therefore species-wide, supracultural even though it must be actualized by culture in order to exist." The 'metaneeds' along with the basic psychological needs are all biologically based. They are all components of our biological life. Consequently the spiritual or value-life of the human organism is natural and fact based, legitimately qualified for scientific analysis. Necessitating a cultural environment for their actualization, the 'metaneeds' and 'metamotivation' can easily be lost in a culture which does not approve of human nature. A cultural environment which respects the human organism's basic psychological needs fosters the individual's growth towards self-actualization. A cultural environment which respects the human organism's instinctive 'metaneeds' as well as basic psychological needs, fosters the individual's 'metamotivation' towards full human awareness or ' humanness.' This notion lends itself to the potential transcendence of unnecessary dichotomies such as good and evil. Rather than belonging to a domain external to human nature, spiritual values and the value-life are components of the biological basis of human nature.


9. "Pleasures and gratifications can be arranged in hierarchy of levels from lower to higher. So also can hedonistic theories be seen as ranging from lower to higher, i.e. metahedonism." 'Metamotivation' and the gratification of the 'metaneeds' for the 'B-Values' or value-life are the source of the highest pleasures, 'metapleasure' which can also be called 'metahedonism.' At this level 'metamotivation' becomes the same for both the highest pleasures and the highest obligations to truth, justice, beauty etc. At the level of 'metamotivation' there is there is no longer a dichotomy between selfishness and unselfishness. Gratification of the 'metaneed' of unelfishness is the source of the highest selfish 'metapleasure'. The mutual exclusivesness disappears. With 'metamotivation' what is 'good' for the individual (selfish) is good for others (unselfish). Hence the disappearance of the mutual exclusiveness implied in such a dichotomy.


l0. "Since the spiritual life is instinctoid, all the techniques of 'subjective biology' apply to its education." Obviously instinctive in nature, the basic physiological and psychological needs come under the rubric of 'subjective biology.' The similarly biologically based 'metaneeds' come under the same rubric although they are less urgent and weaker than the basic psychological needs. Consequently the education of the spiritual needs, the 'metaneeds,' can be fostered through the acknowledgement, encouragement and enforcement of the individual's instinctive yearning for truth, beauty etc., the individual's capacity for 'metamotivation.' The individual's capacities for experiential richness should be 'teachable.' It should be possible to design an educational program around the instinctive needs of 'subjective biology', the 'metaneeds' as well as the physiological and psychological basic needs.

ll. "But B-Values seem to be the same as B-facts. Reality then is ultimately fact-values or value-facts." The 'B-Values' are defined as truth, goodness, justice, beauty etc. The 'metamotivation' which arises from the biological 'metaneeds' for the value-life, 'B-values', 'Being-values', spiritual values, determines the individual's perception of 'ultimate reality' at the 'highest' levels of consciouness. In other words, at the highest levels of personality and cultural development, a reality is perceived which is independent of distorted human perceptions. This is the 'ultimate reality' which is described in terms of the 'B-Values'. The words which are used to describe the 'ultimate reality' are the same as those used to describe B-Values.' The reality is described as true, good, just, beautiful etc. Thus in the context of 'ultimate reality' the 'B-Values' become identical with 'B-facts.' In the transcendental realm of consciousness, facts and values fuse and the words used to describe them are called 'fusion-words'. Contemplating the nature of the universe becomes equated with contemplating the ultimate values, the B-values. The aim of philosophers, scientists, artists and spiritual leaders is to achieve the same objective perception of 'ultimate reality', a perception which is devoid of any contaminating effects of the observer's fears, wishes, calculations etc.


l2. "Not only is man part of nature, and it part of him, but also he must be at least minimally isomorphic with nature (similar to it) in order to be viable in it. It has evolved him. His communion with what transcends him therefore need not be defined as non-natural or supernatural. It may be seen as a 'biological' experience." The mystic or 'peak' experience of transcendance involves the individual's total acceptance of his biological nature and his part in natural evolution. Without having to resort to the 'supernatural,' the individual's "communion with what transcends him" becomes a biological experience which makes it easily possible for the him to live in the realm of the 'B-Values'.


l3. "Many of the ultimate religious functions are fulfilled by this theoretical structure." The 'B-Values' "could conceivably satisfy the human longing for certainty." Like the eternal values of religions, they can be adored, revered, celebrated and sacrificed. The total acceptance of the human organism's biological nature becomes fused with the concept of 'transcendance of death' and 'immortality.' The greatest joy and happiness can be experienced in the contemplation of the 'B-Values.' Furthermore, it is proposed that the theoretical structure for the biological basis of 'metamotivation' and the 'metaneeds' of the value-life can assimilate all the functions of organized religions and religious experiences.

l3. The person's intellectual and spiritual needs, like the basic needs, have a biological basis. They are revealed in the unfolding process during the individual's normal growth. They form the basis for so-called 'meta-motivation' for the 'higher' needs and can be discovered in the productive character structure of the self-actualized individual. Involved in productive activity and in harmony with his own real interests, he can adapt effectively to a changing environment. Educational methods based on the natural motivation of intellectual and spiritual needs are effective in fostering the normal growth and development of an integrated individual, simultaneously living  productively for himself and for others in his social environment.

 14. The so-called 'higher needs' for transcendance, religion, aesthetics and philosophy, are intrinsic to every human being and therefore must have a biological basis. Consisting of mental components, the 'metaneeds' are psychological and related to consciousness, determining the human organism's  perception and level of awareness. For the social human organism, they form the basis of successful adaptation to a social environment. The psychological development of the human organism presupposes the cultivation of positive 'healthy' mental componenets and the discouragement of 'unhealthy' ones. The degree of a person's mental health is determined by the balance  of 'healthy' and 'unhealthy' psychological factors. Applied to educational policy and the aims of education, the 'metaneeds' are associated with healthy psychological development which is the prerequisite to the person's full functioning as a socially intelligent being the aims of education

_