link: new education

HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE OF MODERN EDUCATONAL SCIENCE called the 'NEW EDUCATION' AS EDUCATION FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT or 'FREE' EDUCATION... FREEDOM IN EDUCATION AS EDUCATION FOR DEVELOPMENT OF THE MIND OR 'SOUL'

 Socrates 

sixteenth century Comenius    eighteenth century   eighteenth century (Condillac... Itard...  nineteenth century... Stanley Hall

       Socrates: Western tradition of critical rationality                (Socratic techniques... Socratic tradition)                  

 Traditionally, philosophy was a struggle to discover and to live the good and virtuous life. Probably the best example of this quest was Socrates. Socrates' challenge to reflect on the soul initiated the tradition of freedom in education as education for development of the human mind or 'soul'... critical rationality or 'creative intelligence' i.e. the 'Socratic tradition'...

The religions of  the ancient Greeks were systems of rites for the appeasement of the gods which resided in the natural world.  For the ancient Greeks... the realm of the divinities or 'gods' was not outside the world but in the world. Gods resided in natural things and there was no part of nature in which the gods did not reside... the material world of nature was considered to be sacred. There were gods of the rivers, the stars, the harvest and every natural phenomenon... 'panta plere theon'. They believed that they had to nourish and appease the gods in order to prevent the universe from coming to a standstill. They believed that their very survival and the existence of their world depended on the appeasement of the gods through the rites which were prescribed by their religions. The human mind or 'soul' was considered to be of little value until  the view was challenged by Socrates.

Socrates 'spiritual journey' The ancient Greeks...  regarded the human mind or 'soul' as profane. It was not until Socrates challenged this view that the human mind became an object of reflection and a subject of concern for education. Education of the human mind was initiated with Socrates' challenge to reflect on it. See his attempt to describe the meaning of his life and death in the Apology - a pivotal part of the history of freedom in education because it conveys eloquently and poignantly the human passion for freedom and truth in the face of the forces of conformity and expediency. There is an important dimension of Socrates' story that is often neglected and even forgotten. There are passages in which Socrates makes it clear that he is on a spiritual journey and insists that his intellectual engagement with the citizens of Athens... . is connected to that journey. He is convinced that his search for greater clarity and understanding is sanctioned and required by the gods. His queries, reflections, and debates represent sacred responsibilities and obligations. When he is indicted he replies as follows: "Gentlemen of the jury, I am grateful and I am your friend, but I will obey the gods rather than you and as long as I draw breath and am able I shall not cease to practise philosophy... Be sure this is what the gods order me to do, and I think there is no greater blessing for the city than my service to the gods. For I go around doing nothing but persuading both young and old among you not to care for your body or your wealth in reference to or as strongly as for the best possible state of your soul.... With his argument, Socrates demonstrated how keen intellectuality is integrally and symbiotically related to a spiritual and moral vision." (David Purpel. Holistic Education in a Prophetic Voice in John Miller (Ed.) Worldviews, Educational Orientations and Holistic Education p. 74)   

Socrates justified his freedom to speculate on the human mind by acknowledging its profanity and appealing to the sacredness of the gods. He justified the right of the thinker to enjoy complete freedom of thought by acknowledging the belief that the thinker "runs no risk of trespassing upon the domain of the gods!" Consequently he should enjoy complete freedom to think! Socrates claimed that it was possible to 'discover the truth' through inquiry, discussion and argument... When Socrates challenged the Athenian state the human mind became a subject of concern for education.

Implications for education The Western tradition of critical rationality is a matter of freedom in education... education for the human mind... the freedom to cultivate intelligence.... The method of self-examination through questioning - the so-called 'Socratic method' or  'Socratic tradition'.  known as the 'Socratic techniques'. The spirit of inquiry runs through the entire history of philosophy. It shaped many of the modern notions of science. The struggle continues for an education which honours the individual's right to freedom of thought or 'inner freedom'... 'holistic education'...

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 Aim of education is to foster natural human development "The greatness of the human personality begins at the hour of birth.... education must start from birth... 'Education' must be understood as a help to the unfolding of the child's inborn psychic powers. The child's true constructive energy, a dynamic power, has remained unnoticed for thousands of years....From the earliest dawn of man's life on earth, these energies have been repressed and nullified...It is the child himself who presents us with revelations of man's spirit. (Maria Montessori The Absorbent Mind 5)

PHILOSOPHY OF THE NEW EDUCATION "The new education is a revolution, but a revolution without violence. It is the nonviolent revolution." (Montessori 215) The 'new education' philosophy: to help children's auto-construction. The old education philosophy: children have to be 'taught' the values which adults admire.

According to the 'new education' philosophy, the function of teachers and the schools is to help children construct good character through their work activities which constitute interaction with the environment. This compares with the 'old education' philosophy according to which it was believed that children had to be 'taught' the values which are admired by adults. One of the founders of the 'new education movement' in Europe was Maria Montessori. Based on scientific studies of young children she confirmed that character building is the child's owbn achievement. "Children construct their own characters...(which)... result from a long and slow sequence of activities carried out by the child himself between the ages of three and six.....No one can 'teach' the qualities of character...The only thing we can do is to put education on a scientific footing so that children can work effectively without being disturbed or impeded." (208)

"To educate in its fullest sense is to create conditions in which the child can live-and is led by these conditions led to live-as fully as possible through each succeeding stage of his development, meeting and solving in his own experience the problems of each stage as it comes, and so gaining the power to meet and to solve the problems that await him in further stages. Such conditions it is for a school to provide". (Badley, J.H. Dr. Ovide Decroly  Editor Albert Decordier, Amicale Rijksbasisonderwijs, Renaix, Belgium)

 "The Greeks attained the concept of an education that was 'liberal' not simply because it was the education of free men rather than slaves, but also because they saw it as freeing the mind to function according to its true nature, freeing reason from error and illusion and freeing man's conduct from wrong." (115 Archimbault, R.(Ed) Philosophical Analysis and Education. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul 1965)

 Pedagogies based on models of human nature... rights of the child THE CHILD HAS A RIGHT TO DEVELOP TO MATURITY Knowledge is secondary. The aim of instruction is to give the child a means of acquiring knowledge which will serve later in life. TEACH THE CHILD TO THINK and acquire the wisdom needed to adapt to changing cirumstances.Condillac) These same ideas are expressed by all those subscribing to school reform...

Sixteenth century.

Montaigne described teaching methods of the sixteenth century..."'Tis the custom of pedagogues to be eternally thundering in their pupils' ears, as they were pouring into a funnel, whilst the business of the pupil is only to repeat what the others have said: now I would have a tutor to correct this error, and that at the very first he should, according to the capacity he has to deal with, put it to the test, permitting his pupil himself to taste things, and of himself to discern and choose them, sometimes opening the way to him, and sometimes leaving him to open it for himself." (Michel Eyquem de Montaigne (1533-1592) Of the Education of Children. The Essays, volume 25, The Great Books of the Western World, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1952)

 Traditional emphasis of the Christian Church was on the 'evil' in human nature. It was believed that children had to be saved through baptism. Rigid control and manipulation of children resulted from the belief in their inherent evil nature. The belief in their inherent evil nature resulted in rigid control and manipulation of children. (We know today that the so-called 'evil' of human nature results from the failure of the human being to achieve 'self-actualisation' - realization of human potential - the failure to achieve 'humanness'... it is the basic right of the human being to develop their humanity. Every individual's responsibility is to himself... to develop his humanness. By respecting his own humanity, the individual can respect the humanity of others.)

 Aquinas compared the art of teaching with the art of healing. Both arts are cooperative. Both succeed as "ministers of nature which is the principal actor....This conception of teaching as a cooperative art, analagous to medecine or agriculture, underlies the principles of pedagogy in the Great Didactic of Comenius. " (381) Implies the concept of learning by discovery, and from experience. Discussion of the learning process involves the moral and emotional aspects of the relationship between student and teacher. "Without interest, learning seldom takes place, or if it does, it cannot rise above the level of rote memory." (381)

Throughout the Middle Ages, educational theory was formulated on the basis of the principles and beliefs of Christianity. According to Christian belief there was a dichotomy between the 'temporal life' and the 'spiritual life...the material world was antagonistic to the spiritual world The Christian worldview was based on a dichotomous perception of the human personality or 'human nature'. Human nature was viewed in terms of the 'temporal life' of the material world and the 'spiritual life' of the spiritual  world. The material world and the temporal life was described as 'profane' because it was believed to be the source of sin or 'evil'. The profanity of the temporal life was described in terms of mindless, amoral and non-religious matters.  The spiritual life was described as ineffable or 'divine' because it was believed to be the source of human mind and consciousness. The divinity of the spiritual life was valued as the domain of thought, consciousness, morality and religion. The principle of the inner life and seat of human spiritual life was known as the 'source of true life', 'direct emanation of the divine' or the 'soul'. The most common rite was an internal meditation and self-reflection known as 'prayer'. 

In seventeenth century Europe the aims of education were formulted in the context of the belief system of Christianity... knowledge of the classics... 'classical education'....  Emphasis was placed on the development of the so-called 'spiritual' or 'religious' life. Children were educated for the 'morality' of the spiritual life and not for the 'profanity' of the temporal life. The source of religion and morality was believed to be the domain of the mind and children were not educated for preparation for a future in the material world or for any form of civil life.

It was in the context of this belief system that modern educational theory had its beginnings.

 Educational theory according to beliefs of sixteenth century Christianity

    Pioneer of modern educational science: Comenius (1592-1670)

Comenius combined Christianity with humanism to produce an educational theory which was realistic for develpment of the whole person for the whole of life. New education in the world of nature or 'natural science'

"The logical relationship whereby things are united with one another are the nuts and bolts which hold together the different elements of the system and provide it with stability. When schools mold the man let them mold him in the totality of his being in such a way that he will have mastery over the functions which it will be incumbent upon him to perform in this life and that he will be ready for eternal life... Let nothing be included unless it has genuine usefulness for this and the future life." (Comenius. The Great Didactic, Magna Didactica 1657)

Comenius... the first holistic educator The first educational theorist to protest against classical education was Raticus or Ratke. Ratke's successor the illustrious priest Amos Comensky was known by the Latinised form of his name Comenius. Comenius' ideas were consistent with the widespread feeling for a need to break away from the educational theories based on the Christianity of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance i.e. 'classical education'.  He brought about changes in the educational system... reorganized the state school system in Sweden in 1638 and established a model school in Hungary in 1650. His idea for a new education was formulated in terms of the belief in the loss of knowledge as the means of recovering the primitive purity which was lost with the so-called 'original sin'. ...his ideas formed the basis of a new educational theory based on the need for children to be educated for the world of things... the material world of nature... 'reality'. His theory was described in The Great Didactic (Magna Didactica) to show "the art of readily and solidly teaching all men all things." In the Great Didactic Comenius introduced the value of knowledge of the 'real world' of natural sciences. He claimed that people needed to learn not only from books but from their own observations of actual things in nature - the sky, the land, the trees etc. His ideas formed the basis of a new 'science of education' and he became known as the 'pioneer of modern educational science'.

"When schools mold the man let them mold him in the totality of his being in such a way that he will have mastery over the functions which it will be incumbent upon him to perform in this life and that he will be ready for eternal life." (Comenius) 

Comenius used the metaphor of the tree as life and compared the growth of a child to the growth of a tree... Like the growth of the tree, the growth of the child depends on the right conditions  As the outer qualities of the tree... growth of a tree depends on the quality of internal conditions... inner condition so in the same way, the outer qualities of a person's life - actions, achievements, relations with the world - growth and success depends on their inner consciousness state which in turn depends on the level of inner development which they have reached... the quality of the person's inner life or 'mind'. If life is represented by the tree, then the various aspects of life - family, occupation, health, friendship, education - can be represented by branches. As the health of the branches depends on the nourishment provided at the root roots (minerals water) so healthy growth of a child depends on proper nourishment (spiritual love) provided at the inner core or 'root' of human nature.

Comenius understood the role of the 'organic' and 'affective' factors in the development of intellectual faculties... implies the concept of learning by discovery, and from experience. Discussion of the learning process involves the moral and emotional aspects of the relationship between student and teacher. "Without interest, learning seldom takes place, or if it does, it cannot rise above the level of rote memory."

He applied his principles to the teaching of the seven-year old son of the duke de Parme.

"The growth of a tree is dependent on its hidden inner aspect. The growth and success of a person's life depends on his inner development, the state of consciousness. If life is the tree, the various aspects of life - family, occupation, health, friendship, education - are the branches. The quality of a person's outer life - actions, achievements, relations with the world - depends on the inner life - the mind - in the same way as the branches of a tree depend on the roots. For healthy branches, nourishment (water, minerals) is provided at the root... ...in all the operations of nature, development is from within. A tree, that is nourished by the rain of heaven and the moisture of the earth, assimilates its nutriment, not through its outer bark, but through the pores of its innmost parts. On this account the gardener waters, not the branches, but the roots." (J.A. Comenius The Great Didactic cited in Classics in Education Wade Baskin ed., New York: Philosophical Library, l966)

  The inner core of human nature is the source of moral development... development of moral consciousness or 'conscience'. The conscience is the 'human spirit' or 'soul'. Development of conscience is the source of 'morality'.

Comenius' principles in his own words

First, "If the educatior of the young give special attention to the roots of knowledge, the understanding, these will soon impart their vitality to the stem, that is to the memory and finally blossoms and fruits, that is to say, a facile use of language and practical capacity will be produced." (learning for understanding)

Second, "Nature in its formative processes, begins with the universal and ends with the particular. From this it follows that it is a mistake to teach the several branches of science in detail before a general outline of the whole realm of knowledge has been placed before the student, and that no one should be instructed in such a way as to become proficient in any one branch of knowedge without thoroughly understanding its relation to all the rest." ('systems approach')

 "The logical relationship whereby things are united with one another are the nuts and bolts which hold together the different elements of the system and provide it with stability." ("Scholae dum hominem formant, totaliter forment ut parem negotiis hujus vitae ipsique aeternitati aptum reddant") (Magna Didactica)

Third, "Nature begins by a careful selection of materials. It follows from this that it is best to devote the mind to the pursuit of wisdom while it is still fresh." (pursuit of wisdom)

 Fourth, "Nature prepares its material so that it actually strives to attain the form" Any living thing "displays a keen desire to fulfill all its natural functions, though throughout the whole process of development it advances step by step." (developmental stages)

 Fifth, "Nature develops everything from beginnings which, though insignificant in appearance, possess great potential strength... Instruction rests on a very small number of principles from which an unlimited number of results can be deduced."

Sixth, "Nature does not hurry but advances slowly." It is foolish to try to teach more than the pupils can assimilate.

Seventh, "Nature compels nothing to advance that is not driven forward by its own mature strength.""Nothing should be taught to the young unless it is not only permitted but actually demanded by their age and mental strength. Nothing should be learned by heart that has not been thoroughly grasped by the understanding . (respect for growth stages )

Eighth, Nature assists its operations in every possible manner. It is cruelty on the part of a teacher if he set his pupils work to do without first explaining it to them thoroughly, or showing them how it should be done, and if he does not assist them in their first attempts." (facilitative teaching)

 Ninth, "Nothing is produced by nature of which the practical application is not soon evident" "Those things only should be taught whose practical application can be easily demonstrated" (value of pragmatism)

"Let nothing be included unless it has genuine usefulness for this and the future life." ("Nihil tractetur nisi quod solidissimum habeat usum ad dhanc et futuram vitam.)

Tenth, "Nature produces nothing that is useless..."Schools must therefore be organised in such a way that the scholars learn nothing but what is of value."

Comenius believed in the principle that 'science' constitutes the unifying theme in the study of the world. ("Rationes sunt istsi clavi, istae fibulae...quae rem faciunt firmiter haerere." (Magna Didactica)

Comenius' principles of education are still valid today - learning for understanding, systems approach to learning, pursuit of wisdom, developmental stages, facilitative teaching, value of pragmatism, respect for growth stages. 'holistic education'

Children were regarded as miniature adults...as early as the very young age of seven or eight, children were expected to reason, to accept responsibility and to plan for their own survival. According to the philosophy of the traditional education, children had to be 'taught' the values which are admired by adults.

 For an eloquent picture of love between student and teacher, see the courtesies between Dante and Virgil in the Divine Comedy... the student is respectful of the teacher and the teacher respects the student's mind.

A liberal education involving student teacher relationship of mutual respect involves a natural development of the intellect and the character. The learning process involves the total development of the mind - the simultaneous development of both intellectual and moral aspects of the individual's humanity. Teaching of moral virtues is implicit in the disciplined learning process which is involved with the pursuit of truth.

 The recognition of the child as a unique entity is relatively recent in Western culture. (Phillipe Aries, Centuries of Childhood, New York: Knopf, 1962)

 A concern with the state of childhood began with the advent of the Industrial Revolution. A new awareness grew out of the psychological and cultural framework of nineteenth century Europe and America.

Claparede ...observed that his four and a half year old son could remember and recognize, even after six months, the written form of songs which he liked, without being able to read text or music. Describing it in his l908 publication entitled "Archives of Psychology", he called the phenomenon "syncretic perception," a term he borrowed from Renan who had established in The Future of Science that the human mind progressed through three stages: "syncretism, analysis, synthesis." In his work entitled "The Future of Science" he stated that "primitive man sees things in their natural state, organic and living. Nothing is abstract. Abstracting is dividing life into parts."  According to Renan the complexity of children's perception is likened to the complexity of the perception of primitive man.

Discussion of the learning process involves the moral and emotional aspects of the relationship between student and teacher. "Without interest, learning seldom takes place, or if it does, it cannot rise above the level of rote memory."

According to Docteur Edouard Claparede, Dr. Decroly changed the school (in Belgium) dramatically. "...d'une prison de l'enfance, il a fait un petit paradis."("L'ecole pour la vie, par la vie et Ovide Decroly" by Jeanne Jadot-Decroly et Jean-Emile Segers , Brussels translated from book: Dr. Ovide Decroly, Ed. Albert Decordier, Amicale Rijksbasisonderwijs, Renaix, Belgium (78-85) The comprehension of young children starts out by being "syncretique" which means the child differentiates the groups when analysis and synthesis are still not possible. It is this aspect of mental activity which Decroly called "the function of globalisation." He studied this phenomenon with Mademoiselle Julia Degand, his first collaborator

.  Eighteenth century

 "During the eighteenth century, the ideas of freedom, democracy and self-determination were proclaimed by progressive thinkers; and by the first half of the 1900s these ideas came to fruition in the field of education. The basic principles of such selfdetermination was the replacement of authoriity by freedom to teach the child without the use of force, by appealing to his curiosity and spontaneous needs, and thus to get him interested in the world around him. This attitude marked the beginning of progressive education and was an important step in human development....For almost a century, the answer for qualtity education has been available. In education, intellectual education is not enough. Education is for both intellectual and emotional development. Education for maturity as well as knowledge is the only protection against abusive manipulation of the public mind." (Erich Fromm Preface to Sumerhill)

The philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) resisted the materialistic worldview which was gaining in importance in the eighteenth century. He warned of the dangers to development of spirituality...the vital human qualities - required for rational demands of the 'social contract'. Rousseau believed that children were innately good and needed only to be freed from the contamination of civilization for their true nature to be exposed... wrote Emile in l862. His views were misunderstood as idealistic and sentimental. "It is well that experimental schools remain outside the authoritarian influence of the state school system".

DENIS DIDEROT  Denis Diderot (1713-1784) In 1749 Diderot wrote Letter on the Blind. Extract from Letter on the Blind ...our moral and metaphysical ideas depend on the state of our organism.. la' morale'

 (The French word 'morale' is defined as the 'collection of rules and values which function as the norms of a 'society'...'ensemble des regles d'action et des valeurs qui fonctionnent comme normes d'une societe' "Petit Lariousse en couleurs Paris: Larousse).... the morals.. ethics of a blind person are not the same as the 'ethics morale' of a seeing person. This notion of 'relativity of la morale' ...contradicts the Christian concept according to which la morale results from a revelation and is thus universal...the proof of the existence of God by the marvels of nature has no sense...it is not valid for everyone...see the 'aveugles-nees'.

In 1751 he wrote Letter on Deaf Mutes. Diderot conceived of a project to study the senses - Study of the Senses. "My idea would be to decompose a man so to speak, and examine what he derives from each of the senses with which he is endowed." 

The project of analysing each sense separately was carried out by Etienne Condillac (1714-1780)...a contemporary of Diderot.

 Condillac (1715-1780)  He defined the conditions for a scientific pedagogical base for the understanding of the child,

The aim of education is to help the child methodically through the stages of development from within, towards the full development of his faculties and intelligence.

  He claimed that the central interest of education reform... the function of education ...should be the proper socialization and full development of the child.

Etienne Bonot Condillac was the son of a government official of Grenoble.

In 1746 he wrote his Essay on the Origin of Human Knowledge: Being a Supplement to Mr. Locke's Essay on Human Understanding. (Essai sur l'Origine des Connaissances Humaines 1746). New York, New York: AMS Press, 1974)

 Condillac carried out a project in which he analysed each sense separately. In 1754 he wrote and published A Treatise on Sensations in which he concluded that all of the senses are of equal value in obtaining knowledge of the world... that with one sense alone the understanding has as many faculties as with the five senses joined together! The other senses did not add any thing that was qualitatively new to the properties of the mind... they added in degree only and not in kind, to the sensations and ideas produced by a single impression... Thus they simply enlarged the sphere of its understanding. Impressions from the different sense organs were blended together by a kind of mechanical mixing which depended on experience, but the resultant sensation and its corresponding idea differed in degree only and not in kind from the sensation and idea produced by a single impression.

The task of the educator is to assure a child's development of sensory perceptions.

His 'thought experiment': man is a statue equipped with only one of the five senses. With the sense of smell, the sensation of smell would generate ideas of smell. The persistence of the ideas of smell would consitute memory and the combination of those ideas would form knowledge.

Condillac's principles of the new education summarized: Development of the individual according to his own nature and the inculcation of knowledge required for socialization.

The problem par excellence of the new education was as follows: instead of focusing on methods of teaching and the subject matter, focus on the person. The child has a right to develop to maturity. Knowledge is secondary. The aim of instruction is to give the child a means of acquiring knowledge which will serve later in life. Teach the child how to think in order to acquire the wisdom needed to adapt to changing circumstances. These same ideas are expressed by all those subscribing to school reform.

 Followers of Condillac included his disciple Dr. Jean Itard (1775-1838) ...doctor for the deaf...the work of Dr. Jean Itard, and his account of the abnormal child found in the woods. 'sauvage de l'Aveyron', a ten-year old feral or 'wolf-child' found in forests of Aveyron France in 1798... shortly after the French Revolution... trained him for five years. The progress he made was inspiring...Itard showed that mental development is impaired without human contact... In l80l Itard wrote "Education d'un Homme Sauvage" (Dr. J.M. Itard Rapports et Memoires sur le Savage de l'Aveyron, l'Idiotie et la Surdi-mutite, Paris 1807 (English translation by George and Muriel Humphrey, Century, New York, 1932)  His studies showed that language and social context are necessary for the complete development of a child's intelligent socialisation and intellectual faculties. Seguin studied the education of idiots and backward children. He settled in New York in l863 and died there in l880.

 Itard's companion Etienne Edouard Seguin (born 1812),Seguin is considered to be the father of special education.

Seguin a student of Seguin- Maria Montessori were inspired by the work of Dr. Jean Itard. Montessori based her new method on the idea of knowledge through the senses first formulated by Condillac,

her contemporary Ovide Decroly.

 Nineteenth century

Nineteenth century theories of children were largely based on adult experience. The impact of Freud's theory of child sexuality led to confusion about the real nature of the child. Freud's theory of personality has brought to light previously unknown features of human development... Freud's scientific discoveries made us aware of the unconscious level of the human 'mind.'...

 Psychoanalysis has established the influence of the infantile character in the formation of the adult character. Those patterns of adaptation established in the child's early years persist in the adult personality even if they are inadequate to cope with the adult's life situation.(77)

 (For a lucid account of insights of psychoanalysis see Anna Freud, Normality and Pathology in Childhood: Assessments of Childhood. New York: International Universities Press, 1966)

 A new awareness grew out of the psychological and cultural framework of nineteenth century Europe and America.

 JOHANN FRIEDRICH HERBART (1776-1841) German philosopher, psychologist and educational theorist. His legacy has been the development of a more scientific approach to the education of children. His thesis: the aim of education is morality, meaning good character, and social adjustment. He rejected the traditional doctrines of faculties (?) and the doctrine of innate ideas. He conceived the process of education as beginning with the 'apperceptive masses' acquired by the child through experiences and social intercourse. "Young people should be given the broadest possible range of experience so that they will develop 'many-sidednes of interests'. Morality (character) and many-sidedness of interests constitute the complete objectives of education, for they embrace the development of insight, maturity of judgement, and inner control, the cultivation of proper interests, and the introduction of the child to life in all its phases." (Baskin note p. 260)

End of the l9th century, trend started on the scientific study of the child. First objective study of the child by the German Freyer "l'ami de l'enfant"

 Stanley Hall, American, l893 student of Freyer coined the term 'pedology' meaning the study of all aspects of the child.

 The theory goes that "ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny" the individual recapitulates the species. This opinion has been accepted by numerous authors since Rousseau, Lessing, Herder, Goethe etc. Hegel expressed it thus: the individual must find the stages of civilisation already travelled by the universal spirit. The remarks of Claparede and Renan correlate with Stanley Hall's theory of recapitulation. This phenomenon is particularly common to visual perception and activities, (by looking very briefly, we can perceive events), perception of sounds (by listening, we recognize situations creating a particular sound), and perception of objects through cutaneous and motor sensations (by feeling, we recognize forms in the dark). The theory of recapitulation naturally suggests the idea of comparing the child with the present 'primitive', since the state of the latter recalls in some way that of the young child. Based on the works of Levy-Bruhl and other authors, one is tempted to accept a certain identity between infantile thought and that of the 'primitive'. It is certain that the facts observed with such care by Piaget tend towards this perspective. But, with Piaget himself, we do not conclude that the child is identical with the 'primitive', nor that the 'primitive' is comparable in all respects to the child.

These perspectives were combined with ideas of numerous pedagogues and psychologists of the end of the nineteenth and beginning of the twentieth centuries. The common effect of all these notions, to reach a better understanding of the child in order to elaborate a concept of education which respects the child's mental possibilities and the child's affective and physical needs. Everywhere one hopes to effectively mobilise the attention and the activity of the student. In order to reach these objectives, the school must adapt to the students, articulating the educational strategy starting from their interests instead of the preoccupation with the transmission of subject matter. A child centered education...

 BINET in Paris invented intelligence test l9ll. He founded a society for the psychological study of the child GLAZER in Hamburg l908 said the child must be the guide ROSSGER in Liepzig said education must be based on knowledge of progressive evolution of the young; one must regard the work from the point of view of the child the aim of education should be the 'epanouissement de l'etre"

 Disciples of Decroly ROMME and ROELS: see their projects on Decroly principles of scientific pedagogy. All these innovations practically disappeared for having given children too much freedom. They were repressed by authoritarian political regimes.

 PESTALOZZI AIMS OF EDUCATION FOR NEW SCHOOLS There have been many attempts by educationists to define the fundamental aim of education. These include l.learning to know 2. learning to do make a list of aims stated by people, say who, when and under what circumstances. According to Badley and the 'new schools', THE FUNDAMENTAL PURPOSE OF EDUCATION IS LEARNING TO LIVE.

 JOHN DEWEY See Dewey :"How We Think" Global perception and mental activity (l'activite globalisatrice) In l9ll the first international congress of pedagogy with Decroly the president, activities interrupted by l9l4-l9l8 War l921 Congress an International League for new education was founded led to intense movement for the renovation of official schools; renovation of the school system. In Italy Montessori. John Dewey visited Turkey and schools adopted Decroly method. l896 The Active School-Dewey- inspirational idea for the American public Disciples of Decroly

It is well that experimental schools remain outside the authoritarian influence of the state school system. RENAN According to Renan the complexity of children's perception is likened to the complexity of the perception of primitive man.

 Montessori and Decroly were the founders of the new, new education of the 20th century called the century of the child. Starting with the study of the 'abnormal' child, they combined techniques of their precursors with their own inventions.

 Decroly had faith in reason and the rational means of resolving problems. That is why education is the terrain for preparing for the future if it is conducted according to the right principles, which means that it is based on an objective knowledge and understanding of the child.

 Montessori's 'absorbent mind' in children refers to their spiritual ability.

 Difference between Montessori and Piaget (Geneva School): Concept of 'readiness for learning':  Piaget "emphasizes the maturational development of the child through the stages of preoperational, operational, and formal operational thinking. The child is considered 'ready' to learn any subject at any age, providing it is approached on the right level.

Montessori also recognized maturational stages of development - the 'sensitive 'periods which include physical, emotional and cognitive development. She was less interested in defining these stages than in meeting the needs of the child which they represented. She did not consider whether a child was 'ready' to learn any particular subject, but rather devised her materials solely to meet the recognizable needs of the child during various sensitive periods. The phrase 'readiness for learning' is not used in Montessori education. Instead "aiding the child's development in its sensitive periods." (Editor Paula Polk Lillard p. 72) (Montessori lectured at the Dutch Montessori Society in Utrecht)

Dewey :"How We Think" Global perception and mental activity (l'activite globalisatrice)

 MEDICI l940 "l'education nouvelle: ses fondateurs, sa evolution" Presses Universitaires Paris, France

  The Absorbent Mind. Translated from Italian by Claude A. Claremont. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston 1967.

 First fomulate a philosophical position as a basis for formulating a position of education and pedagogy.

 See Dewey :"How We Think" Global perception and mental activity (l'activite globalisatrice)

 In l9ll the first international congress of pedagogy with Decroly the president, activities interrupted by l9l4-l9l8 War l921 Congress an International League for new education was founded led to intense movement for the renovation of official schools; renovation of the school system. In Italy Montessori. John Dewey visited Turkey and schools adopted Decroly method. l896 The Active School-Dewey- inspirational idea for the American public Disciples of Decroly ROMME and ROELS: see their projects on Decroly principles of scientific pedagogy. All these innovations practically disappeared for having given children too much freedom. They were repressed by authoritarian political regimes.

  BAIN coined the term 'science of education'

When she began his work with children, there were already important efforts being made to bring about fundamental reforms in ducation all over the world. Basing her new method on the idea of knowledge through the senses first formulated by Condillac, Dr. Montessori stated that children first perceive the qualities of objects.

In his observations of children, Decroly concluded that the child first perceived the object itself as a whole (perception globale) and only later was able to make an analysis about its qualities. Observing that children first read a word as a whole, he based his new method on the notion of perception of the whole and formulated the 'global method' for teaching reading.

Montessori was inspired by the work of Dr. Jean Itard and his account of the 'sauvage de l'Aveyron', a 'wolf-child' found in the woods shortly after the French Revolution. (Mario Montessori Education for Human Development 48)

 BINET in Paris invented intelligence test l9ll. He founded a society for the psychological study of the child

GLAZER in Hamburg l908 said the child must be the guide

ROSSGER in Liepzig said education must be based on knowledge of progressive evolution of the young; one must regard the work from the point of view of the child the aim of education should be the 'epanouissement de l'etre"

"Good character is necessary for effective learning. Without character there is no 'drive' or concentration. With concentration, the child interacts with his environment. Without the power of concentration, the individual becomes enslaved by the environment. With concentration comes perseverence. The unfolding of character is entirely natural - with critical periods like the period of cocoon construction in the caterpillar. The critical period for character formation is between ages three and six - called the 'constructive' period. "The child's own strongest instinct is to free himself from adult control." It is not a matter of 'will' but a natural 'law'. The natural laws of growth and formation are to be respected for children to build character, the inner self. Character building is a matter of natural creation, not education. (Maria Montessori. The Absorbent Mind p.218)

DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN AUTHORITY AND AUTHORITARIANISM

 HISTORY OF EDUCATION FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT The recognition of the child as a unique entity is relatively recent in Western culture. (Phillipe Aries, Centuries of Childhood, New York: Knopf, 1962) Children were regarded as miniature adults. As early as seven or eight they were expected to reason, to accept responsibility and to plan for their own survival.

 FREUD ON WORK as A HUMAN PHENOMENON Sigmund Freud. Civilization and Its Discontents. standard ed., vol. 21, London: Hogarth Press, 1953 see page 59. He writes "After primal man had discovered that it lay in his own hands, literally, to improve his lot on earth by working, it cannot have been a matter of indifference to him whether another man worked with him or against him. The other man acquired the value for him of a fellow worker, with whom it was useful to live together."

 The 'new education movement' in Europe was founded at the beginning of the 20th century  by doctor/anthropologist Maria Montessori and doctor/pedagogue Ovide Decroly. The new education was based on scientific studies of children. According to the new education philosophy, educational methodology should be based on the discovery and formulation of the natural laws  of human growth and development. The legitimate function of teachers and the schools is to facilitate learning and haracter building through work activities which constitute natural  interaction with the environment.c

"Ignorance, poverty and crime in society will not be solved by more of the same 'old education' - forcing children to learn under the systematic repression of adult-controlled instruction. Despite the billions of dollars and lip service efforts at 'reform' this type of traditional education remains as ever a part of the problem - not the solution. Instead, we must create a 'new education' to free the human spirit - true education which is based entirely on fundamental principles of nature." Illich

JOHN DEWEY See Dewey :"How We Think" Global perception and mental activity (l'activite globalisatrice) In l9ll the first international congress of pedagogy with Decroly the president, activities interrupted by l9l4-l9l8 War l921 Congress an International League for new education was founded led to intense movement for the renovation of official schools; renovation of the school system. In Italy Montessori. John Dewey visited Turkey and schools adopted Decroly method. l896 The Active School-Dewey- inspirational idea for the American public Disciples of Decroly

Montessori and Decroly were the founders of the new, new education of the 20th century called the century of the child. Starting with the study of the 'abnormal' child, they combined techniques of their precursors with their own inventions. Decroly's is the best method.

 HISTORY OF 'FREE' EDUCATION LEADING UP TO DECROLY MEDICI l940 "l'education nouvelle: ses fondateurs, sa evolution" Presses Universitaires Paris, France

PESTALOZZI AIMS OF EDUCATION FOR NEW SCHOOLS

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY NEW EDUCATION

Aries, Phillipe. Centuries of Childhood, New York: Knopf, 1962 Baskin, W.(ed.),

 Classics in Education. New York: Philosophical Library, 1966.

Bruner, Jerome. Process of Education. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1966

. Bruner, Jerome Toward a Theory of Instruction, Cambridge, Mass: Belknap Press, Harvard University Press, 1966

 Comenius, John Amos. The Science of Education from The Great Didactic. edited by M.W. Keating. London: Adam and Charles Black,

 1896 Comenius, J.A. "The Great Didactic" in Classics in Education Wade Baskin ed., New York: Philosophical Library, l966 Durkheim, Emile. 1938.

The Evolution of Educational Thought, London: Routledge& Kegan Paul. Translated by Peter Collins Freud, Anna. Normality and Pathology in Childhood: Assessments of Childhood. New York: International Universities Press, 1966 (A lucid account of the insights of psychoanalysis).

Fuller, Buckminster. An Appreciation of Montessori, Buckminster Fuller, 1975.

Leroy, G. The Psychology of Condillac Harris. Education and Knowledge: The Structured Misrepresentation of Reality. London, Boston and Henley: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

 1979 Hirsch, E.D. 'Fragmented Curriculum' in Cultural Literacy and the Schools, Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co. Illich Deschooling Society Marzano, Robert J. et al. Dimensions of Thinking: A Framework for Curriculum and Instruction. Alexandria, Va: Associaton for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1988

 Mason, Stephen. A History of the Sciences, Collier Books, A division of Macmillan Publishing Co. NY 1962. See page 321 on New York, New York: AMS Press, 1974 Medici l940 "l'education nouvelle: ses fondateurs, sa evolution" Presses Universitaires Paris, France Miller, Helena.

 "A Proposal for the Improvement of Education in America," The American Biology Teacher, vol 27, no. 1 January 1965.

Montaigne, Michel Eyquem de...(1533-1592) Of the Education of Children. The Essays, volume 25, The Great Books of the Western World, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1952

Montessori. To Educate the Human Potential.Adyar, Madras, India: Kalakshetra Publications, 1961.

 Maria Montessori Montessori Method Montessori, Maria. The Absorbent Mind. Translated from Italian by Claude A. Claremont. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston 1967. (Montessori's term 'absorbent mind' in children refers to the ability in children for their own spiritual development.)

Montessori, Maria. Education and Peace, Chicago: Regnery, 1972 Montessori, Mario. Education for Human Development, New York: Schocken Books, Ed. Paula Polk Lillard 1976.

Montessori, Mario. An Appreciation of Montessori, Buckminster Fuller, 1975. Montessori, M. Childhood to Adolescence, New York: Schocken Books, 1973

Maria Montessori. To Educate the Human Potential. Adyar, Madras, India: Kalakshetra Publications, 1961. Montessori, Maria. 1936. The Secret of Childhood. Orient Longmans, Bombay, Calcutta. Madras, 1951 1st ed. Longmans Green & Co. Ltd., London. 1936 Neff, Walter. Work and Human Behavior. New York: Atherton Press, 1968 Rogers, Carl. Freedom to Learn. Columbus, Ohio: Charles Merrill Publishing Co. 1969

 Medici "l'Education Nouvelle: Ses Fondateurs, Sa Evolution" (The New Education: Its Founders and its Evolution) Presses Universitaires Paris, France l940)

Mario Montessori Education for Human Development

  A History of the Sciences, Stephen Mason, Collier Books, A division of Macmillan Publishing Co. NY 1962. See page 321 on Condillac