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                       A SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY  INTO THE RATIONAL BASIS FOR

                                                          HOLISTIC EDUCATION     

                        The biological basis of human nature, human values and human education or

                                                   'PSYCHOBIOLOGY OF PEDAGOGY'

  "A scientific inquiry should be characterized by a faith in the truth of a rational vision; faith in the hypothesis as a likely and plausible proposition; faith in the final theory ...This faith is rooted in one's own experience, in the confidence in one's power of thought, observation and judgement... rational faith is rooted in an independent conviction based upon one's own productive observing and thinking." (Erich Fromm, Man For Himself 205)                                                                                                                                                                                                 

Chapters:

"Is there some sense in which principles of pedagogy can be derived from our knowledge of man as a species - from knowledge of his characteristic growth and dependence, of the properties of his nervous system, of his modes of dealing with culture?" (Jerome Bruner (1971) Relevance of Education. p.118)

Part I The human organism is a social organism which depends for survival on accurate perception of reality i.e. 'intelligence'in order to adapt to changing environmental conditions i.e. 'adaptabiliy'.

             chapter 1. Definition of Science: science as a human activity involving perception as a function of human consciousness. ... 'scientific method' as manifestation of species maturity... limited cognition of 'immaturity'...

Part II

Perception of 'reality' is a function of human consciousness and therefore a function of human growth and development.

             chapter 2.  Science of man:  the human organism as a social organism:  human nature defined in terms of human development in the context of freedom.

 An inquiry into the 'science of man' is also an inquiry into the 'science of ethics' and therefore forms the basis for a valid theoretical construction of a 'rational ethics'.

              chapter 3. Science of ethics: Human development and human values as 'operative values'... natural valuing process is function of  as a part of normal human development... moral development as development of moral consciousness or 'conscience'.

Part III

Normal human development depends on appropriate conditions for proper development of the 'mind'i.e. 'education'.

              chapter 4. Science of education:

Part IV

Education as instruction is a function of culture and therefore has a political function . The growth of the individual depends on the extent to which the culture facilitates the growth process.

             chapter 5. American cultural context

             chapter  6. American education...  

             chapter 7. American 'educational crisis

             chapter 8. Paradigm shift

Part V Normal human growth depends on conditions provided by an education which is based on the real understanding of 'human nature'. Complete 'humanness' depends on the fulfillment of developmental human needs... including the 'higher' psychological needs or 'metaneeds'. Denial or frustration of human needs and human yearnings leads to psychopathology and human wickedness or 'evil'.

            chapter 9. 'holistic education'  as education for 'wholeness of mind'... for moral development...  for understanding which depends on goodness or 'virtue'...

             chapter 10. new education

             chapter 11. 'biological model': Dr. Ovide Decroly (1871-1932)

Holistic education is validated by brain research or 'neuroscience'. Teaching methods are effective because they comply with the natural holistic functioning of the brain and the learning process become an integral part of personal growth and  development.

Part VI

            chapter 12. Holistic education as natural education:  brain as organ of the 'mind'... biology of learning... 'brain-based learning'...

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     home                         introduction                     biographical statement

  Part I Chapter 1  'Science' as a human activity involving perception as a function of human consciousness.

What is a 'science'? "Any 'science' is a 'science' because it brings to our awareness an aspect of nature which exists already but the existence of which we were unaware before the 'science' discovered it and made us aware of it. In the 'science of 'physics' Newton  made us aware of the force of gravity. Like other 'sciences, the 'science' of creative intelligence brings to our awareness the existence of an aspect of human nature which already exists. Freud's scientific discoveries made us aware of the unconscious level of the human 'mind.'"

Science as philosophy:  look at the history of science from the holistic perspective of human development. As human beings living in different periods of human history, philosophers and scientists make their inquiries within the context of a prevailing scientific worldview or 'paradigm'.

Scientific method as maturity... The method of mature science - systematic investigation using experiment - is the 'scientific method'....  manifestation of maturity in human development

Definition of 'science': science is a human activity involving observation and rational analysis. 'Science' is common sense inquiry - the primary tool for thinking - required for survival of the individual and survival of the species... Survival depends on adaptation to changing environmental conditions... i.e. 'adaptability'. Adaptability depends on accurate evaluation of perception of 'reality' or 'intelligence' a function of curiosity and inquiry leading to complete cognition of 'maturity'... rational thought of 'reason'.

"The most recent of the great insights that have invited man to maturity came with the development of science. The scientific method is not commonly regarded as an insight into human nature; but this, in its essence, is what it is. It is a systematized expression of the fact that man is a species capable of transcending his own limitations of sense and of subjectivity."(H. Overstreet The Mature Mind)

 Perception of 'reality' is a function of human consciousness and therefore of human development... Perception of 'reality' (social, philosophical, 'scientific' etc.)  as a function of the individual's level of consciousness or.. level of awareness... awareness of error... a function of the ability to perceive error and to correct for distortion of perception ...'critical consciousness' - a function of human development and extent of psychological, spiritual and therefore 'moral' growth i.e.'sociocognitive stage'. Moral growth is mature growth or 'maturity' a result of  normal  biological and psychological development... also described as 'maturity of mind' (Henry Overstreet)... 'normalisation' (Maria Montessori)... 'self-realisation' (Karen Horney)... 'productive character orientation' (Erich Fromm)... 'personality congruence' (Carl Rogers)...  'individuation' (Carl Yung)... 'self-actualisation' (Abraham Maslow).

 Maturity is characterised by accurate perception of reality i.e. critical consciousness or 'intelligence' - a product of 'freedom to learn and freedom to make mistakes. This is the 'inner freedom' required for adaptation to changing environmental conditions i.e. 'adaptability'... hence the necessity for 'freedom in education'.

 "For adjustment to the environment, one must learn to control and evaluate perceptions, and to extract information necessary for survival. For intellectual and spiritual growth, one must be prepared to change one's ideas in the face of new evidence. People cannot be expected to be confidently adaptable at such a basic level unless they have the security of a stable self-image, a reasoned and realistic awareness of their own powers and their individual worth, tempered by an equal respect for the worth of others." (N. Goble, 'The Changing Role of the Teacher', The Function of Teaching, Paris: UNESCO 1977, 57)

Accurate perception of reality as freedom: (Krishnamurti Total Freedom) Freedom is a function of perception which is free of distorting effects of ignorance and fear...  freedom to learn 'inner freedom' and freedom to make mistakes i.e. 'science'.  Freedom as accurate perception of reality is characteristic of optimal mental health or 'wellness'... a level of consciousness... (Lack of freedom results in neurotic development or 'neurosis' the source of human wickedness or 'evil'  )

  Incomplete or thwarted human development... 'abnormal' development: psychoanalysis as source of knowledge of human nature. The inner biological core of human nature - human values and therefore 'science of ethics' - is revealed and exposed by the 'uncovering therapies' of psychoanalysis.  The overemphasis of traditional psychology on the pathologies, neuroses, psychoses etc. has provided a bundant evidence that men's bad and evil behavior results from frustration in his efforts toward self-actualisation. Providing important data in the search for values, psychoanalysis could be regarded as a significant process in the efforts of philosophers to formulate a 'science of values' or 'science of ethics.'

 "Psychoanalytic therapies help the individual uncover the biologically based intrinsic values with which he naturally prefers to identify. They help the individual to 'search for his identity'... An individual's search for identity is essentially a search for his own intrinsic value system, his own authentic nature, his humanness, the human core which he shares with other members of the human species." (Maslow Psychology of Being p. 177)

 Perception of dichotomies as the 'incomplete' or 'limited cognition' of immature mind... immaturity: "It is as if less developed people lived in an Aristotelian world in which classes and concepts have sharp boundaries, and are mutually exclusive and incompatible, e.g. male-female, selfish-unselfish, adult-child, kind-cruel, good-bad etc. A is A and everything else is not-A in the Aristotelian logic, and never the twain shall meet. But seen by self-actualizing people is the fact that A and not-A interpenetrate and are one, that any person is simultaneously 'good' and 'bad', 'male' and 'female', 'adult' and 'child'. One cannot place a whole person on a continuum, only an abstracted aspect of a person. Wholenesses are non-comparable." (Abraham Maslow. Toward a Psychology of Being. 40)

The immature mind... 'immaturity' ...is the product of thwarted growth psychological development or 'neurosis', psychosis etc... problem of 'evil'...  Immature mind is also a function of  social context ... 'semantics' (Korzybski) and effect of language... its potential for distortion... 'cultural context' ... see American culture- distortion of reality in the cultural myths... 'marketing character orientation' of modern 'economic man'...

"It is important to build a scientific study of 'man-as-a-whole'. Such a study would be possible with the recognition that language is a fundamental psychophysiological function which reflects the structure of the world - the structure of 'reality'." (Korzybski Science and Sanity)

Part II The human organism: chapter 2  'Science of man': human nature can be defined in terms of human development of the human organism as a social organism which depends on spiritual values for social cohesion... 'self-transcendance'. Survival depends on communication via language and spiritual life incorporating the human values.

human instincts are weaker than instincts of other species of animal... the power of language is in the impact on the mind; the product of language is culture... individual in cultural context ... normal psychological development:

 "The old philosophical question 'what is the nature of man?' cannot be answered unless man's conscious mind is expanded to its full capacity. Then the answer can be found scientifically." (Abraham Maslow Toward a Psychology of Being " p.128)  .

Human nature as a function of normal human development in terms of human motives for behaviour or 'human needs'... 'human values'....  human needs as basis for human motiivation...  'lower' psychological needs or 'ego needs'...  'deficiency needs'... 'higher' psychological needs or 'spiritual needs' i.e. 'metaneeds'... 'metamotivation'

 The human is the only species with language... semantics and effect of language the power of language is in the impact of language on the mind can result in psychopathology:

Traditional mistrust of human needs: "Traditionally, throughout the history of philosophy, theology, psychology, natural desires have been considered annoying and even threatening...Theologians, political philosophers and economic theorists have conceived of various strategies to remove, deny or avoid people's 'unwanted' desires and needs. People's happiness has been considered in terms of improving their conditions with a view to eliminating their needs." (Maslow Toward a Psychology of Being p. 28)  

"Human evolution is rooted in man's adaptability and in certain indestructible qualities of his nature which compel him never to cease his search for conditions better adjusted to his intrinsic needs." (Fromm Man For Himself 23).

"The human aspects of human nature did not develop by accident, they developed because they were of survival value." (Eric Kandel. 'Nerve Cells and Behavior' Scientific American. 1970 See Readings from Scientfic American. W.H. Freeman and Co., 1976 278-320)

 "The living human being has, at the outset, a clear approach to values. He prefers some things and experiences and rejects others. We can infer from studying his behaviour that he prefers those experiences which maintain, enhance, or actualize his organism, and rejects those which do not serve this end." (Carl Rogers. Freedom To Learn. Chapter l2 "A modern approach to the valuing process" 242)

 Human survival depends on communication via language and spiritual life - the 'higher level of consciousness - 'transpersonal level'...  . the level of functioning of the 'human values'... the level of optimal well-being or 'wellness'... with optimal mental health and full self-realization ('self-transcendance')..perception of reality is free from distortion. This is 'true freedom'. "In the dimension of perception, attributes of health might include perceptual sensitivity, clarity, and relative freedom from distortion. The individual has the ability to see things as they are, free from distorting influences of desire, aversion, ignorance and fear.

 'The fully realized human is one whose doors of perception have been cleansed.' (See Smith,H "The Sacred Unconscious." In R. Walsh and D.Shapiro eds. "Beyond Health and Normality": Explorations of Extreme Psychological Well-being.) ." (l20)

 "The healthy person's sense of identity would be expected to extend beyond the usual ego self-sense. On one hand we would expect health to be associated with recognizing, owning and integrating the shadow, that component of the psyche comprising attributes judged to be negative and inconsistent with one's self-image. On the other hand we might expect the very healthy to live in the presence of the numinous (filled with a sense of the presence of divinity), the 'sacred unconscious,' the transpersonal self, or pure awareness, and to realize that they are that too." (Walsh 120)

 "...beyond the divisiveness among men there exists a primordial unitive power since we are all bound together by a common humanity more fundamental than any unity of dogma." (Ruth Nanada Anshen in preface to Deschooling Society by Ivan Illich)

 "...our deepest needs are not in themselves dangerous, evil or bad. Consequently we can reject the almost universal mistake that the interests of the individual and of the society are of necessity mutually exclusive and antagonistic, or that civilization is primarily a mechanism for controlling and policing human instinctoid impulses. All of these age-old axioms are swept away by the new possibility of defining the main function of a healthy culture as the fostering of universal self-actualization." (159 Maslow Psychology of Being)

Connection: The problem for a 'science of man' is to formulate a scientific definition of the human personality or 'human nature'. This involves the study of natural valuing processes as part of normal human development i.e. 'science of ethics'

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 chapter 3 The human organism:  SCIENCE OF ETHICS: HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AND NATURAL HUMAN VALUES ...development of valuing process is a function of development of conscience BIOLOGY OF HUMAN VALUES  ... 'natural ethics' or 'rational ethics'

 Organismic valuing process...The 'science of ethics' refers to the study of the development of the individual's intrinsic value system... natural valuing process as a part of normal human development... 'operative values' are related to the organism's inborn capacities and talents... data on the valuing process in the developing human being...

 "The living human being has, at the outset, a clear approach to values. He prefers some things and experiences and rejects others. We can infer from studying his behaviour that he prefers those experiences which maintain, enhance, or actualize his organism, and rejects those which do not serve this end." (Carl Rogers. Freedom To Learn. Chapter l2 "A modern approach to the valuing process" p. 242)

 universal human ethics  human values of human nature or  'natural ethics'... 'humanistic ethics' .. humanistic conscience... valid ethical norms of a naturally human ethics is based on the respect for the dignity of human existence

. 'human values' of naturalistic value system, organismic valuing process... 'operative values'...  humanistic conscience... morality as function of moral development or 'intelligence'...

  "An individual's search for identity is essentially a search for his own intrinsic value system, his own authentic nature, his humanness, the human core which he shares with other members of the human species." (Erich Fromm Man For Himself)

'science of ethics' definition of ethics...  Ethics is defined as both "the science of moral values and duties" and "the study of the ideal human character, actions, and ends". (Webster) Codes of ethics are separate from a universal human ethics... 

 "The word 'ethics' comes from a root which means, originally, custom, and eventually, ethics comes to mean the science dealing with the ideal of human relatedness. This confusion between custom and ideals still exists in the minds of many people... Sometimes the term 'ethics' is used to refer to a code of behavior which is desirable for a given situation. There is a code of medical ethics, business ethics, military ethics. In the great philosophical tradition, "ethics is not a code of behavior valid in reference to this or that person or to this or that situation but to all human beings ...and for everything that is alive... There is only universal human ethics applied to specific human situations. Separated from universal human ethics, a 'code of ethics' for a specific situation can easily degenerate into a code which serves the interests of those within that situation. 'Medical ethics' can become a code of ethics which serves the interests of those in the medical 'profession.' 'Business ethics' can become a code of ethics serving the interests of those in 'business.' Ethics is a matter of 'conscience' - not the authoritarian 'conscience' or 'superego,' the internalized power of the father and 'society.' Ethics is a matter of 'humanistic conscience' - an inner voice that calls us back to ourselves... the inner core common to all men or 'human nature.'" ( Erich Fromm, Man for Himself p.171)

'authoritarian' conscience and authoritarian ethics.

 The problem for a 'science of ethics' is to formulate a scientific definition of man's intrinsic value system... moral consciousness or 'conscience'.

The 'science of ethics' refers to the study of the development of the individual's intrinsic value system..... An individual's value system is the product of the totality of the individual's thought processes within the context of experiences in a changing social environment. The values which form the guidelines for living result from the individual's educational experiences.

  "Happiness is not the reward of virtue but is virtue itself." (Spinoza, Ethics)

 "The looking within for the real self is a kind of 'subjective biology' for it must include an effort to become conscious of one's own constitutional, temperamental, anatomical, physiological and biochemical needs, capacities and reactions i.e. one's biological individuality. It is also the path to experiencing one's specieshood, one's commoness with all other members of the human species. That is, it is a way to experiencing our biological brotherhood with all human beings no matter what their external circumstances." (Maslow Psychology of Being, 185)

Every child is born with the biologically inherent potential for the realization of the natural capacities of a 'productive' character. Human nature as manifested in the full maturation of the naturally inherent potential in the 'productive' character, self-realization, is the aim of natural human development, natural educational process and of natural humanistic ethics. The individual who is mentally and emotionally crippled is incapable of the attitude characteristic of the 'productive' character.

A 'science of man' and science of ethics' constitutes a basis for the formulation of a 'science of education'.

ETHICS IN CULTURAL CONTEXT : individual in cultural context 'conceived' values : correlation between character orientation and social structure

... the product of language is culture...  individual in cultural context...  semantics and effect of language: the power of language is in the impact on the mind... can result in psychopathology:  

 human instincts are weaker than instincts of other species of animal...  human instinct for internalisation of cultural influence...or education as 'instruction' (traditional paradigm)... conditioned 'learning'... 'introjective instinct'... 

 POLITICAL FUNCTION OF EDUCATION  "It is questionable whether pedagogical theory is principally a scientific theory in the explanatory sense... A theory of instruction is a political theory in the proper sense that it derives from consensus concerning the distribution of power within the society - who shall be educated and to fulfill what roles? In the very same sense, pedagogical theory must surely derive from a conception of economics, for where there is division of labor within the society and an exchange of goods and services for wealth and prestige, then how people are educated and in what number and with what constraints on the use of resources are all relevant issues. The psychologist or educator who formulates pedagogical theory without regard to the political, economic and social setting of the educational process courts triviality and merits being ignored in the community and in the classroom." ( Jerome Bruner Relevance of Education 1971 p.100)

Politics of education: cultural values or 'ethics' establish the 'aims of education' "The relations (of ethics) to education are clear. Ethics is central to the educational enterprise since it is concerned with establishing a basis for determining the ends of education, the relation of means and methods to those ends, and a general classification of educational values." (xxi Reginald Archimbault, introduction to Dewey, Philosophy and Education)

 Education for  power as a form of domination: education as expression of power and politics... power as mystification (mythification) of reality: propaganda... 'banking' education as cultivation rrational thinking... declining motivation ... social myth: myths of schooling... Authoritarianism and licence... student-teacher 'contradiction'... 'education industry'... ... problem of motivation ...'brain antagonistic' education-work for extrinsic cultural values extrinsic motivation... leads to reduced motivation... declining motivation...  growing up in American culture: cultural implications of failure in sucess oriented culture 'growing up absurd'... 'reform' as aggravation / continuation of the  educational crisis...

 "If we are to accept our commitments seriously, educators have a special concern for helping us to be liberated from the various conditions that oppress us, particularly those of ignorance and illiteracy. There is a powerful relationship between power and knowledge... People hold on to their domination in part because the oppressed do not have the critical intellectual skills to overcome the powerful continued forces of acculturation which lead the weak to internalize the ideology of the strong." (Freire 1970. Pedagogy of the Oppressed,. Trans. Myra Bergman Ramos, New York: Herder and Herder. 124)

Part III chapter 4. 'science of education' as rational analysis of the human activity of fostering natural human development... 'educating' for human development and human values...

The problem for a 'science of education' is to formulate a scientific definition of the 'aim of education'. ...human activity of 'educating'...'education' to foster natural human development ('holistic education'.)  f. philosophy of education - aims of education 6f. Philosophy of Education There can be no philosophy of education apart from philosophy as a whole. Syntopicon essay 6h Aims of education

 aims of education to foster natural human development

C. the 'new education': education for development of human nature and human values.. .education for development of the mind.... motivation: needs and psychological value of work... metaneeds and metamotivation... individual in cultural context: individual integrity in cultural context requires individual's critical consciousness for accurate perception of reality d. semantics and effect of language

 history of education... philosophy of education:

Traditionally, throughout the history of philosophy, theology, psychology, natural desires have been considered annoying and even threatening. "Theologians, political philosophers and economic theorists have conceived of various strategies to remove, deny or avoid people's 'unwanted' desires and needs. People's happiness has been considered in terms of improving their conditions with a view to eliminating their needs." (Maslow Toward a Psychology of Being 28) 

Connection between science of man, science of ethics and science of education: The guiding principles for formulation of a scientific definition of human nature, ethics and education are found in the natural laws of human development... laws of nature. What are these laws? ....  working for one's personal growth or 'self-actualisation'.

The maintenance of individual integrity in cultural context - 'adaptability' - depends on critical consciousness for accurate perception of reality.

  spontaneous and natural process of  full maturation... self-realisation of the naturally inherent potential of the 'productive' character orientation recognizing its powers, identifying with them and putting them to productive use.

A 'science of ethics' and a 'science of education' are both concerned with the full development of the individual's powers and potentialities in the process of becoming fully human. In order to achieve his full human potential as a human being, the individual is instinctively aware of his own basic biological and psychological needs which must be satisfied in order for him to achieve his full humanness, his potential as a 'whole' human being. Consequently a 'science of ethics' and a 'science of education' both depend on the knowledge of human development for the knowledge of the real needs of the developing human being. Both depend on the 'science of man' (science of human nnature) as a basis for determining what constitutes man's natural and real 'self-interest, his natural interest in his real self, not in terms of material success but in terms of living an ethical life of human fulfillment. The common denominator for the three sciences is the natural process of human development...  perception of 'reality' as function of human development; scientific method as manifestation of maturity in development of the human species

  'Traditional' and 'progressive' education a. 'Banking' versus problem-solving education b. Social myth versus true nature of 'reality' c. Irrational versus rational thinking d. Freedom and authority versus authoritarianism e. Student-teacher 'contradiction' versus 'cooperation'. f. History of progressive education in America g. today's crisis in education  application of wholistic education

 individual in cultural context.... normal psychological development 

"We must not forget that much of what happens in the school is in the context of a larger society in action... the impact of the world beyond the school cannot be underestimated. In terms of immersion and how the brain learns, all of society participates in education. We need to think in new, global ways about education generally." (Caine Making Connections 125)

Connection: Education is a function of culture. Growth of the individual depends on the extent to which the culture facilitates the growth process.

Part IV Education as function of culture... education in 'cultural context'

Instruction is a specialized artifact of human culture. It reflects the species-typical character of human culture and the requirement of passing on that culture by extragenetic means."  Kevin Harris. Education and Knowledge: The Structured Misrepresentation of Reality. p. 118

Education in American cultural context ... AMERICAN CULTURE  American cultural context..

.  "We must not forget that much of what happens in the school is in the context of a larger society in action...the impact of the world beyond the school cannot be underestimated. In terms of immersion and how the brain learns, all of society participates in education. We need to think in new, global ways about education generally." (Caine Making Connections 125)

             chapter 5. American cultural context: a. historical perspective:Protestantism... moralism... capitalism... 'consumer society' and cultural myths... packaging of values  'traditional' paradigm  justified by behaviorism...  'education industry' and myths of schooling... aims of education in terms of political ideology and education for 'citizens of democracy'... 'reform' as counterreform... adult education...  

distorting influences of language and culture American culture- distortion of reality in the myths

 Individual in cultural context - individual in American culture ..: American culture does little to assist the individual's growth. The individual must struggle to grow in spite of the negative forces of capitalism which inhibit individual growth.

concept of 'work' in American culture - Protestant 'work ethic' (Weber Protestantism and Capitalism) Martin Luther translated Latin for 'work' as God's 'calling'...

 individual integrity in cultural context depends on cultivation of critical consciousness for accurate perception of reality and subsequent adaptability.

Traditional education as 'banking education' and social myth which for the cultivation of irrational thinking... 'student-teacher contradiction' "...myths of schooling - nonmaterial needs are transformed into demands for commodities... education is defined in terms of the results of 'services.' Institutions are created for the 'services' required for education. Focusing on the reproduction of the values of a consumer culture, the schools have been unprepared to meet the challenges of a changing global community. The resulting 'educational crisis' has inspired discussion and debate about the wider issues of the nature and purposes of education. (Ivan Illich Deschooling Society)

             chapter  6. American education: historical perspective: 'traditional' education... 'education industry'  'traditional' curriculum - myths of schooling... schools focus on the reproduction of the values of a consumer culture. The values of the consumer culture are institutionalized in the curricula of educational institution

'reform' as counterreform... aims of education - political ideology and education for 'citizens of a democracy'...  behaviorism   'progressive' education... adult education

             chapter 7. American 'educational crisis

             chapter 8 paradigm shift

 "Very important to a 'science of ethics' is the study of the correlation between character orientation and social structure. As well as explaining some of the causes for the formation of character, the study of a specific character orientation which is common to most members of the culture tells us which powerful emotional forces are instrumental in molding the social character and the functioning of the society". (Fromm, Erich.Man for Himself: An Inquiry into the Psychology of Ethics. Holt, Rhinehart and Winston, New York, l947

 To a large extent, it is the cultural norms which determine people's state of awareness and their perception of reality and human nature. Certain states of awareness are appropriate and acceptable for an individual in a given social situation depending on the existent cultural norms with respect to the accepted constructs or paradigms of the culture. Thus the different perspectives of the various 'psychologies' are not to be regarded as contradictory. More likely, they represent different viewpoints emphasizing different dimensions of a complex multidimensional human personality as a whole.   

 Individual in cultural context: distorting influences of language and culture... American culture- distortion of reality in the cultural myths. 

 "...The main function of a healthy culture (is) the fostering of universal self-actualization." (Maslow Toward a Psychology of Being p.15)

'Progressive' movement "From the beginning, the PEA was conscious of being a part of an international movement, and it early sought ties with its counterparts abroad. ...The initial issue of Progressive Education carried accounts of experiments with the Dalton Plan in England and the Decroly Plan in Belgium." (Lawrence Cremin. Transformation of the School: Progressivism in American Education 1876-1957 New York: Vintage Books 1964 page 248)

 American politics and ideals interfere with the aim of education of children which is the complete development of their humanity (mature personality and moral character) so they become autonomous and responsible human beings who know how to live to the fullest, maintaining their desire for learning in order to be able to adapt to a continually changing society and a changing world.

  Chapter 7 EDUCATIONAL CRISIS: 'Educational crisis'

   'education industry' cultural implications of failure in sucess oriented culture 'growing up absurd' g. 'reform' as aggravation /continuation of the 'crisis'  'Banking' education and irrational thinking e. social myth: myths of schooling nonmaterial needs are transformed into demands for commodities; education is defined in terms of the results of 'services.' Institutions are created for the 'services' required for education.top

 Irrational thinking and social myth d. Authoritarianism and student-teacher 'contradiction'  dichotomous concept: individual freedom/social responsibility

 Education for the 'needs' of the society becomes task oriented, lacks vision and wisdom, inhibits intellectual and emotional growth.

Education for the needs of each individual human organism fosters growth and results in vision and wisdom. A wholistic view of education is based on the elimination of dichotomies such as individual/society. Wholistic education based on the biologically based needs and metaneeds of the individual automatically accomodates the needs of the society.

'Banking' education declining motivation (problem of motivation)...Students do not cooperate because they are not encouraged to experience motivation while learning. "You know, kids really like to learn; we just don't like to be pushed around." (sixth grader Anna) "So let's stop pushing them around!" (John Holt. Why Children Fail 180)..

. 'reform' as aggravation and continuation of the 'crisis'...They cannot begin to conceive of educational reform. Under the power of the ritual of the educational 'machine', they remain under the spell of the economy (capitalism- consumerism). Once that spell is broken and only after it is broken, can they reform the educational system within a new paradigm.(Purpel) 

 Connection: need for paradigm shift - institutionalized education with its emphasis on conditioning and behavioral outcomes is no longer relevant in the times of mass communications and the 'global village'.

 chapter 8 PARADIGM SHIFT: Paradigm shift: Mechanistic paradigm to holistic paradigm...

ethics: anti-ecological to anti-ecological to ecological to ecological - wholistic perspective...ethical relativism to universal humanistic ethics  

science:  mechanistic paradigm to wholistic paradigm; reductionist scientific objectivity and dualism 'reductionism' and 'scientism to systems approach and holism and 'holistic science; Newtonian mechanics to quantum theory...

 The scientific study of a holistic reality emphasizes the 'whole-system perspective'... 'global perception'... 'holistic perception'.. 'systems theory' and  'holistic science'... Gaia hypothesis'. This approach requires an understanding of the interrelationships between the parts of the whole system. As an example, the evolution of organisms and the environment can best be understood within the context of a whole system in which the parts develop and evolve together. 

 scientific worldview (implies a rational value system or 'ethics') becomes the basis for philosphical assumptions.

philosophy: organic worldview  "...characterized by the interdependence of spiritual and material phenomena and the subordination of individual needs to those of the community." (Capra Turning Point 12) to mechanical to wholistic (worldview implies a value system)  

"The organic world view of the Middle Ages implied a value system conducive to ecological behavior...The Cartesian view of the universe as a mechanical system provided a'scientific' sanction for the manipulation and exploitation of nature that has become typical of Western culture. Descartes himself shared Bacon's view that the aim of science was the domination and control of nature....." (Capra Turning Point 61)

 psychology: mechanistic paradigm of  behaviorism to holistic paradigm of  transpersonal psychology...

  educational theory ... learning theory... based on theories of psychology

A fundamental shift is taking place in the philosophical paradigm of education. The institutionalized form of education with its emphasis on conditioning, and behavioral outcomes is no longer relevant in the times of mass comunications and the 'global village'...etc. aim of education: development and fulfillment of human potential

 philosophy of education:   education as instruction ('formalism') to education for holistic human development ('holism') ... passive learner to active learner, teaching as facilitation of learning -  ...  teacher as 'mediator' or 'facilitator of learning' ... student-teacher 'contradiction' to humanisation of authentic dialogue and  'cooperation'.education as schooling to education as individual empowerment i.e. 'holistic education'...

theories of learning: student as 'passive' learner to student as 'active' learner;  theories of intelligence: intelligence as curiosity and inquiry; experiential learning as 'global learning';  rational thinking and accurate perception of  'reality'; freedom and authority versus authoritarianism...freedom in education...  libratory pedagogy... adult education... pedagogy for humanisation - 'pedagogy of the oppressed'(Freire); 'banking' education to problem posing education...  problem-posing education de-mythisizes reality... transforms reality by unveiling its 'true' nature and thereby fostering rational thinking. (see Paulo Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppressed. 1971

. 'freedom' in education: freedom and authority versus authoritarianism;

 Experiential learning and integrated curricula and thematic teaching thematic teaching: role of teacher: distributor of instruction to 'facilitator of learning via authentic dialogue ' ... learning of content in context... thematic teaching; integrated curricula etc. 

  social myth  irrational thinking  to rational thinking and true nature of 'reality'..  .

supposed 'dichotomy' individual freedom/social responsibility

As well as the sequential printed word, information is derived from multisensory sources of various forms and intensities. The complexity of information requires the brain to process simultaneously multitudinous stimuli - sights, sounds, images, ideas and others. For the purpose of survival, the brain must be able to derive meaning from a complex environment. The educational paradigm of industrialsism and behaviorism has become too limited. The educational experience for growing children is no longer a matter of simple preparation for a future working life. The educational experience must enable them to adapt to a changing environment and changing circumstances. It must prpeare them for personal fulfillment and a life of change. It must engage their full capacity for learning, and for learning to learn. For a future of change and a global perspective in the global village, their subjective life must become of paramount concern in education. It is no longer possible to ignore their inner experience.

  "The discoveries of Rudolf Steiner concerning the interrelationships of body, soul and spirit represent a new educational paradigm which ... can provide a secure theoretical and practical foundation for a holistic education that directs itself to educate the whole person for the whole of life." ("Gerald Karnow "Educating the Whole Person for the Whole of Life" Holistic Education Review, Spring, 1992)

Connection:  need for depth education... as education of the 'whole' individual...

 "In dealing with problems of society and education, the tendency is to deal with outer structures and forms. But the structures and forms are created by individuals and depend on their levels of consciousness. Thus a more intelligent approach would be to deal with the implementation of methods which would enable individuals to improve themselves through their own inner development, the basis for their success and happiness. Education should provide the individual with a foundation for successfully living in the world. There is a need for depth education - education of the 'whole' individual. Specialization of knowledge must be accompanied by full human development."(Dewey, 'My Pedagogic Creed' quoted in Wade Baskin, ed. "Classics in Education", New York: Philosophical Library, 1966)

"Surely an education designed for the nineteenth century industrial society does not address the needs of our time. Our schools do not speak to the confused, fearful condition of the young generation who must inherit this troubled culture and this threatened planet. Consequently, American education has entered a period of upheaval and conflict from which it cannot emerge unchanged.....A radically different paradigm, not yet clearly defined, is emerging." ( Ron Miller, 1993. Renewal of Meaning in Education: Responses to the Cultural and Ecological Crisis of Our Times. Brandon, VT: Holistic Education Press.)

For four hundred years the goals of science have been directed to the control of nature and human nature. Scientific paradigms have produced the root metaphors of modern Western culture. Overemphasis on the metaphors of a man-centered mechanistic universe, dualistic reality, neutral technology and individualism has resulted in today's multifacted global crisis. The major purpose of schooling until now has been to preserve the hegemony of the established culture to induct each new generation into the dominant worldview. (Miller R. et al. The Renewal of Meaning in Education: Responses to the Cultural and Ecological Crisis of our Times Brandon,VT: Holistic Education Press, 1993)

   PART V Chapter 9 HOLISTIC EDUCATION: Education for 'wholeness of mind'... for moral development...  for understanding which depends on goodness or 'virtue'...

"Education is identical with helping the child realize his potentialities. Education in this sense results in 'existence' which means literally 'to stand out' to have emerged from the state of potentiality into that of manifest reality." (Erich Fromm Man For Himself, 207)

  "Virtues and the value life are of survival value and therefore biologically based. The philosophical analysis of 'virtues' becomes equivalent to the biological analysis of the social values." (Maria Montessori Absorbent Mind 231)

"Holistic education returns us to the Latin ('educare') meaning of the word 'education' - to lead forth what is naturally within the human being.... The recent so-called 'holistic education movement' is the manifestation of the concern for an education which 'leads forth' or 'draws forth' the latent capacities and sensitivities of the individual". (Miller R. et al. The Renewal of Meaning in Education: Responses to the Cultural and Ecological Crisis of our Times 1993)

 Holistic education is based on a holistic perspective of nature and human nature...  holistic education fosters mature moral judgement... eliminates the dichotomies implied in such terms as 'value free science', 'scientific objectivity', 'individual freedom', 'responsibility to society' and so on... incorporates the individual's normal growth to maturity... 'normalization'... education is raised to a higher level of consciousness... creative intelligence. Traditional education for possession and destruction is transformed holistic education for knowledge, understanding  and love - not possession... depends on freedom...  'Freedom' in education: freedom to learn from mistakes... freedom to learn... freedom to develop human potential... freedom to maximize learning...freedom for optimal learning or 'optimalearning'. Optimal learning depends on ability to make associations and perceive the parts which make up the whole. The learner needs to be able to 'orchestrate' all learning experiences. Each new learning experience is embedded in the totality of previous experiences in a natural process of 'immersion'. With each new piece of information processed by the brain, increasing number of associations are made with the other current and past experiences and knowledge. The natural immersion process can be hindered or helped depending on the teaching methods being used. If the immersion process is hindered, fewer associations are made. If the immersion process is helped, more associations are made. Those teaching and learning methods which inhibit learning inhibit the formation of connections between nerve cells or 'neurons'... the 'synapses'.

 Holistic education is based on a reconceptualization of the 'traditional' teaching methodologies involving  acknowlegement of the brain's natural rules for meaningful learning. Holistic learning uses to full advantage the brain's capacity to make connections.. 'brain-based learning'. A reconceptualization of teaching for brain-based learning "requires a framework with 'bottom line' integrity.... that means it must integrate human behaviour and perception, emotions and physiology... borrowing heavily from cognitive psychology, education, philosophy, sociology, science and technology, the new physics, and physiological responses to stress, as well as the neurosciences." (Renate Nummela Caine and Geoffrey Caine, in "Making Connections: Teaching and the Human Brain" Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Alexandria, Virginia 1991. p.viii )

Based on the worldview of holistic science, holistic education involves the natural learning functions of the human brain. As the biological organ of learning, the brain is the the basis for human self-development and self-fulfillment.

 a. experiential learning b. curiosity and inquiry d. maturity and 'congruence' of personality c. 'freedom' in education d. globalisation thematic teaching integrated curricula- learning of content in context  

History of holistic education  Holistic education... freedom' in education c. experiential learning d. curiosity and inquiry e. teaching as facilitation of learning - authentic dialogue f. maturity and 'congruence' of personality a. history of education b. philosophy of education: aims of education c. education for development of human nature and human values. d. motivation: human needs and psychological value of work e. metaneeds and metamotivation c. individual in cultural context: critical consciousness and perception of reality ... freedom as 'inner freedom'. Freedom as full self-realization or 'self-actualisation'... (aim of education).

 New Education ... evolution of 'new education in Europe'.. 'free' education '... freedom in education... Education for human development... values

"The recognition of the child as a unique entity is relatively recent in Western culture". (Phillipe Aries, Centuries of Childhood, New York: Knopf, 1962)

 Montessori etc...

 Education as the fostering of natural human development. "Not in the service of any political or social creed should the teacher work, but in the service of the complete human being, able to exercise in freedom a self-disciplined will and judgement, unperverted by prejudice and undistorted by fear." Maria Montessori. To Educate the Human Potential. 1961.p. 3)

 progressive education (corrupted by interpretation of 'freedom' as authoritarianism of licence'... 'feminist pedagogy' as 'libratory pedagogy'...

 "The looking within for the real self is a kind of 'subjective biology' for it must include an effort to become conscious of one's own constitutional, temperamental, anatomical, physiological and biochemical needs, capacities and reactions i.e. one's biological individuality. It is also the path to experiencing one's specieshood, one's commoness with all other members of the human species. That is, it is a way to experiencing our biological brotherhood with all human beings no matter what their external circumstances... It should be possible to design an educational program around the instinctive needs of 'subjective biology', the 'metaneeds' as well as the basic physiological and psychological needs." (Abraham Maslow Psychology of Being p.185)

Connection: The Decroly 'plan' is such an 'educational program'.  

  Part V chapter 11 Holistic curriculum: Dr. Ovide Decroly (1871-1931)    Decroly was influenced by Montessori... Piaget... Dewey  "The difficulties that present themselves within the development of an experience are to be cherished by the educator, not minimized for they are the natural stimuli to reflective inquiry". (Dewey)

  The Decroly plan is a biological program or biological model centered on the the biological needs of the human organism ('subjective biology') for adaptation to the natural and social environment - the 'metaneeds' of the value-life as well as the basic physiological and psychological needs for self-preservation and self-esteem. The guiding principles of the Decroly method are based on the recognition and respect for intrinsic human needs

The school (Decroly School... Ecole Decroly in Brussels) was founded by Decroly in his capacity as experimental pedagogue... it is based on educational policies which foster the maturation of intellect, of personal potential, of social intelligence, of individual capacities and sensitivites.

 In the Decrolyen biological educative system the child is considered as a behaving organism...  education is considered in terms of its function 'for life through life (pour la vie par la vie)... the curriculum is designed around themes of human needs for survival: food (cultivation, preparation, nutrition etc.); water (ecology, physiology); defense (health, protection etc.) and human needs for adaptation through cultivation of intelligence (holistic perception or 'globalisation') and its application in productive work - problem  solving, decision making, planning, research, expression etc.

Pedagogical method: The new 'method' of education based on biological and psychological principles... 'psychopedagogy'..Decroly on true 'science of education' and a 'natural' pedagogy.  . reasoning and his approach were both scientific and pragmatic. He focused on the convergence... the  interrelationships education with biology, sociology and psycholgy. Education is a continous process which involves the growing child's changing psychological and social needs. Like any other science, the science of education would comprise both pure science, called 'pedology', science of the child based on objective methods, and applied science, called 'pedotechnie', techniques for the improved education of the child.

are considered in terms of  integrated curricula, experiential learning of content in context, thematic teaching...

 Decroly's 'method' was valid because it was not meant to be connected with any political or social doctrine but was based on the biological needs of the human organism to adapt successfully to a rapidly changing environment.

Dr. Decroly's pedagogy is significant as empirical evidence for a scientific rationale for holistic education.

  Connection: Holistic education is natural education based on brain functioning. "In general the findings in brain research indicate that effective learning results from the wholistic response of the whole brain to incoming stimuli... The research of the neuroscientists and psychobiologists, together with the knowledge and intuition of educators and psychologists, points to the need for a more deliberate involvement of the whole brain in the process of learning." (Caine Making Connections p.7)

PART VI chapter 12  Brain research... 'neuroscience':  the biological basis of learning  or biology of learning... 

 Education for human self-development and self-fulfillment...self-determination...'self-empowerment' is based on the natural functioning of the human brain.  

 Brain as organ of learning... organ of the 'mind'...  biology of learning

  Brain-compatible pedagogy .... teaching  to the brain... pedagogical 'method'... brain-based pedagogy...

Brain-based learning   Intelligence as curiosity and inquiry: experiential learning ...learning as a physiological process:  ...natural brain function is the search for meaning in a complex environment... spatial memory system in the hippocampus, learning as a function of the modification of synapses... Learning methods based on the natural funtioning of the brain enhance learning because they enhance the formation of synaptic connections between nerve cells.

 "Methodologies of so-called 'brain-based' learning teach to the brain's natural functioning. They teach to the brain's natural capacity for making associations. Teaching methods based on the natural funtioning of the brain enhance learning because they enhance the formation of synaptic connections between nerve cells. They teach with a view to the optimal use of the brain's capacity to organize information and perceive relationships. They teach to the learner's ability to perceive relationships between new experiences and previous experiences. They teach for meaningful learning in contextual frameworks. They formulate contextual frameworks in terms of unifying themes which connect different ideas and different knowledge areas or 'subjects'. Pedagogies based on the natural functioning of the brain are described as 'brain-compatible'. Methodologies for educators of natural knowledge provide opportunities for learners to see global relationships, to make connections, to extract meaningful patterns. The function of the teacher is to facilitate learning by organizing educational experiences through a process of 'orchestrated immersion.' The learner experiences 'immersion' in an orchestrated educational environment". (Caine. Making Connections)

 intrinsic motivation ...psychological value of work ...

 Successful teaching methodologies are those which recognize and encourage the learning process as a natural phenomenon. Taking advantage of the brain's natural functions and natural potential, they orchestrate complex learning experiences. They teach to the brain's innate drive to search for meaning. They teach to its natural capacity to organize information and recognize patterns and interrelationships. They provide the learner with experiences which enable them to perceive the 'patterns which connect.' They teach to the brain as a pattern detector which perceives parts and wholes simultaneously. They teach to the brain's natural capacity to integrate new experience with learned experience. They are formulated on the basis of interconnecting themes which unify different 'subjects' and 'disciplines.' They are designed around the meaningful interpenetration and interrelationships between facts and between subjects. They teach with the understanding that knowledge of one 'subject' is embedded in knowledge of other subjects and that all knowledge is embedded in life experience. They are based on the relevance of real life learning experiences in the classroom, in the school setting, the local community, the national community and the global community. They utilize the brain's natural capacity to make connections when immersed in context and content in the learning process. They provide a rigorous and intellectually challenging content in a meaningful context. They teach to the brain's innate drive to relate to others and encourage the social interaction which is crucial to effective learning. They promote teacher attributes which facilitate the brain's natural capacity to make connections. They promote the student's natural capacity to grow through learning. They provide a rational context for brain-based learning and wholistic education. Validated by recent findings in brain research, pedagogical methods which teach to the brain are known as 'thematic teaching methods.'

A. human evolution  B. brain evolution: a. bipedalism - upright posture tool use cranial capacity B. brain evolution - 'intelligence', rational thinking.cognitive 'skills'. C. brain research - 'neuroscience'... biological mechanisms of brain function

1. brain anatomy 2. cerebral hemispheres 3. neuron - nerve impulse - structural unit of psychology. 4. synapse

 The biological mechanisms of the brain result in the mental functions of the 'mind'

The integration of behavior, perception, emotions and physiology is a natural outcome of the integrated functions of the human brain. A theoretical framework for wholistic education is based on the biological knowledge of the human organism and the functioning of the human brain.  

"Learning occurs as a result of changing the effectiveness of synapses so that their influence on other neurons also changes. Learning is a physiological function of the brain involving the transmission of signals along nerve cells and across their junctional connections. It is a function of the effectiveness of synapses to propagate signals and initiate or 'fire' new signals along neighboring neurons. (Geoffrey Hinton, "How Neural Networks Learn from Experience," Scientific American, 267:3, September 1992, 145)

 'Brain-based learning' is confluent with the brain's natural rules for meaningful learning. (Renate Nummela Caine and Geoffrey Caine, Making Connections 79-88.)

The brain's natural capacities for learning are driven by its natural function of searching for meaning in experience. Optimal brain-based learning depends on the stimulation of the brain's natural function of global learning. It depends on the activation of the brain's natural functions of comparing, patterning and categorizing. It engages the brain's natural capacity for making connections betweeen the parts and the whole. It engages the brain's natural capacity and potential for creativity and involves the emotions as well as the intellect. Naturally stimulated by challenge and difficult learning, brain-based learning is correlated with very high self-motivation. Successful teaching methodologies are those which recognize and encourage the learning process as a natural phenomenon. Taking advantage of the brain's natural functions and natural potential, they orchestrate complex learning experiences. They teach to the brain's innate drive to search for meaning. They teach to its natural capacity to organize information and recognize patterns and interrelationships. They provide the learner with experiences which enable them to perceive the 'patterns which connect.' They teach to the brain as a pattern detector which perceives parts and wholes simultaneously. They teach to the brain's natural capacity to integrate new experience with learned experience. They are formulated on the basis of interconnecting themes which unify different 'subjects' and 'disciplines.' They are designed around the meaningful interpenetration and interrelationships between facts and between subjects. They teach with the understanding that knowledge of one 'subject' is embedded in knowledge of other subjects and that all knowledge is embedded in life experience. They are based on the relevance of real life learning experiences in the classroom, in the school setting, the local community, the national community and the global community. They utilize the brain's natural capacity to make connections when immersed in context and content in the learning process. They provide a rigorous and intellectually challenging content in a meaningful context. They teach to the brain's innate drive to relate to others and encourage the social interaction which is crucial to effective learning. They promote teacher attributes which facilitate the brain's natural capacity to make connections. They promote the student's natural capacity to grow through learning. They provide a rational context for brain-based learning and wholistic education. Known as 'thematic teaching methods,' they are validated by recent findings in brain research.

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