PROGRESSIVE EDUCATION MOVEMENT FOR EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING

 "Every living creature, while it is awake, is in constant interaction with its surroundings. It is engaged in a process of give and take- of doing something to objects around it and receiving back something from them-impressions, stimuli. This process of interacting constitutes the framework of experience." (John Dewey. How We Think: A Restatement of the Relation of Reflective Thinking to the Educative Process Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath and Company , 1933 p. 36)

theme: Political aims and ideals of the adults in the society interfere with the basic aim of education for the child which is growth. (Montssori)

 

 "From the beginning, the PEA was conscious of being a part of an international movement, and it early sought ties with its counterparts abroad. ...The initial issue of Progressive Education carried accounts of experiments with the Dalton Plan in England and the Decroly Plan in Belgium." (Lawrence Cremin. Transformation of the School: Progressivism in American Education 1876-1957 New York: Vintage Books 1964 page 248)

 

PROGRESSIVE EDUCATION MOVEMENT: the true aim of 'progressive' education is the fostering of personal freedom. The philosophy was debased. It was misunderstood to represent education as a sugar-coated pill

 

 Experimentation in freedom in education: Summerhill of A.S. Neill

The aims of education are to foster the individual's inner freedom and development towards the following: self-initiated action and acceptance of responsibility for one's own actions, self-direction and intelligent decision making, critical learning and evaluation of others, acquisition of knowledge for resolution of problems, intelligent and flexible adaptation to new situations, creative utilization of experiential learning in adaptation to new situations, effective cooperation with others, self-motivation and a desire to work for one's own purposes.

 Necessary environmental conditions must be provided for the students in a so-called 'progressive' educational setting.  Self-initiated learning occurs when students have direct confrontation with meaningful and relevant problems. Self-direction in the learning process occurs with teachers who have a basic trust in the capacity of the student for developing his own potentiality; self-motivation and desire to work occurs with teachers who are sincere, sensitive, and sympathetic. The effective teacher is a mature person with integrity as well as knowledge. He concentrates on creating  a climate which facilitates learning and fosters responsible  freedom. Without imposing himself or his knowledge, he is a resource and provider of resources. He values each individual student as a developing human being with many feelings and many potentialities, empathetically accepting feelings of fear for new problems and satisfaction with each new achievement.With the knowledge of these requisite conditions and psychological climate, it would be possible to establish an educational establishment which fosters the individual's proper growth and inner freedom. (annotation based on pages 47-66)

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failure of progressive education in America...

 The term 'progressive education': "The earliest use of the term 'progressive education' in the United States probably dates from the translation of Mme Necker de Saussure's work l'Education Progressive, ou Etude du Cours de la Vie (Paris 1836) which appeared as Progressive Education, or Considerations on the Course of Life (London 1839)." (Cremin Transformation of the School: Progressivism in American Education 1876-1957) Vintage Books, New York, l964. page 358) 

 "During the eighteenth century, the ideas of freedom, democracy and self-determination were proclaimed by progressive thinkers; and by the first half of the 1900s these ideas came to fruition in the field of education. The basic principles of such selfdetermination was the replacement of authority by freedom, to teach the child without the use of force by appealing to his curiosity and spontaneous needs, and thuus to get him interested in the world around him. This attitude marked the beginning of progressive education and was an important step in human development". (Fromm Introduction to A.S. Neill Summerhill)

American mass education is a product of three centuries of economic revolution. The industrial civilization in Europe resulted from two centuries of scientific revolution. The interplay of values of science and objective measurement together with Puritan attitudes... Puritan values of Protestantism and the Puritan takeover of power in government produced so-called 'economic man' and the present era of economic exploitation. The contributions to the American version of 'economic man': Charles Sanders Peirce invented 'pragmatism' as a scientific method of thought. An educational goal should be direct social utility. Abstract rote-learned material of literate culture was scorned. William James interpreted the scientific study of conduct. John Dewey (1859-1952) promoted the scientific study of education. Dewey based educational principles on the theory of natural human growth involving the notion that each individual is born with an instinctive tendency for development. He emphasized the importance of the development of the whole child as a unique individual. According to John Dewey "schools should focus on the needs of the child and society."

During the nineteenth century, curricula were devised.

Twelve grade classification system of schooling established by 1890 By l890 a scheme was established of classifying children from six to eighteen into the twelve-grade system currently in use. With the establishment of the twelve-grade classification system schooling in the public secondary grades was organized around a number of 'subjects' presented in textbooks which children had to read and memorize.  For forty years the schools were subject to college entrance requirements. College entrance requirements dictated school policies.

 'Reform' as counter-reform: From 1890 to 1928 school 'reform' consisted of piecemeal restructuring of the school system. School reform consisted of reorganization of the structure of the administration of the school and had little to do with philosophical reorientation or reconstruction of the curricula.The dominant purposes of the school were to cultivate children's mental discipline and knowledge. Missing from the educational philosophy of the rulers of the schools, college and school administrations, was the concept of maximum child growth.

 The fragmentation of the curriculum can be traced to two documents. The first document, published in 1893, was entitled "Report of the Committee of Ten on Secondary School Studies". Focusing on the ideal of quality education for every American, the report emphasized the integration of different subject areas of the traditional humanistic curriculum. The second document, published in 1918 was entitled "The Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education". The document emphasized the integration of subjects important for social adjustment in a democratic society. The document was devised in response to a new social situation resulting from the immigration policies between 1893 and 1918. The effect of these policies was to double the school population every ten years. The 'Cardinal Principles' were formulated in an attempt to adjust the aims of education to the democratic idea of education through the high school level for every American.

Both documents, the 1893 Report and the 1919 Cardinal Principles, were committed to the ideals of democracy.

 "Not in the service of any political or social creed should the teacher work, but in the service of the complete human being, able to exercise in freedom a self-disciplined will and judgement, unperverted by prejudice and undistorted by fear." (Maria Montessori. To Educate the Human Potential. Adyar, Madras, India: Kalakshetra Publications, 1961.3)

"A generation ago, the progressive movement urged that knowledge be related to the child's own experience and brought it out of the realm of empty abstractions. A good idea was translated into banalities about the home, then the friendly postman, and the trashman, then the community and so on. It is a poor way to compete with the child's own dramas and mysteries." (Jerome Bruner, The Relevance of Education. New York: W.W. Norton & Co. Inc. 1971 p. 63)

 At the same time, the ideas of philosoper John Dewey and leaders of the 'progressive movement' emphasized individual differences, experiential learning and a humane curriculum. In the minds of administrators of educational institutions, the unfortunate combination of Dewey's ideas with the principles of educational formalism led to the institutionalization of the progressive ideas. Progressive education was perceived as a kind of 'romantic formalism. In this context, administrators fragmented the curriculum further. Fragmentation was 'horizontal'. Children were allocated to different 'groups' or 'tracks' depending on their level of 'intelligence'. The children of different groups received information considered to be appropriate to their 'capacities'. The information was selected to prepare them for citizenship, for work and for leisure. Progressive education was accomodated to the democratic ideal of education for every American. Each individual was educated to be useful to the society. The principles were based on the ideas of European romanticism and American pragmatism. According to Rousseau, author of 'Emile', the true key to learning is a child's positive self-concept. The pragmatists wanted to replace traditional rote-learning with experiential learning for social utility. They stressed those aspects of a curriculum which would cultivate productive and responsible citizens. They interpreted individual differences in terms of the new concept of variation in intelligence.

 The combined effect of the Cardinal Principles and the emphasis on child diversity gave rise to the theory of 'educational formalism'.

Education for formal skills: 'educational formalism' Born with "individual differences and capacities", children growing up in a democratic society were required to have access to different materials in order to attain literacy and numeracy. It was believed that "only under a formalistic concept" can all students command the same fundamental processes. Since children vary in their capacities, then the only way to achieve universal literacy and numeracy was to conceive of reading, writing and arithmetic as 'formal skills.'

"Liberal and 'progressive' systems have not changed this situation (authoritarianism in the American family and culture and repercussions for human develpment in the American culture) as much as one would like to think. Overt authority has been replaced by anonymous authoriity, overt commands by 'scientifically' established formulas, 'don't do this' by 'you will not like to do this'. In fact, in many ways this anonymous authority may be even more oppressive than the overt one. The child is no longer aware of being bossed (nor are the parents of giving orders), and he cannot fight back and thus develop a sense of independence. He is coaxed and persuaded in the name of science, common sense and cooperation - who can fight against such objective principles which are disguised as principles of 'cooperation'? (and so on See Fromm Man for Himself page l56)

The progressive education reform movement "was directed at specific school activities such as those described by John and Evelyn Dewey, in "schools of Tomorrow' (1915) ... generally involving school responsibilities beyond the cultivation of 'literacy'...for the Americanization of immigrants, for the teaching of vocational skills, and provison of community centers." They followed the views of philosopher John Dewey who urged that schools reflect the life of their society. He wrote 'The School and Society' (1900) 'The Child and the Curriculum'(1902) 'Democracy and Education' (1916) 'Progressive Education and the Science of Education' (1928) 'Experience and Education (1938)

At first, progressive reform educators focused their attention on the 'lower' rural and urban socioeconomic classes. From 1920 to 1950 they focused their attention on the application of psychological, social and pedagogical theory to educational reform for the upper middle classes. As 'scientists of education', reform educators based their ideas on scientific observation and experimental research. The large and diverse group of educators comprised three main schools of thought. One group focused on the arrangement of school programs around the child's needs; a second group focused on the schools' responsibility to lead in the restructuring of society; a third group focused on the schools' responsibility to the electorate to educate their children with a curriculum appropriate to the political philosophy of the nation.

Dewey warned educators in the Progressive Movement of the dangers of excessive criticism of tradition and the dangers of a dogmatic commitment to freedom. He believed that "progressive education carried within itself the organizing principle for a democratic philosophy of life."

In his book Progressive Education at the Crossroads, Boyd H. Bode, 1938 warned of the progressive education movement's excessive individualism and urged the development of an explicit philosophy. (Lawrence Cremin. "The Transformation of the School: Progressivism in American Education, Vintage Books, New York, l964 254)

 "There is no way to coerce children without making them afraid, or more afraid. The 'progressives' did not recognize this. They thought coercion could be kindly. But non-threatening coercion is an illusion.( Holt, J. How Children Fail. New York, London Pitman Publishing Co. 1964.)

Horace Mann was attracted to the naturalistic pedagogy of the Swiss reformer, Pestalozzi who was committed to moral instruction. How does one free a child and shape him at the same time? a problem going back to Rousseau and ultimately to Plato See Marietta Johnson "Thirty years with an idea" Fairhope experiment, the Organic School discussed by John Dewey in "Schools of Tomorrow", NY l915 "The development of fundamental sincerity is the basis of all morality" from Thirty years with an idea page l20

For discussion of intelligence tests See Cremin "Transformation of the School" pp l85-l88 "learning about the past is planning for the future" (where and who said this? study educationists of the past to make a plan for the future. What went wrong in the past which could be avoided in the plan for the future?

 American school 'reform' as 'progressive education' in context of political ideology becomes 'counter reform' A scientific study of education requires an understanding of the issues in a historical context. To be properly understood, child-centered schools should be understood in terms of their historical as well as contemporary context. In America three men built a rational philosophy of conduct: Charles Sanders Peirce invented pragmatism as a scientific method of thought, William James interpreted the scientific study of conduct, and John Dewey promoted the scientific study of education.

 After l900 in accordance with the doctrine of adaptation in the theory of evolution... with the misinterpretation of Darwin's theory of evolution, educational goals were set in the framework of 'social efficiency'.  'Adjustment to society' became the principle aim of education. The schools focused their attention on training young minds to be imitative and exploitive in order for them to adjust successfully to the values of the society.

In the minds of some educationists, creative self-expression was considered and educational practice was gradually transformed. At the turn of the century in Europe and America the concept of social efficiency was challenged. Creative self-expression began to play an important role in the thinking of some educationists. was considered and educational practice was gradually transformed. New programs made child interest the center of orientation and the aim of education was the maximum growth of individuality. To this day most people will subscribe to one of the two opposing schools of thought on the principle aim of education; adjustment to sociey or self-expression and maximum child growth. Proponents of the latter, the child-centered schools, still constitute a very small minority.

 With the misinterpretation of Darwin's theory of evolution, educational goals were set in the framework of 'social efficiency'. 'Adjustment to society' became the principle aim of education. The schools focused their attention on training young minds to be imitative and exploitive in order to adjust successfully to the values of the society.

 John Dewey and 'science of education':  an attempt at intellectual organization: John Dewey was a shrewd observer of his times. He wrote The School and Society (l900), The Child and the Curriculum (l902), Democracy and Education (l9l6), Progressive Education and the Science of Education (l928), Experience and Education (l938) Advising caution, "he warned educators to beware of simple negativism in their critiques of traditional education, adding that their professed commitment to freedom could be as dogmatic as had been their predecessors' commitment to tradition... not overlook that all experiences are not equally educative... that the weakest point in progressivism was its lack of adequate organization and selection of subject matter." (254)

John Dewey promoted the scientific study of education. Based educational principles on the theory of natural human growth involving the notion that each individual is born with an instinctive tendency for development. He emphaisized the importance of the development of the whole child as a unique individual. According to John Dewey "schools should focus on the needs of the child and society."

John Dewey "Democracy and Education" comprehensive statement of the progressive education movement "Dewey formulated the aim of education in social tems, but he was convinced that education would read its successes ultimately in the changed behaviours, perceptions, and insights of individual human beings. He defined education as "that reconstruction or reorganization of experience which adds to the meaning of experience, and which increases ability to direct the course of subsequent experience." (p. 88-90) The quotation holds the key to his notion of growth, the central term in the much abused Deweyism that education is growth and subordinate to no end beyond itself. It is his way of saying that the aim of education is not merely to make citizens, or workers, or fathers, or mothers, but ultimately to make human beings who will live life to the fullest-that is who will continuously add to the meaning of their experience and to their ability to direct subsequent experience. Ultimately it is the conception of growth that ties Dewey's theory of the individual to progressivism writ large. He wanted education constantly to expand the range of special situations in which individuals perceived issues and made and acted upon choices. He wanted schools to inculcate habits that would enable individuals to control their suroundings rather than merely adapt to them.(p.55-57) And he wanted each generation to go beyond its predecessors in the quality of behaviour it sought to nurture in its children. Progressive societies, he counseled, 'endeavor to shape the experiences of the young so that instead of reproducing current habits, better habits shall be formed, and thus the future adult society be an improvement on their own... We are doubtless far from realizing the potential efficacy of education as a constructive agency of improving society, from realizing that it represents not only a development of children and youth but also of the future society of which they will be constituents'" p.92 Having thus stated a general relationship between democracy and education, Dewey proceeded to pedagogical specifics, insisting that a new unifying spirit suffuse every aspect of teaching and learning. An avowed enemy of dualism - recall his early Hegelianism - he attacked the historic separation of labor and leisure, man and nature, thought and nature, individuality and association, method and subject matter, mind and behaviour. To reconcile these dualisms was to construct a philosophy 'which sees intelligence to be the purposive reorganization, through action, of the material of experience." (p.377) Only such a philosophy could serve the interests of an "intentionally progressive" society.

The progressive education movement before World War l: the progressive education reform movement "was directed at specific school activities such as those described by John and Evelyn Dewey, in 'Schools of Tomorrow' (l9l5)...generally involving the assumption by the school of responsibilities beyond those merely of making the children literate," for example "the Americanization of the many new immigrants, for the teaching of vocational skills, or for the provision of community centers." They followed "the views of the philosopher subsequently known as the elder statesman of the progressive education movement, John Dewey, who urged that the schools reflect the life of their society." Reforming educators focused their attention on the lower rural and urban socioeconomic classes.

 "The true aim of the progressive education movement - in the beginning - was to foster personal freedom. The philosophy was debased. It was misunderstood to represent education as a sugarcoated pill." (Carl Rogers Freedom To Learn)

The progressive education movement after World War l: From l920 to l950, attention was focused on the application of psychological, social and pedagogical theory to educational reform for the upper middle classes. Basing their ideas on scientific observation and experimental research in psychoanalysis, education reformers of the progressive movement were scientists of education. Applying Dewey's "multiple eclectic and imprecise dicta" to the problems which interested them most, and thus very diverse in their thinking, the educationists can nevertheless be categorized into three main schools of thought: first, those who concentrated on the "necessity for the school to view each child individually and to arrange the school program around his interests and needs" (exemplified by Margaret Naumberg, founder of the Walden School in l9l4, Elisabeth Irwin, founder of Little Red School House, Caroline Pratt, founder of City and Country School, Lucy Sprague Mitchell of Bank Street College of Education and Helen Parkhurst of the Dalton School all in new York City) Identifying more easily with the simplistic view of the innovator Francis Parker, than with the more complex ideas of John Dewey, many school personnel could easily grasp the concept of "freedom for the child" promoting the fostering of creative expression as the highest goal of progressive education. In l926 Agnes DeLim aproduced a book entitled "Our Enemy the Child" popularizing the new experiments in progressive education. In l928 Harold Rugg and Ann Shumaker produced the most characteristic statement of the principle of fostering creative expression, entitled "The Child-centered School."

 The second category of scientists of education in the progressive movement concentrated on the "responsibility of the school within the social order...to lead in restructuring society." Given impetus by the serious economic depression of l929 and the l930's, they "looked to education and educators ...to lead in reorganizing American life economically, socially and politically." They thought that "the schools must help to establish a society based on a more rational disposition of resources." (Deighton 250). In l932 George Counts of Teachers College in Dare the Schools Build a New Social Order? criticized educators of the progressive education movement for their alignment with the ruling upper middle class and urged them to "face squarely and courageously every social issue, come to grips with life in all its stark reality, establish an organic relation with the community, develop a realistic and comprehenssive theory of welfare, fashion a compelling and challenging vision of human destiny, and become less frightened than it is today at the bogies of 'imposition' and 'indoctrination'." (pages 9-l0) In l933, William Heard Kilpatrick edited a collection of essays by R.Bruce Raup, John I. Childs, John Dewey, Boyd H. Bode, Gordon Hullfish and V.T. Thayer in a book entitled The Educational Frontier.

The third category of scientists of education in the progressive education movement concentrated on "research on the curriculum to make it appropriate to the unique needs of the schools in a democratic society." They felt that the traditional curriculum was inadequate and wanted to add new courses to the curriculum, such as driver training, marriage and the family, new English courses emphasizing creative writing, new social studies courses including history and civics with additional sections on economics and sociology, and courses in 'life adjustment' for the preparation of adults who could function adequately as citizens of a democracy and productive units of society ( See Charles Prosser Secondary Education and Life). Believing that the schools should reflect the values of the society, they held that the schools of America, "located as they were in a democracy, had a unique responsibility to the electorate to educate their children in a particular manner appropriate to he political philosophy of the nation" (Deighton, 252) In l934 Wilford Aiken directed a research project called the Eight Year Study which proved that the methods of the progressive education movement were a valid alternative to the classical traditional curriculum for success in college. Designs for new curricula were proposed by Caroline Zachry in Emotion and Conduct in Adolescence (l940), and by V.T. Thayer and Ruth Kotinsky in Reorganizing Secondary Education.

 Still other important scientists of education involved in the progressive education movement included Edward L. Thorndike of Columbia Teachers College "with his research on quantifying human learning and on the teaching of reading," Lewis Terman of Stanford University "with his efforts to measure human intelligence" and Elsie Ripley Clapp with her work on promoting a central role for the school in rural communities. In view of the diversity of opinions regarding the aims of education, efforts were made to organize, both institutionally and intellectually, the various groups of educational thinkers of the progressive movement. The attempt at institutional organization was made when Stanwood Cobb founded the Progressive Education Association (PEA) in l9l9. The PEA was associated first with private school headmasters and later with public school superintendents and teacher-training institutions such as Teachers College. Subjected to many setbacks and much criticism, it was finally disbanded in l955.

'Failure of progressive education movement in America "Progressive" education failed in America: Why did the progressive movement fail in American education system? There were too many internal contradictions

"Its history from l938 on was filled with accounts of difficulties on every score.  "There is no way to coerce children without making them afraid, or more afraid. The 'progressives' did not recognize this. They thought coercion could be kindly. But non-threatening coercion is an illusion.( Holt, J. How Children Fail. New York, London Pitman Publihing Co. 1964.) "You know, kids really like to learn; we just don't like to be pushed around." (sixth grader Anna) "So let's stop pushing them around!"(John Holt Why Chilldren Fail 180)

 Intense criticism of progressive education began in the l940's and continued into the l950's.  The Progressive education movement was criticized on three main counts: schools were failing to make children literate, they were anti- intellectual causing overall lack of general knowledge( Arthur Bestor Educational Wastelands l953), and in promoting liberal and radical 'politics' they were 'anti-American'.(The Restoration of Learning l955).

The eventual failure of the progressive education movement can be attributed to the inability of the educationists to accomplish two things: first, the perennial problem"was "to formulate a philosophy of progressive education"  and second,  its inability to provide sustained alternatives to the traditional curriculum it opposed." (Lawrence Cremin. "The Transformation of the School: Progressivism in American Education, Vintage Books, new York, l964 253) Boyd  who had "believed that progressive education carried within itself the organizing principle for a democratic philosophy of life" had warned of the progressive education movement's excessive individualism and urged the development of an explicit philosophy. (Progressive Education at the Crossroads 1938)

Failure of the progressive education movement can be attributed to the cultural paradigm in which the questions were raised. The same questions can be raised in the context of the new cultural paradigm of wholism. Ask the same questions  in the new paradigm - what is best for the child AND the society? With a perception of reality which is wholistic, there is no dichotomy indiviudal vs. 'society'. This makes sense because what is good for the child is good for the society.

"There is no denying of course, that professional espousal of progressivism gave the movement enormous thrust in its drive to transform American education. But the price was tremendous, for professionalism ultimately divorced the movement from the lay power necessary to sustain it in the schools.... Sputnik may well have dramatized the end"

American progressive education was part of an international movement:

"From the beginning, the PEA was conscious of being a part of an international movement, and it early sought ties with its counterparts abroad. ...The initial issue of Progressive Education carried accounts of experiments with the Dalton Plan in England and the Decroly Plan in Belgium." (Lawrence Cremin. Transformation of the School: Progressivism in American Education 1876-1957 New York: Vintage Books 1964 page 248)

  "Even though the mood of the nation favored the rise of neo-traditionalism ...the important legacy of progressivism lies in the unanswered questions of educational philosophy."

references:

Lee C. Deighton, editor-in-chief, Progressive Education Movement from the Encyclopedia of Education, Macmillan Co. and The Free Press l971

 Boyd H.Bode, Progressive Education at the Crossroads

 Cremin, Lawrence  The Transformation of the School: Progressivism in American Education, Vintage Books, new York, l964

 Rugg, Harold. Child-Centered Schools

Hirsch, E.D Jr.. Cultural Literacy and the Schools . Houghton Mifflin Co. Boston.

Progressive Education Association "Its history from l938 on was filled with accounts of difficulties on every score. One perennial problem was its FAILURE TO FORMULATE A PHILOSOPHY OF PROGRESSIVE EDUCATION. ANOTHER WAS ITS INABILITY TO PROVIDE SUSTAINED ALTERNATIVES TO THE TRADITIONAL CURRICULUM IT OPPOSED."

(253)

Boyd H.Bode, Progressive Education at the Crossroads

He warned of the progressive education movement's excessive individualism and urged the development of an explicit philosophy.(254)

The progressive education movement before World War l: the progressive education reform movement "was directed at specific school activities such as those described by John and Evelyn Dewey, in 'Schools of Tomorrow' (l9l5)...generally involving the assumption by the school of responsibilities beyond those merely of making the children literate," for example "the Americanization of the many new immigrants, for the teaching of vocational skills, or for the provision of community centers."

They followed "the views of the philosopher subsequently knolwn as the elder statesman of the progressive education movement, John Dewey, who urged that the schools reflect the life of their society." Reforming educators focused their attention on the lower rural and urban socioeconomic classes.

   The progressive education movement after World War l: From l920 to l950, attention was focused on the application of psychological, social and pedagogical theory to educational reform for the upper middle classes. Basing their ideas on scientific observation and experimental research  in psychoanalysis, education reformers of the progressive movement  were scientists of education.  Applying Dewey's "multiple eclectic and imprecise dicta" to the problems which interested them most, and thus very diverse in their thinking, the educationists can nevertheless be categorized into three main schools of thought: first, those who concentrated on the "necessity for the school to view each child individually and to arrange the school program around his interests and needs" (exemplified by Margaret Naumberg, founder of the Walden School in l9l4, Elisabeth Irwin, founder of Little Red School House, Caroline Pratt, founder of City and Country School, Lucy Sprague Mitchell of Bank Street College of Education and Helen Parkhurst of the Dalton School all in new York City) Identifying more easily with the simplistic view of the innovator Francis Parker, than with the more complex ideas of John Dewey, many school personnel could easily grasp the concept of "freedom for the child" promoting the fostering of creative expression as the highest goal of progressive education. In l926 Agnes DeLima produced a book entitled "Our Enemy the Child" popularizing the new experiments in progressive education. In l928 Harold Rugg and Ann Shumaker produced the most characteristic statement of the principle of fostering creative expression, entitled "The Child-centered School." In l926 Agnes DeLima produced a popularization of the new experiments in education in a book entitled "Our Enemy the Child."

     The second category of scientists of education in the progressive movement concentrated on the "responsibility of the school within the social order...to lead in restructuring society." Given impetus by the serious economic depression of

l929 and the l930's, they "looked to education and educators ...to lead in reorganizing American life economically, socially and politically." They thought that "the schools must help to  establish a society based on a more rational disposition of resources."(250). In l932 George Counts of Teachers College

in "Dare the Schools Build a New Social Order?" (New York, John Day) criticized educators of the progressive education movement for their alignment with the ruling upper middle class and urged them to "face squarely and courageously every social issue, come to grips with life in all its stark reality, establish an organic relation with the community, develop a realistic and comprehenssive theory of welfare, fashion a compelling and challenging vision of human destiny, and become less frightened than it is today at the bogies of 'imposition' and 'indoctrination'." (pages 9-l0) In l933, William Heard Kilpatrick edited a collection of essays by R.Bruce Raup, John  I. Childs, John Dewey, Boyd H. Bode, Gordon Hullfish and V.T. Thayer in a book entitled "The Educational Frontier."

   The third category of scientists of education in the progressive education movement concentrated on "research on the curriculum to make it appropriate to the unique needs of the schools in a democratic society." They felt that the traditional curriculum was inadequate and wanted to add new courses to the curriculum, such as driver training, marriage and the family, new English courses emphasizing creative writing, new social studies courses including history and civics with additional sections on economics and sociology, and courses in 'life adjustment' for the preparation of adults who could function adequately as citizens of a democracy and productive units of society ( See Charlesd Prosser "Seconary Education and Life"). Believing that the schools should reflect the values of the society, they held that the schools of America, "LOCATED AS THEY WERE IN A DEMOCRACY, HAD A UNIQUE RESPONSIBILITY TO THE ELECTORATE TO EDUCATE THEIR CHILDREN IN A PARTICULAR MANNER APPROPRIATE TO THE POLITICAL PHILOSOHY OF THE NATION."(252) In l934 Wilford Aiken directed a research project called the Eight-Year Study which proved that the methods of the progressive education movement were a valid alternative to the classical traditional curriculum for success in college. Designs for new curricula were proposed by Caroline Zachry in "Emotion and Conduct in Adolescence"(l940), and by V.T. Thayer and Ruth Kotinsky in "Reorganizing Secondary Education". Still other important SCIENTISTS OF EDUCATION involved in the progressive education movement included Edward L. Thorndike of Columbia Teachers College "with his research on quantifying human learning and on the teaching of reading," Lewis Terman of Stanford University "with his efforts to measure human intelligence" and Elsie Ripley Clapp with her work on promoting a central role for the school in rural communities.

   In view of the diversity of opinions regarding the aims of education, efforts were made to organize, both institutionally  and intellectually, the various groups of educational thinkers of the progressive movement. The attempt at institutional organization was made when Stanwood Cobb founded the Progressive Education Association (PEA) in l9l9. The PEA was associated first with private school headmasters and later with public school superintendents and teacher-training institutions such as Teachers College. Subjected to many setbacks and much criticism, it was finally disbanded in l955. The eventual failure of the progressive education movement can be attributed to the inability of the educationists to accomplish two things: first, "FORMULATE A PHILOSOPHY OF PROGRESSIVE EDUCATION" and second, "TO PROVIDE SUSTAINED ALTERNATIVES TO THE TRADITIONAL CURRICULUM IT OPPOSED."(253) An attempt at intellectual organization: A shrewd observer of his times, John Dewey wrote "The School and Society" (l900), "The Child and the Curriculum"(l902), "Democracy and Education" (l9l6), "Progressive Education and the Science of Education" (l928), "Experience and Education" (l938) Advisig caution, "he warned educators to beware of simple negativism in their critiques of traditional education, adding that their professed commitment to freedom could be as dogmatic as had been their predecessors' commitment to tradition...not overlook that all experiences are not equally  educative...that the weakest point in progressivism was its  lack of adequate organization and selection of subject matter." (254) Warning against excessive individualism and urging the formulation of a philosophy, Boyd H. Bode wrote "Progressive Education at the Crossroads"(l938). He "believed that progressive education carried within itself the organizing principle for a democratic philosophy of life." Intense criticism of progressive education began in the l940's and continued into the l950's. Three main categories of attacks: schools were failing to make each child literate, they were anti-intellectual causing overall lack of general knowledge, (see Arthur Bestor "Educational Wastelands"(l953)and "The Restoration of Learning (l955), believing they were tied to liberal or radical politics, thought they were anti-American. Even though the mood of the nation favored the rise of neo-traditionalism, the important  legacy of progressivism lies in the unanswered questions of educational philosophy.

See Agnes Lima Our Enemy the Child

            **************************************

Principles of progressive education:

Discipline of free schools and free societies depends on self-discipline of free individuals (Dewey)

Education for growth in curiosity ... to make sense of the world...  courage, confidence, self-reliance requiring resourcefulness, independence, resilience, patien ce, competence, understanding...

Scientific view of the child has a progressive effect on society.

Supreme responsibility of the adult is to provide the right conditions for growth.

Children must be guided by initiative, interest, spontaneity, sincerity...

More formal studies should grow out of activitiesand occupations which are intrinsically interesting.

Fundamental sincerity is morality.

The key to good education is understanding of principles of child development.

The artist starts out with an idea,clarifies that idea through the method of dealing with it while being motivated by the desire to clarify for oneself . Clarification for others is incidental.

The unconscious is the source of motivation and behaviour thus the importance of intrinsic motivation for meaningful and effective learning.

Teachers must understand the phenomena of transference a nd identification in order to free children from childhood fixations which  are the chief obstacles to intellectual achievement... so they can avoid neurotic development and undergo normal development.

Purposeful activity which is consonant with the child's own goals in a social environment is at the heart of the educative process. (Kilpatrick)

To prepare  for the future, cultivate intelligence. Natural intelligence must be liberated.