link: psychoanalysis

 

                                          HUMAN NATURE REVEALED THROUGH PSYCHOANALYSIS

 theme: Psychoanalysis is a scientific tool which reveals the characteristics of human nature. 

 "Psychoanalysis can be regarded as a process for formulating a 'science of values' or 'science of ethics.' The overemphasis of traditional psychology on the pathologies, neuroses, psychoses etc. has provided abundant evidence that men's bad and evil behavior results from frustration in his efforts toward self-actualization. The inner biological core of human nature is revealed and exposed by psychoanalysis, described as an 'uncovering' therapy." (Maslow Psychology of Being, 177)

 Significance of psychoanalysis as providing data for he scientific study of human nature

"The crucial question to be asked is: can science discover the values by which men should live? I think it can and I have advanced this thesis in various places supporting it with whatever data I could muster ...the data I turn to first are the accumulated experiences of dynamic psychotherapy, starting with Freud and continuing up to the present day in most therapies that have to do with discovering the identity or Real Self...'uncovering therapies'...they purport to uncover (more than to construct) the deepest self which has been covered over by bad habits, misconceptions, neuroticizing etc. All these therapies agree in finding that this most real self partly consists of needs, wishes, impulses and instinctlike desires. These may be called needs because they must be fulfilled or psychopathology 'neurosis' results. Neurosis is a deficiency disease... It is these needs, 'instinctoid' in nature', that we can also think of as built-in values - values not only in the sense that the organism wants and seeks them but also in the sense that they are both good and necessary for the organism. It is these values which are found, uncovered - recovered, perhaps we should say, in the course of psychotherapy or self-discovery. We may then regard these techniques of therapy and self-discovery as being also cognitive tools or scientific methods (in the sense that they are the best methods we have available today These particlar kind of data.) It is in this sense at least that I would maintain that science in the broadest sense can and does discover what human values are, what the human being needs in order to live a good and happy life, what he needs in order to avoid illness what is good for him and what is bad for him. ...What the healthy human being chooses, prefers, and values out of own deepest inner nature, is also most often good for him..." Maslow, A. The Psychology of Science: A Reconaissance. New York and London: Harper and Row 1966 page 114-118)

 

 Maslow describes psychoanalysis as an 'uncovering' therapy, revealing or exposing the inner biological - instinctoid - core of human nature.

"The inner biological core of human nature is revealed and exposed by psychoanalysis, described as an 'uncovering' therapy." (Maslow Toward a Psychology of Being 177)

This inner core of human nature includes the basic physiological and psychological needs, the inborn capacities and talents, and the biologically based values inherent in the intrinsic yearnings and preferences. The denial or frustration of any of these needs, capacities or yearnings leads to psychopathology which can be manifested as 'evil.'

Providing important data in the search for values, psychoanalysis can be regarded as a process in the efforts of philosophers for formulating a 'science of values' or 'science of ethics' - and the basis for formulating a science of education. Psychoanalysis can be regarded as a process for formulating a 'science of values' or 'science of ethics.'

The overemphasis of traditional psychology on the pathologies, neuroses, psychoses etc. has provided abundant evidence that men's bad and evil behavior results from frustration in his efforts toward self-actualization. ..psychoanalysis as an 'uncovering' therapy, revealing or exposing the inner biological - instinctoid - core of human nature. The inner biological core of human nature is revealed and exposed by psychoanalysis, described as an 'uncovering' therapy. The techniques of therapy and self-discovery are cognitive tools or scientific methods for scientific research about human nature

Psychoanalytic therapies help the individual uncover the biologically based intrinsic values with which he naturally prefers to identify... help to expose the roots of biologically based intrinsic values... They help the individual to 'search for his identity'by uncovering the biologically based intrinsic values with which he naturally prefers to identify..

 An individual's search for identity is essentally a search for his own intrinsic value system, his own authentic nature, his humanness, the human core which he shares with other members of the human species.(Maslow Toward a Psychology of Being 177)

Data is provided by the accumulated experiences of dynamic psychotherapy... including psychoanalysis and the so-called 'uncovering therapies' which are involved with the discovery of the real self'.... purport to uncover, rather than construct, the deepest self... covered over by conditioning, bad habits, misconceptions, neuroticizing etc. What the healthy human being chooses, prefers, and values out of his own deepest inner nature, is also most often good for him. The most real self partly consists of wishes, impulses and instinctive desires which may be called needs because psychopathology results if they are not fulfilled.

The characteristics of human nature and the natural valuing process are discovered in psychotherapy. ..psychoanalysis as uncovering natural values.. psychoanalysis provides knowledge of human nature and human values... .. psychoanalysis and psychotherapy are the 'uncovering therapies' for self-discovery. ... provide valid data to support the theory of the biological basis for the guiding principles of morality and ethics.

Data from psychoanalysis indicate that human values are biologically rooted within the consciousness of the human organism. The biological principles of morality and ethics are based on inborn biological necessity and basic human needs....'instinctoid' in nature'... guiding values - the built-in or 'intrinsic'values... values which are both good and necessary for the organism are found, uncovered or recovered in the course of self-discovery during psychotherapy... ...children's spiritual growth. ... individual reacts as a whole, as an organism, developing altered orientations and behaviours in response to injury or illness ....noetic or holistic approach to the behavior of the organism as a whole.. 'noetic' (wholistic) human aspects of human nature as selected for in evolution of human organism Biological basis of spiritual life is survival oriented

 The basic right of a human being is the right to be human. An individual's responsibility to himself is to develop his humanness. By developing his own humanness the individual is being responsible to the rest of humanity. ...development of the individual's intrinsic value system. An individual's value system is the product of the totality of the thought processes within the context of experiences in a changing social environment. The values which form the guidelines for living result from the individual's educational experiences.

DATA OF HUMAN NATURE FROM PSYCHOANALYSIS AND PSYCHOTHERAPY

CONNECTION BETWEEN THWARTED PSYCHOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT AND THE PROBLEMS OF ETHICS: PROBLEMS OF VALUES AND "ETHICS" - GOOD/BAD, EVIL/VIRTUE ETC. RESULT FROM EGO CENTERED MENTAL PROCESSES. The distortion in perception results from neurosis - a deficiency disease. irrational fears etc. of immaturity. EGO-CENTERED MENTAL PROCESS DICHOTOMIZES AND DISTORTS REALITY:

The findings of psychiatry and psychoanalysis have shown that sound psychological health is measured by the degree to which people relate to other people. ...psychic health and neurosis linked up with ethics... neurosis represents a moral problem.

The failure to achieve maturity and integration of the whole personality is a moral failure

EXTERNAL SYSTEMS OF VALUES OR 'ETHICS' ARE BASED ON THE ASSUMPTION THAT HUMAN NATURE IS BAD, CORRUPT...

A 'SCIENCE OF ETHICS' OR "SCIENTIFIC ETHICS" INVOLVES QUESTIONING THE ASSUMPTION SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS OF PSYCHOANALYSIS: DATA IN SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF HUMAN NATURE ...PSYCHOLANALYSIS AS CONTRIBUTING TO SUBJECTIVE BIOLOGY... DATA FROM PSYCHOANALYSIS ...INNER BIOLOGICAL CORE OF HUMAN NATURE REVEALED BY PSYCHOANALYSIS data about true human nature - not evil, bad etc. biology of values, conscience etc. Change the premise from 'the instinctoid needs of the human being are evil and bad' to the premise ' the instinctoid needs of the human being are good' then ask the same questions and resolve many problems.

Fromm's thesis: "values are rooted in the very conditions of human existence; hence our knowledge of these conditions, that is, of the 'human situation', leads us to estabishing values which have objective validity; this validity exists only with regard to the existence of man; outside of him there are no values."

The inner biological core of human nature is revealed and exposed by psychoanalysis, described as an 'uncovering' therapy.

 "As the essential Being of the world is perceived by the person, so also does he concurrently come closer to his own Being, to his own perfection, of being more perfectly himself.

SUBJECTIVE BIOLOGY "The looking within for the real self is a kind of 'subjective biology' for it must include an effort to become conscious of one's own constitutional, temperamental, anatomical, physiological and biochemical needs, capacities and reactions i.e. one's biological individuality. It is also the path to experiencing one's specieshood, one's commoness with all other members of the human species. That is, it is a way to experiencing our biological brotherhood with all human beings no matter what their external circumstances." (185)

1. external systems of values and ethics based on the assumption that human nature is bad, corrupt, evil etc. (the premise 'the instinctoid needs of the human being are evil and bad'assumption human nature is evil, bad etc.)

 CONCLUSION FROM FINDINGS IN PSYCHONALYTIC THERAPIES: There is abundant evidence from the findings of traditional psyschology that 'evil' human behavior is a result of the frustration of natural human development. 3. data about true human nature - not evil, bad etc. Change the premise from 'the instinctoid needs of the human being are evil and bad' to the premise ' the instinctoid needs of the human being are good' then ask the same questions and resolve many problems. The basic right of a human being is the right to be human. An individual's responsibility to himself is to develop his humanness. By developing his own humanness the individual is being responsible to the rest of humanity. (Maslow Psychology of Being)