link:  questioned

 

                            EDUCATION IN THE POST-INDUSTRIAL AGE: THE TRADITIONAL

                                                  PARADIGM IS QUESTIONED TODAY

 Theme:  Dependency on extrinsic rewards for learning or 'extrinsic motivation' is a likely cause for declining motivation ... for declining educational 'standards' and the so-called 'educational crisis'. Consequently the pedagogical methods of the traditional paradigm are seriously questioned today. What is needed is an education for social adaptation or 'adaptability' as the ability to adapt to changing social conditions i.e an education for 'self-empowerment'. A self-empowering education emphasizes the learning process and motivation for learning which is based on learner interest. Only with growth through learning and the ability to learn and relearn can the individual adapt to changing social conditions.

 "Surely an education designed for the nineteenth century industrial society does not address the needs of our time. Our schools do not speak to the confused, fearful condition of the young generation who must inherit this troubled culture and this threatened planet. Consequently, American education has entered a period of upheaval and conflict from which it cannot emerge unchanged. Corporate leaders call for 'excellence' and accountability, while mainstream politicians seek to educate for a gobally competitive economic system; teachers demand greater professional autonomy, and minority communities and progressives work to make education responsive to a diverse multicultural society. Religious conservatives desert the public schools for more disciplined Christian academies and homeschooling, while more child-centered parents and educators seek greater freedom and meaningful learning for young people, sometimes through homeschooling as well. Some factions advocte greater choice, through vouchers or magnet schools, while others warn against abandoning the vision of common schooling. This last group will ultimately be the most disappointed, for the conflicts over education today result from the bare fact that there is no longer a societal consensus supporting the nineteenth century model of common schooling. A radically different paradigm, not yet clearly defined, is emerging." ( Ron Miller, 1993. Renewal of Meaning in Education: Responses to the Cultural and Ecological Crisis of Our Times. Brandon, VT: Holistic Education Press.)

Traditional paradigm of education: 'behavioural paradigm' In the nineteenth century, the 'traditional' paradigm of education was conceived and institutionalized within the framework of industrialism. The implicit understanding of the aim of education was the acquisition of objective 'knowledge' of textbook material through conditioned learning or 'conditioning'. Conditioning involves memorization or 'rote learning'. Rote learning is considered to be valid when the aim of education is to train for work in the factory. The hierarchical and assembly line approach to education is based on the assumption that acquisition of knowledge or 'learning' only takes place in 'school' and that education is the same as 'training' or 'schooling'. The aim of schooling is to impose academic requirements and inculcate those ethical codes which are considered important for the 'needs of society'. Justification for traditional pedagogical methods by the principles of 'behavioural science' or 'behaviourism' is the basis for the 'behavioural paradigm' of education. The behavioural paradigm promotes task-oriented education with a view to meeting requirements  of predetermined outcomes of 'learning behaviour' or 'learning outcomes'. The degree of success in learning is evaluated and measured in terms of a reward and punishment system of points and 'grades'.

Teacher's function is to devise 'teaching techniques' In the behavioural paradigm of education the teacher's function is to devise the right 'teaching techniques' for motivating students to work towards completion of given tasks and achievement of good grades. Task-oriented learning is defined in terms of the acquisition and 'possession' of knowledge considered to be static and 'finite'. The curriculum is fragmented and emphasis is placed on factual data and isolated information of textbook knowledge. There is little connection between curriculum material and problem solving life experience. Procedures and strategies are formulated in terms of 'passive learning' and 'authoritarian teaching'. The teacher' is perceived as an authority who has the power to transmit the knowledge which they possess to the 'student' who does not possess is the same knowledge i.e. the 'student/teacher contradiction' of 'banking education'. Authoritarian teaching makes use of the lecture method in the formal setting of the classroom. Since teachers are  authorities by virtue of their power of the transmission of knowledge, they unwittingly end up defending their status and protecting their institutions. They neglect student concerns for their own development - intellectual, emotional, psychological i.e. 'moral development'. Lack of concern for personal development is the probable cause for the so-called 'educational crisis'.

The educational crisis is ultimately due to the mistrust of human potential i.e. the 'human personality' or 'human nature'.

Open to serious question is the asssumption that the possession of knowledge brings with it the power to control the future. ( Norman Goble. The Function of Teaching 55)

Problem of motivation and so called 'student mediocrity'  Task-oriented education implies a submissive approach to learning and depends on the non-developing passive role of the student. Student passivity leads to declining motivation and the 'problem of motivation'. It is the problem of motivation which puts into question the hierarchical and mechanical methodologies of the behavioural paradigm of education. Emphasis on the authoritarian approach ignores the human capacity for reflection and the natural development of 'conceptual understanding' and inductive reasoning or 'critical thinking'. Students learn to rely for their motivation on the external or 'exrinsic rewards' for learning i.e. ‘extrinsic motivation’.

 

Their dependence on extrinsic motivation is a likely cause for the declining educational standards which are attributed to so-called 'student mediocrity'.

 

Mistrust of human nature impedes development of responsible socialisation or 'social inteelligence' Pedagogical methods of traditional education neglect to cultivate the individual's natural capacities for adaptation to the complexities of rapidly changing social conditions i.e. 'social intelligence'. Social intelligence is a function of responsible socialization which depends on development of the human potential for moral and intellectual growth to maturity i.e. 'self-actualisation'. Self-actualisation engages the individual's personal capacity for decision-making, creativity and productiveness or 'work'. Work which is meaningful enhances the development of the capacity to see the connections between learning and life i.e.learning from experience or 'experiential learning'. Experiential learning is a function of the integration of learning with growth or 'growth through learning'.

 

Failure to integrate learning with growth results in a the individuals's sense of alienation and ultimately to a sense of incompetence and incapacitation i.e. 'adult immaturity'.

   

Traditional education is no longer appropriate for today's world

 Institutionalized education with its emphasis on conditioning and behavioral outcomes is no longer relevant in the times of mass communications and the 'global village'....etc. As well as the sequential printed word, information is derived from multisensory sources of various forms and intensities. The complexity of information requires the brain to process simultaneously multitudinous stimuli - sights, sounds, images, ideas and others. For the purpose of survival, the brain must be able to derive meaning from a complex environment. The educational paradigm of industrialsism and behaviorism has become too limited. The educational experience for growing children is no longer a matter of simple preparation for a future working life. The educational experience must enable them to adapt to a changing environment and changing circumstances. It must prepare them for personal fulfillment and a life of change. It must engage their full capacity for learning, and for learning to learn. For a future of change and a global perspective in the global village, their subjective life must become of paramount concern in education. It is no longer possible to ignore their inner experience.

The behavioural paradigm of traditional education lacks vision and wisdom and is therefore limited and so inappropriate for the social needs of post-industrial society. It is no longer relevant for adaptability to the social demands of the age of mass communications or 'information age'. It fails to meet the challenges of complex learning for meaningful living in the complex world of the 'global village'. It continues to promote the myths of capitalism, to teach the values of materialism and consumerism and to foster the illusions of so-called material 'happiness'. It obscures the real challenges of complex learning. It fails to prepare the young for the realities of what it takes to realize their hopes and dreams. It is irresponsible because it does not respect or even recognize the human potential for intellectual and moral development. It ignores the inner life and the inner experiencing of the developing individual and denies those learning experiences which are meaningful and joyful because they encourage motivation which is intrinsic to natural learning i.e. intrinsic motivation'. Intrinsic motivation,  a function of the 'prefrontal lobes', is characteristic of the human organism as a social organism which depends on responsible education for development of social intelligence in order to adapt to changing social conditions i.e. social adaptation or 'adaptability'. Adaptability depends on the ability to learn, to relearn and to grow through learning. Education for social adaptability engages development of the powers of intrinsic motivation or 'self-empowerment'.

 

Self-empowerment depends on experiential learning which leads to understanding of the positive aspects of the responsibilities of 'freedom'.

 What is needed today is a new paradigm based on new educational theory... 'holistic education': teacher as 'facilitator of learning' Development of responsibility of freedom is the aim of education today. As a result of political, social and economic changes there is a general demand for the democratisation of education. There is a demand for respect for the right of every human being to be offered an education which provides for the development of self-empowerment required for adaptability in the context of any culture... 'cultural context'.  Education for self-empowerment is education of the whole person i.e. 'holistic education' or 'libratory pedagogy'. Libratory pedagogy emphasizes the learning process and is based on learner interest. Appropriate teaching techniques are concerned with the provision of learning environments which stimulate intrinsic motivation and engage development of the personality i.e. 'character'. An individual's character is defined by the degree of moral consciousness i.e. 'conscience' or 'soul'. 

In the paradigm of holistic education the teacher's role is defined as 'facilitator of learning'.                  

"What is needed is a framework for a more complex form of learning that makes it possible for us to organize and make sense of what we already know about educational theory and methods...Such a framework has to have a 'bottom line' integrity; for us that means it must integrate human behaviour and perception, emotions and physiology. To make our point, we borrow heavily from cognitive psychology, education, philosophy, sociology, science and technology, the new physics, and physiological responses to stress, as well as the neurosciences." (Caine, Renate Nummela and Geoffrey Caine. Making Connections: Teaching and the Human Brain. page viii)

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notes:

Traditional' methods in schools have not prepared students for the impact of electronic technology and the resulting complexity of life. Instead of preparing students for complex learning and a complex life, schools have fostered their illusions and obscured the real challenges of living. Students have not been motivated to think and talk about their own intellectual, emotional and moral development. They have been inhibited from developing their own natural capacities for to personal creativity and intellectual growth. The emphasis on predetermined outcomes has deprived students of the opportunity to develop a personal capacity for decision making. The emphasis on reward and punishment has deprived them of experiencing the real joys of learning. The schools have failed in their responsibility to teach students the positive aspects of responsibility to themselves. They have failed to teach them the real challenges involved in the realization of their own hopes and dreams. They have failed to prepare them for the demands of complex learning in a complex environment. Based on the assumptions of industrialism and behaviorism, they have failed as institutions of learning. They have institutionalized 'education' so that it has become little more than a process of 'human engineering.' Based on the assumptions of industrialism and behaviorism, the traditional teaching methods have been used in the institutionalization of education. As institutions of learning, schools have become little more than institutions of 'human engineering'. (Illich Deschooling Society)

With continued implementation of the 'traditional' methods in schools, students have not been prepared for the impact of the complexity of the information technology. Schools have not prepared students for complex learning in a complex environment. Instead, schools have fostered their illusions and obscured the real challenges of living in a complex world. Students have not been encouraged to think and talk about their own intellectual, emotional and moral development. The 'traditional' teaching methods inhibit the brain's natural capacities for creative intelligence and personal growth and development - intellectual, emotional and moral. Emphasis on predetermined outcomes and prescriptive learning inhibits the brain's natural capacity for decision making based on experiential learning. Emphasis on reward and punishment system of 'grading' and evaluation discourages the learner's ability to experience the real joys of learning. With the imposition of external authority, traditional methods discourage the individual learner from understanding the positive aspects of self-responsibility. They inhibit the individual's natural striving for self-preservation and self-realization. In fostering social myths and illusions of material 'happiness', the traditional methods obscure the real challenges of living. They prevent the individual from developing the critical consciousness necessary for self-preservation and self-realization. They fail to prepare the individual for meaningful living in a complex environment.

It was based on a set of assumptions such as 'knowledge implies the power to control the future', 'knowledge confers status' and so on.

 Notions such as these are prevalent in educational systems which are based on authoritarianism and resistance to the freedom of expression which is perceived as threatening to the dominant order.

The implicit goal of the hierarchical and assembly line education was to prepare for the 'needs of society' and schools were designed to provide for the needs of an industrial society.

A fragmented curriculum was designed in order to transfer the knowledge, impose the academic requirements and inculcate the ethical codes which were appropriate to the needs of the society.

Pedagogical aims were conceived in terms of teaching and learning strategies using an authoritarian approach to teaching and a submissive approach to learning.

The function of the teacher was to use the various 'teaching techniques' for motivating students to do work.

 In the traditional teaching paradigm, emphasis is on factual data and textbook knowledge.

Learning is task oriented and evaluated in terms of predetermined learning outcomes in the formal setting of the classroom.

Methods of evaluation of learning, knowledge and understanding are in the form of a conventional reward and punishment system of grades and grade averages.

Teachers in their role as authorities, unwittingly defend their status and protect their institutions.

Students learn to rely for their motivation on the extrinsic rewards for learning and they become dependent on extrinsic motivation.

The non-developing passive role of the student is a likely cause for declining educational 'standards' characteristic of the so-called 'crisis' in education.

Consequently, the mechanical methodology of the traditional paradigm is seriously questioned today.

 Traditional teaching methods are irresponsible because they do not encourge the development of the human capacity for understanding the connections between learning and life... is little connection between curriculum material and life experience... an inability to benefit effectively from learning experience.

They prevent the development of the positive aspects of responsibility.

They continue to promote the myths of capitalism, to reproduce the values of consumerism and to foster the illusions of material 'happiness'.

They obscure the real challenges of learning for meaningful living ...the realities of what it takes to realize one's own hopes and dreams.

 Based on the mistrust of human potentialities for responsible socialization, they ignore the human potential for moral growth and development and they inhibit intellectual growth.

They obstruct the human capacity for reflection and reason or 'thinking' and the development of personality with its personal capacity for decision making and creativity.

They deny learning experiences which are meaningful and joyful. They discourage the learner's motivation while learning or 'intrinsic motivation'.

They ignore the inner experiencing of the human inner life. Thought and discussion about issues affecting intellectual, emotional and moral growth necessary... the development of inductive reasoning, critical thinking and critical consciousness are required for the development of the human capacity for solving human problems of self-preservation and self-realization i.e. 'social adaptation'.

Methods of the traditional paradigm obstruct the natural capacity for social adaptation.

They neglect the learner's natural capacities for adaptation to changing social conditions.

Denial of the opportunity to develop personal creativity prevents the development of self-confidence and self-discipline necessary for a life of self-fulfillment and achievement.

The mind becomes a prisoner of itself. A gap is created between superficial knowledge and growth which is intellectual, emotional, psychological and moral as well.

The resulting incompetence and incapacitation for meeting the challenges of complex learning in a complex world leads to nonadaptive and destructive behaviour.

In view of the current explosion of knowledge and the continuous challenge to the validity of orthodox opinion, the education which was designed for the nineteenth century industrial society has become too limited.

It is no longer relevant for life in the post-industrial age of mass communications.

Lacking in both vision and wisdom, The traditional teaching paradigm does not address children's needs.

 The educational experience for growing children is a matter of preparation for a working life but life has changed.

Social adaptation depends on an education which goes beyond the strictly task-oriented schooling.

Children need to be prepared for a life of change.

Adaptation to changing environments and changing social conditions depends on the development of the human capacity for intelligent decision-making and personal creativity... on the capacity for learning in the context of experience.

Learning is a natural process in the individual's adaptation to changing social conditions.

Education which is responsible educates for adaptability to the complexities of life and to changing social conditions i.e. for social intelligence.

Essential for complex learning is the ability to grasp the links and make connections between learning and life experience.

Responsible education is based on the recognition and respect for the inner life and the inner needs which lead to the child's complete psychological, emotional and intellectual development.

For a future of change from a global perspective, it is no longer possible to ignore the individual's inner experience.

The newly emerging paradigm of wholistic education is based on the paramount concern for the learner's inner life ...the necessary conditions for intellectual, emotional, psychological and moral development.

In the new paradigm of teaching, the notion that a teacher's function is to impart facts has become invalid... the teacher's function is regarded as authoritative and facilitative rather than authoritarian and controlling.

The teacher's function is to facilitate meaningful learning providing a growth-promoting climate with opportunities for growth through learning... intrinsicliberatory education... Education for self-empowerment is 'liberatory education'  motivation and self-evaluation.

There is a general demand for the democritization of education and the recognition of the right to an education which provides the opportunity to develop the powers of intrinsic motivation for self-empowerment.

What is needed today is a new educational theory. What is needed is an education which fosters the individual's ability to adapt to changing social conditions i.e. social adaptation or 'adaptability'. Adaptability depends on the ablity to learn and relearn.

Education for adaptability is education which emphasizes the learning process.

Educational theory and practice is based on motivation for learning which involves learner interest or 'intrinsic motivation'.

Education based on intrinsic motivation is education for 'self - empowerment'. Education for self-empowerment is 'liberatory education'.

Liberatory education fosters growth through learning.

extrinsic motivation... Students learn to rely for their motivation on the extrinsic rewards for learning and they become dependent on extrinsic motivation.

 intrinsic motivation... They discourage the learner's 'intrinsic motivation'. assumptions... The traditional paradigm is based on a set of assumptions such as 'knowledge implies the power to control the future', 'knowledge confers status' and so on.

social adaptation... Methods of the traditional paradigm obstruct the development of the natural capacity for social adaptation.

traditional education... In the traditional paradigm of education, the goals of education have been shaped by the worldview of reductionist science.

 

 

  Dependency on extrinsic rewards for learning is a likely cause for declining educational 'standards' in the modern post industrial age and the traditional paradigm is questioned today.

 During the twentieth century, the traditional paradigm of education was conceived and institutionalized within the framework of industrialism and behaviourism. Schools were designed to provide an education for the needs of an industrial society. Pedagogical aims were perceived in terms of teaching and learning methods, procedures and strategies which were oriented towards the training of young people for work in the an industrial society. The implicit goal of traditional education was education for the 'needs of the society' and is concerned with the transfer of knowledge, the imposition of academic requirements and the inculcation of ethical codes. Using the authoritarian approach of the lecture method, the teacher's function is to emphasize textbook knowledge and devise strategies and 'teaching techniques' for motivating students to work. Methods of evaluation of learning, knowledge and understanding are in the form of a conventional reward and punishment system of grades and grade averages. In their role as authorities, teachers unwittingly defend their status and protect their institutions. Students learn to rely for their motivation on the extrinsic rewards for learning, depending on extrinsic motivation - a likely cause for declining educational 'standards'. The hierarchical and mechanical school environment of traditional education is seriously questioned today. The traditional teaching paradigm is irresponsible education because it continues to promote the myths of capitalism, to foster the illusions of material 'happiness', to reproduce the values of a consumer culture and in this way to obscure the real challenges of living and the realities of what it takes to realize one's hopes and dreams. It fails to meet the challenges of complex learning for meaningful living in a complex environment. It is irresponsible because it ignores the child's inner life and inner experiencing. It denies learning experiences which are meaningful and joyful because they encourage motivation while learning i.e intrinsic motivation. It mistrusts the human potential for moral development. It obstructs intellectual growth and the development of personality with its personal capacity for decision making and creativity. It neglects to foster the individual's natural capacities for adaptation to changing social conditions. It prevents the experiencing and the development of the positive aspects of responsibility to oneself as well as to others. This leads to the inability to benefit effectively from learning experiences and to grasp the link between learning and life. The traditional paradigm is based on a set of assumptions which should be identified and questioned. Is it true that knowledge implies the power to control the future? Does knowledge really confer status? This notion is predominant in those educational systems in which authoritarianism results in the resistance to any expression which is perceived as a threat to authority. The fragmented and assembly line education of the traditional paradigm places emphasis on knowledge of factual data, predetermined learning and behaviour outcomes, reward and punishment evaluation with little connection between curriculum material and problem solving life experiences. In the formal setting of the classroom, learning is task oriented and depends on the non-developing passive role of the student. This inhibits thought and discussion about issues which affect one's intellectual, emotional and moral growth necessary for self-realization and self-preservation. It actually prevents the development of the learner's natural capacity for understanding the connections between their learning and their life experience and their problems. It obstructs the development of the human capacity for reason i.e. the capacity to 'think'. Reasoning and thought are required for intellectual and moral growth of responsible social beings. The development of inductive reasoning, critical thinking and critical consciousness forms the basis of a conceptual understanding of human problems. Denial of the opportunity to develop personal creativity prevents the development of self-confidence and self-discipline necessary for a life of self-fulfillment and achievement. The mind becomes a prisoner of itself. A gap is created between superficial knowledge and growth which is intellectual, emotional, psychological and moral as well. The resulting incompetence and incapacitation for meeting the challenges of complex learning in a complex world leads to nonadaptive and destructive behaviour. Today, the fragmented and assembly line approach to education has become too limited. In view of the current explosion of knowledge and the continuous challenge to the validity of orthodox opinion, the education which was designed for the nineteenth century industrial society lacks both vision and wisdom. The traditional teaching paradigm is no longer relevant for living in the modern post-industrial age of mass communications in a global village. Children's needs are not addressed. Social adaptation depends on an education which goes beyond the strictly task-oriented schooling. The educational experience for growing children is a matter of preparation for a working life but life has changed. Children need to be prepared for a life of change. Adaptation to changing environments and changing social conditions depends on the development of the human capacity for intelligent decision-making and personal creativity... on the capacity for learning in the context of experience. Learning is a natural process with the function's in the individual's adaptation to changing social conditions. Education which is responsible educates for adaptability to the complexities of life and to changing social conditions i.e. for social intelligence. Essential for complex learning is the ability to grasp the links and make connections between learning and life experience. Responsible education is based on the recognition and respect for the inner life and the inner needs which lead to the child's complete psychological, emotional and intellectual development. For a future of change from a global perspective, it is no longer possible to ignore the individual's inner experience. The newly emerging paradigm of wholistic education is based on a paramount concern which is the learner's inner life and the necessary conditions for the learner's intellectual, emotional, psychological and moral development. In the new paradigm of teaching, the notion that a teacher's function is to impart facts has become invalid... the teacher's function is regarded as authoritative and facilitative rather than authoritarian and controlling. The teacher's function is to facilitate meaningful learning providing a growth-promoting climate with opportunities for growth through learning... intrinsic motivation and self-evaluation. There is a general demand for the democritization of education and the recognition of the right to an education for self-empowerment.