"The future happiness of the human race depends on just one thing - international cooperation. This means the whole-hearted cooperation of all men and women of goodwill, regardless of race or creed, regardless of flag or political affiliation." (Hendrik Willem Van Loon 'Observations on the Mystery of Print and the Work of Johann Gutenberg.' Book Manufactureres' Institute, Inc. 1937).

"For too long the inner world of children has been suppressed or denied, and this is a serious flaw in our educational thinking that holistic educators seek to remedy". (Kathleen Kesson Critical Theory and Holistic Education: Carrying on the Conversation in Ron Miller et al. The Renewal of Meaning in Education: Responses to the Cultural and Ecological Crisis of our Times. p.109)

"An educational system isn't worth a great deal if it teaches young people how to make a living but doesn't teach them how to make a life." ~ anonymous

THEMES:

                   1. Brain sciences as basis for holistic education...

                   2. Education in cultural context...

                                        American culture as success oriented capitalist culture...

                   3. Holistic education as practice of freedom...

                   4. Human nature and growth...

                               'human nature as 'free morality' or 'ethical rationality' of maturity.

                   5. Aim of education as cultivation of intelligence...

                   6. Progressive education...

                   7. Traditional paradigm...

                   8. So-called 'educational crisis' as representative of a paradigm shift...

                   9. Development of conscience as basis for social adaptability...

                 10. American culture as capitalist culture

Quotations on education

Tanspersonal model of human nature...

 

Once a person has awakened to the transpersonal dimensions of existence, life itself is held in a different perspective." This is an aspect of healthy psychological and intellectual growth.

 The Buddha defines the 'First Noble Truth of Buddhism' thus: 'all life is imbued with suffering.' Consequently the individual must live in a transpersonal 'level' of consciousness, beyond the ego and existensial 'levels', in order to confront and reconcile life with its apparent inevitabilities of loss and death. The individual must understand the three truths which the Buddha claimed would help to lead the way out of the dilemma: first, 'the cause of all suffering is attachment', second, 'the relief of suffering comes from the cessation of attachment', and third 'the cessation of attachment comes from following the eightfold path, a prescription for ethical living and mental training aimed at attaining full enlightenment.

"The most frequently mentioned dimension in transpersonal models of human nature is consciousness. Probably we would expect healthier individuals to have greater access to a wider range of states, especially those possessing greater numbers and degrees of state-specific capacities, i.e. higher states. The most advanced individuals might be expected to have greater degrees of voluntary control and even to be able to enter a wide number of states at will." ("Beyond Ego: Transpersonal Dimensions in Psychology" edited by R. Walsh and F. Vaughan 1980 p. l20)

"In the dimension of perception, attributes of health might include perceptual sensitivity, clarity, and relative freedom from distortion.

"The fully realized human is one whose doors of perception have been cleansed.This is the ability to see things as they are, free from distorting influences of desire, aversion, ignorance and fear." ("Beyond Ego: Transpersonal Dimensions in Psychology edited by Roger Walsh, M.D. Ph.D and Frances Vaughan Ph.D. J.P. Tarcher, Inc. Los Angeles l980)

 (See Smith,H "The Sacred Unconscious." In R. Walsh and D.Shapiro eds. "Beyond Health and Normality": explorations of extreme psychological well-being." New York, Van Nostrnd Rheinhold )

 "The healthy person's sense of identity would be expected to extend beyond the usual ego self-sense. On one hand we would expect health to be associated with recognizing, owning and integrating the shadow, that component of the psyche comprising attributes judged to be negative and inconsistent with one's self-image. On the other hand we might expect the very healthy to live in the presence of the numinous (filled with a sense of the presence of divinity), the 'sacred unconscious,' the transpersonal self, or pure awareness, and to realize that they are that too." ("Beyond Ego: Transpersonal Dimensions in Psychology" edited by R. Walsh and F. Vaughan. J.P.Tarcher, Inc. Los Angeles l980 120)

 

"One of the goals discussed by Tom Roberts in 'Education and Transpersonal Relations' is therefore the expansion of the educative process into these other dimensions. Roberts suggests that though the field is very young, a number of useful and enjoyable techniques exist for facilitating the attainment of traditional and nontraditional goals. One of the most important tasks awaiting transpersonal educators is the exploration of the optimal goals and potentials of such an expanded educational curriculum." (Walsh l98)

 "In the 'Tao of Personal and Social Transformation,' Duane Elgin suggests that expanded awareness is reflected in a quality of life that seeks harmony with nature, both inner and outer, rather than domination over it. For the person working in these areas there is no question of their connection with, and responsibility for, the larger whole of which they experience themselves to be an inseparable component. For a person beginning to experience what was formerly 'other' as 'self,' it makes no sense not to acknowledge responsibility and the need for ethicality and service. With the attendant reduction in egocentric desires, there is less wish to impose one's will on nature and others and more interest in harmonizing with them in an ecological and Taoistic manner. Fewer desires means less desire for consumerism or susceptibility to advertising pressures, resulting in a tendency toward a choiceful life of voluntary simplicity." (R. Walsh, F. Vaughan. Beyond Ego: Transpersonal Dimensions in Psychology)

"A new vision of social interaction and lifestyle emerges as we learn to integrate all aspects of human experience, inner and outer, Eastern and Western, personal and transpersonal. The capacity of human beings to transcend the limitations of social conditioning and to take responsibility for designing their lives in harmony with nature and others becomes increasingly apparent to those individuals who commit themselves to the self-exploration necessary for direct experience of the deeper nature of their being. (Walsh 200)

"If life and living are experienced as an unbroken pattern of interconnection that extends from the most minute details of daily existence to the largest scale features of the cosmos, then withdrawal from worldly responsibility is not possible. If a person engages life consciously and directly, there is literally no place to go where one can escape the experiencable connection with all of life... The task then becomes one of bringing one's life, in all of its diverse expressions, into increasingly conscious and harmonious alignment with the changing web of relationships of which one is an inseparable part." (Duane Elgin. Voluntary Simplicity)

 

 from Walsh 200)

2. AMERICAN CULTURE

 CAUSE FOR CONFUSION IN VALUES According to Mario Montessori the confusion of values in American culture and American society results from the coercive social system. 'Freedom' is confused with licence: (F.J.J. Buytendijk, Experienced Freedom and Moral Freedom in the Child's Conscience, Amsterdam: A.M.I.Communications, 1963.) 'Adaptation' is confused with conformism. (Jeanne Lampl-deGroot, "Some Thoughts on Adaptation and Conformism" in R.M. Loewenstein et al., Psychoanalysis - A General Psychology, New York: International Universiies Press, 1966) 'Discipline' is confused with submissiveness. (Huxley? Ends and Means, New York: Harper and Brothers, 1937. see p. 200ff where he quotes Maria Montessori and discusses the coexistence of freedom and responsibility vs. education for bullying and subordination in Western democracies.) 'Independence' is confused with antiauthoritarianism. (Hannah Arendt, Between Past and Future, New York: Meriden Books, 1963 p. 190) 'Equality' is confused with uniformity. (Hannah Arendt, Between Past and Future, New York: Meriden Books, 1963 p. 190) In the American culture, "we are dealing with an infantile attitude toward the social system" It had its beginnings in the child's reaction to a dominant and intolerant parent. The child continues to be motivated by the misconceived value system - a value distortion". (Montessori, MarioSchocken Books, New York. 1967 89-95)

 

4. HUMAN NATURE AND HUMAN GROWTH

"The understanding of nature has as its goal the understanding of human nature, and of the human condition within nature." (Bronowski, J. The Ascent of Man, London: British Broadcasting Corporation, 1973. page 5)

 Scientific study of man as a whole would "mark the beginning of a new era, the scientific era, in which all desirable human characteristics would be released from the present animalistic, psychophysiological, aristotelian semantic blockages, and that sanity would prevail". (Korzybski Science and Sanity 18)

HISTORICAL MISTRUST OF HUMAN NATURE "There has been a special tendency in Western culture, historically determined, to assure that (the) instinctoid needs of the human being, his so-called animal nature, are base and evil. As a consequence, many cultural institutions are set up for the express purpose of controlling, inhibiting, suppressing and repressing this original nature of man." (From Maslow Psychology of Being. page 164)       

 History of perception of human nature. "Traditionally, throughout the history of philosophy, theology, psychology, natural desires have been considered annoying and even threatening...Theologians, political philosophers and economic theorists have conceived of various strategies to remove, deny or avoid people's 'unwanted' desires and needs. People's happiness has been considered in terms of improving their conditions with a view to eliminating their needs." (Maslow Toward a Psychology of Being 28)

HUMAN NATURE... PRESSURE ... TENDENCY TOWARDS SELF-ACTUALISATION I.E. 'GROWTH'  

"We can certainly now assert that at least a reasonable, theoretical and empirical case has been made for the presence within the human being of a tendency toward, or need for growing in a direction that can be summarized in general as self-actualization, or psychological health, i.e. he has within him a pressure toward unity of personality, toward spontaneous expressiveness, toward full individuality and identity, toward seeing the truth rather than being blind, toward being creative, toward being good and a lot else. That is the human being is so constructed that he presses toward fuller and fuller being and this means pressing toward what most people would call good values, toward serenity, kindness, courage, honesty, love, unselfishness, and goodness." (Abraham Maslow Towards a Psychology of Being page 155)

"It looks as though there were a single ultimate value for mankind, a far goal toward which all men strive. This is called variously, self-actualization, self-realization, integration, psychological health...but they all agree that this amounts to realizing the potentialities of the person, that is to say, becoming fully human, everything that the person can become." (Maslow Toward a Psychology of Being)

Man has within him "a pressure ...toward unity of personality, toward spontaneous expressiveness, toward full individuality and identity, toward seeing the truth rather than being blind, toward being creative, toward being good, and a lot else" (Abraham Maslow "Toward a Psychology of Being" 2nd. ed., New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., l968, l55.

 Man demonstrates this "pressure toward fuller and fuller Being, more and more perfect actualization of his humanness in exactly the same naturalistic, scientific sense that an acorn may be said to be 'pressing toward' being an oak tree, or that a tiger can be observed to 'push toward' being tigerish. (Abraham Maslow "Toward a Psychology of Being" 2nd. ed., New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., l968, l60)

 Carl Rogers describes "man's tendency to actualize himself, to become his potentialities, ...(to manifest) the directional trend which is evident in all organic and human life - the urge to expand, extend, develop, mature - the tendency to express and activtate all the capacities of the organism."(Carl Rogers, "Toward a Theory of Creativity," in Creativity and its Cultivation, New York: Harper, l959 p.72)

"Life has an inherent tendency to grow, to expand, to express potentialities." (Erich "Escape from Freedom" New York: Rinehart, l94l) p.269

 "Man has a tendency to realize himself". (Walter Weisskopf. 'Existence and Values' in (Ed) Abraham Maslow. New Knowledge in Human Values: Reality and Sign of the Tao in Chinese philosophy: New York: Harper Brothers 1959 p.131)

GROWTH THROUGH LEARNING

"The aim of man's life is the unfolding of his powers according to the laws of his nature" ... In humanistic ethics 'good' is the affirmation of life, the unfolding of man's powers. 'Virtue' from 'Virtus' is 'responsibility toward one's existence, excellence of one's achievement." 'Vice' is "irresponsibility toward one's own existence." (Fromm Man For Himself: An Inquiry into the Psychology of Ethics. 20)

Growth as the process of development of ethical rationality: "The problem of achieving ethical rationality is this: the aligning and harmonizing of violently powerful emotional forces is a necessary PRECONDITION for rational thought. This harmonizing can only be accomplished through the intrinsically non-rational means of harmonious experiences with other people who have great emotional importance for oneself. The intellect can be used to select and arrange such an experience, but the crux of the interaction is an emotional experience which has little to do with rational thought....bringing us to the paradox that points to the solution - not either intellect or emotion, but intellect and emotion are essential components of rationality."(Peck, R. The Psychology of Character Development. New York, London: John Wiley and Sons, 1960. 202) ...a rational theory of ethics would have to provide for these kinds of non-rational experiences, while at the same time providing for regular, rational examination of the course and the moral consequences of one'sactions." (Peck, R. The Psychology of Character Development. New York, London: John Wiley and Sons, 1960. 202)

"As the essential Being of the world is perceived by the person, so also does he concurrently come closer to his own Being, to his own perfection, of being more perfectly himself." (Abraham Maslow Towards a Psychology of Being page 95)

 "How is growth accomplished? Through a series of changes. Without change there can be no development. And indeed, the most characteristic quality of life as we know it is change. Life is eternally changing, and the inevitable flow of life from one event or state to another is an eternal truth ." (Jack Forem. Transcendental Meditation: Maharishi Mahesh Yogi and the Science of Creative Intelligence. l974 l9)
 

Normal psychological development or 'natural development' is a function of growth through meaningful learning. "In natural growth each successive stage of activity prepares unconsciously, but thoroughly, the conditions for the manifestation of the next stage - as in the cycle of a plant's growth". (John Dewey. How We Think: A Restatement of the Relation of Reflective Thinking to the Educative Process  Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath and Company, 1933 88) 

"What is most unique about man is that his growth as an individual depends on the history of his species - not upon a history reflected in genes and chromosomes but, rather, reflected in a culture external to man's tissue and wider in scope than is embodied in any one man's competency. Perforce then, the growth of mind is always growth assisted from the outside. And since a culture, particularly an advanced one, transcends the bounds of individual competence, the limits for individual growth are by definition greater than what any single person has previously attained. For the limits of growth depend on how a culture assists the individual to use such individual potential as he may possess." (Jerome Bruner, The Relevance of Education. New York: W.W. Norton & Co., Inc. 1971 page 5)

 HUMAN NATURE AND FREEDOM: PUREST EXPRESSION OF HUMAN NATURE IS THE MORALITY OF INNER FREEDOM... i.e. 'FREE MORALITY' OF 'MATURITY'  OR 'ETHICAL RATIONALITY'

WHAT IS MATURITY? Maturity is having a philosophic sense of the whole.... Human nature and the mature mind: "A mature person is a 'maturing person' - one whose linkages with life are constantly becoming stronger and richer because his attitudes are such as to encourage their growth rather than their stoppage." (H.A. Overstreet, The Mature Mind, W.W. Norton & Co. Inc. New York 1954 43)

"The most recent of the great insights that have invited man to maturity came with the development of science. The scientific method is not commonly regarded as an insight into human nature; but this, in its essence, is what it is. It is a systematized expression of the fact that man is a species capable of transcending his own limitations of sense and of subjectivity." The immature mind is the product of thwarted human development. "The most dangerous members of our society are those grownups whose powers of influence are adult but whose motives and responses are infantile." (H.A. Overstreet, The Mature Mind, W.W. Norton & Co. Inc. New York 1954 44)

 "The free man acts morally because he has a moral idea; he does not act in order that morality may come into being. Human individuals, with the moral ideas belonging to their nature, are the prerequisites of a moral world order. The human individual is the source of all morality. State and society exist only because they have arisen as a necessary consequence of the life of the individuals. ...the social order arises so that it in turn may react favorably upon the individual." (Steiner, Philosophy of Freedom page 144)

 In normal human development - in the context of inner freedom - intellectual and moral development take place together.

"...the 'free spirit' - the moral being - is the purest expression of human nature." "We are men in the true sense only in so far as we are free. Knowledge of oneself - self-knowledge - overcomes the division between the subjective self and the objective world. During normal growth and development - with self-knowledge- the individual "brings the concept of himself to expression in his outer existence." (Steiner, R. Philosophy of Freedom. London: Rudolph Steiner Press. 1970 page 141)

  The natural tendency of the mind is to move in the direction of greater happiness. (Jack Forem "Transcendental Meditation" Maharishi Mahesh Yogi and the Science of Creative Intelligence New York: E.P. Dutton & Co.,Inc. l974 36)

 "The mind's attention naturally shifts to the more enjoyable situation. The technique of transcendental meditation utilizes this natural tendency of the mind to wander in search of fulfillment. Based on the very stucture of life, it is entirely natural. It is a way of "allowing our authentic human nature to express itself, released from the bondage of stress and tension, which have nothing to do with what we really are. Stress is not natural to life... Stress can be removed by deep rest such as that obtained in transcendental meditation." (Jack Forem "Transcendental Meditation" Maharishi Mahesh Yogi and the Science of Creative Intelligence New York: E.P. Dutton & Co.,Inc. l974 page 75)

Projecting the attention outward through the senses thwarts the mind's natural tendency to shift towards the realm of creative intelligence, the union ('yoga' in Sanscrit) of the never-changing aspect of life (Absolute) and the ever-changing aspect of life (relative). (Jack Forem "Transcendental Meditation" Maharishi Mahesh Yogi and the Science of Creative Intelligence. New York: E.P. Dutton & Co.,Inc.l974. 78) "The habit of the mind has been to search outside, to be turned toward external objects of experience in its search for happiness."(37) "The laws of our own nature carry us to our fulfillment."(37) The human being's creative intelligence allows him to live the highest values spontaneoously and naturally. Creative intelligence is the 'spontaneous unfolding of life.'

"This integration of life's inner and outer phases is an effortless process, involving neither concentration nor control."(Forem 38)

HUMAN NATURE IS A FUNCTION OF HUMAN VALUES... 'CONSCIENCE' 

  “In A Theory of Metamotivation: The Biological Rooting of the Value-Life, Abraham Maslow lays out a number of hypotheses about the nature and experience of selfactualizers and self-transcenders. He first describes the hierarchy of needs and suggests that higher needs ( metaneeds, B for being- Values) for truth, beauty, transcendence, etc. are just as biologically based as are the lower, more obviously physiological ones such as thirst and sex. Further, he proposes that the failure to satisfy metaneeds may result in corresponding forms of pathology (metapathology) analagous to  those resulting from unsatisfied lower needs. Thus he concludes that transcendant, religious, esthetic, and philosophical facets of life are as real and intrinsic to human nature as any biological needs". (Walsh 121)
 

  Maslow concludes from his scientific study of human nature : "our deepest needs are not in themselves dangerous, evil or bad." Consequently "we can reject the almost universal mistake  that the interests of the individual and of the society are of necessity mutually exclusive and antagonistic, or that civilization is primarily a mechanism for controlling and policing human instinctoid impulses. All of these age-old axioms are swept away by the new possibility of defining the main function of a healthy culture as the fostering of universal self-actualization." (Maslow Psychology of Being 159)
 

VALUING PROCESS IN THE DEVELOPING HUMAN BEING "The living human being has, at the outset, a clear approach to values. He prefers some things and experiences and rejects others. We can infer from studying his behaviour that he prefers those experiences which maintain, enhance, or actualize his organism, and rejects those which do not serve this end. Watch him for a bit...  The infant's 'values' are clearly obvious to anyone observing his behaviour and his reactions. Hunger is negatively valued and food is positively valued. But when the hunger is satisfied then food is negatively valued. Security is positively valued. Affection is positively valued because it communicates security. New experience is valued. Pleasure is gained from the satisfaction of curiosity. Pain, bitter tastes and sudden loud sounds are negatively valued. The infant reacts overtly and gives expression to his likes and dislikes. He naturally likes what is good for him dislikes what is bad for him. The approach to 'values' which is demonstrated by the infant is a "flexible, changing, valuing process, not a fixed system...Unlike many of us, he knows what he likes and dislikes, and the origin of these value choices lies strictly within himself. He is the center of the valuing process, the evidence for his choices being spplied by his own senses... He likes a food and then dislikes the same food. He values security and then rejects it in favor of new experience. He is not influenced by anyone but is reacting as a biological organism operating within an environment in which it must satisfy its ultimate need for self-actualization. The 'values' expressed by the infant are 'operative' values. The 'operative values' are the values chosen on the basis of the organism's inherent tendency toward self-actualization". (Carl Rogers "Freedom to Learn" Charles Merrill Publishing Company, Columbus Ohio l969 From chapter l2 "A modern approach to the valuing process" 239-257)


"Man's value judgements  - his criteria for good and evil- are derived from the meaningfulness of his own existence. Man finds fulfillment and happiness through love - the power by which he relates to the world through his fellow man... Living' as an art : the process of developiong into that which one is potentially. "Humanistic ethics is the applied science of the 'art of living' based upon the theoretical 'science of man'." (Fromm Man For Himself: An Inquiry into the Psychology of Ethics18) .

 IF THE TENDENCY TOWARD SELF-ACTUALISATION IS THWARTED, RESULT IS DESTRUCTIVENESS

"If life's tendency to grow, to be lived, is thwarted, the energy thus blocked undergoes a process of change and is transformed into life-destructive energy. Destructiveness is the outcome of unlived life. Those individual and social conditions which make for the blocking of life-furtheriing energy produce destructiveness which in turn is the source from which the various manifestations of evil spring." (Fromm Man For Himself 216)

 

 SELFISHNESS IS NOT THE SAME AS SELF-LOVE

 "Is (modern man's) selfishness identical with self-love or is it not caused by the very lack of it?" (Man for Himself p. 129)...

"Selfishness and self-love, far from being identical are actually opposites ...selfish persons are incapable of loving others, but they are not capable of loving themselves either." (Man for Himself page 131)


 "The emergence of man can be defined as occurring at the point in the process of evolution where instinctive adaptation has reached its minimum. But he emerges with new qualities which differentiate him from the animal: his awareness of himself as a separate entity, his ability to remembrer the past, to visualize the future, and to denote objects and acts by symbols; his reason to conceive and understand the world; and his imagination through which he reaches far beyond the range of his senses. Man is the most helpless of all animals, but this very biological weakness is the basis for his strength, the prime cause for the development of his specifically human qualities." (Man For Himself 39)

Two general characteristics of the evolutionary process must be kept in mind in any discussion of the origins of human nature. First , evolution is utilitarian - because thes main directing force of evolutionary change is natural selction. Secondly, it is opportunistic - because it lacks a prescience of the future. (Dobjansky T. Human Nature as a Product of Evolution. Ed. Abraham Maslow. New knowledge in Human Values. New York: Harper Brothers 1959. 78) "Man became a winner in the evolutionary race because of powers of his brain not of his body." (Dobjansky T. Human Nature as a Product of Evolution. Ed. Abraham Maslow. New knowledge in Human Values. New York: Harper Brothers 1959. 78)

 "The unique human quality which has brought about the biological ascendancy of our species is the ability to think in terms of symbols and abstractions. This ability has permitted the development of the peculiarly human mode of communication, by means of symbolic languages." (Dobjansky T. Human Nature as a Product of Evolution. Ed. Abraham Maslow. New knowledge in Human Values. New York: Harper Brothers 1959. 78))

 Compared to other biological species, the young of human beings "have few and very indefinite instincts. To survive, the human young must acquire large amounts of information from older members of the species, and an instinct to do this is one that humans do have... the 'introjective instinct.' We are born with 'authority-bearing structures' in our mind - psychological structures specifically receptive to instruction from individuals standing in certain relations to us... The child introjects - makes a part of himself "what appear to him as the wishes, demands, hates, scorns, and standards of his psychological parents. Even if they are weak and infantile themselves, their weakness is introjected as if it were strength. The internalized images have a malignant effect on the child's character and personality development." (Donald Barr. Who Pushed Humpty Dumpty?: Dilemmas in American Education. Atheneum, New York, l97l)

UNDERSTANDINDING OF THWARTED HUMAN DEVELOPMENT PROVIDES KNOWLEDGE OF HUMAN NATURE - and therefore for 'science of ethics' PSYCHOLANALYSIS AS CONTRIBUTING TO SUBJECTIVE BIOLOGY

"An individual's search for identity is essentially a search for his own intrinsic value system, his own authentic nature, his humanness, the human core which he shares with other members of the human species." (Erich Fromm Man For Himself)

Psychoanalytic therapies help the individual uncover the biologically based intrinsic values with which he naturally prefers to identify. They help the individual to 'search for his identity'. An individual's search for identity is essentally a search for his own intrinsic value system, his own authentic nature, his humanness, the human core which he shares with other members of the human species. (Maslow Psychology of Being, 177?) See "the Science of Value' Robert Hartman in Maslow A.H. ed. 'New Knowledge in Human Values' Harper, 1959 "As the essential Being of the world is perceived by the person, so also does he concurrently come closer to his own Being, to his own perfection, of being more perfectly himself." (Maslow Psychology of Being, 177 95)"

 "The looking within for the real self is a kind of 'subjective biology' for it must include an effort to become conscious of one's own constitutional, temperamental, anatomical, physiological and biochemical needs, capacities and reactions i.e. one's biological individuality. It is also the path to experiencing one's specieshood, one's commoness with all other members of the human species. That is, it is a way to experiencing our biological brotherhood with all human beings no matter what their external circumstances." (Maslow Psychology of Being, 185)

 IMPROVED SELF-KNOWLEDGE (AND CLARITY OF ONE'S VALUES) IS ALSO COINCIDENT WITH IMPROVED KNOWLEDGE OF OTHERS AND OF REALITY IN GENERAL (AND CLARITY OF THEIR VALUES)." (Walsh l77)

INTRINSIC PERCEPTION OF HUMAN NATURE IS 'CONSCIENCE' - SOURCE OF MORALITY OF 'NATURAL ETHIC

We all have an 'intrinsic conscience' which is based on the  "unconscious and preconscious perception of our own nature, of our own destiny, of our own capacities, of our own 'call' in life." (Maslow, A. Toward a Psychology of Being, Van Nostrand Reinhold  Co. New York: 1962 page 7)

"The criteria for morality depend on the needs for individual growth. Attitudes which are conducive to a person's growth are 'moral' and those which are obstructice to a persons growth are 'immoral.' Growth and self-realization are not possible without truthfulness to oneself." (Karen Horney. Neurosis and Human growth 366?)

 Humanistic conscience is based on the knowledge of man's nature. The great tradition of humanistic ethical thought is based on a wholistic perspective of man in his 'physico-spiritual totality'. It is based on the belief that man's aim is to be himself, and that the condition for attaining this goal is that man be for himself. It is based on the premise that one has to know the ature of man in order to formulate valid ethical codes. Based on the validity of man's autonomy, valid ethical norms are formed by man's reason." (Fromm Man For Himself 7)

 Humanistic ethics: "... our knowledge of human nature does not lead to ethical relativism, but to the conviction that the sources of norms for ethical conduct are to be found in man's nature itself; moral norms are based on man's inherent qualities, and their violation results in mental and emotional disintegration...the character structure of the mature and integrated personality, the 'productive ' character, constitutes the source and the basis of 'virtue' and 'vice' in the last analysis is the indifference to one's own self and self-mutilation." 'Self-love' and the affirmation of one's true self are the supreme values of humanistic ethics. "If man is to have confidence in values, he must know himself and the capacity of his nature for goodness and productiveness." (Fromm Man For Himself 7

MORALITY AS A FUNCTION OF INTELLIGENCE "A moral situation is one in which judgement and choice are required antecedently to overt action. The practical meaning of the situation - that is to say the action needed to satisfy it - is not self-evident. It has to be searched for. There are conflicting desires and alternative apparent goods. What is needed is to find the right course of action, the right good. Hence inquiry is exacted...This inquiry is intelligence." (Dewey The Quest for Certainty. page 255)

 "The free man acts morally because he has a moral idea; he does not act in order that morality may come into being. Human individuals, with the moral ideas belonging to their nature, are the prerequisites of a moral world order. The human individual is the source of all morality. State and society exist only because they have arisen as a necessary consequence of the life of the individuals. ...the social order arises so that it in turn may react favorably upon the individual." (Steiner, R. Philosophy of Freedom: Philosophy of Spiritual Activity. The Basis for a Modern World Conception. (Some results of introspective observation following the methods of Natural Science). London: Rudolf Steiner Press, 1970. page 144

MORAL DEVELOPMENT "What is being asserted is that...the existence of moral stages implies that moral development has a basic structural component. While motives and affects are involved in moral development, the development of these motives and affects are largely mediated by changes in thought patterns." (Lawrence Kohlberg, L. Stage and Sequence: The Cognitive-Developmental Approach to Socialization. In In D.A. Goslin (ed.) Handbook of Socialization Theory and Research. Chicago: Rand McNally 1969, 390)

 SANITY AND SOCIALISATION ... sanity depends on his ability to unite with other human beings. By uniting with a person or group, the human individual transcends the separateness of his existence. The only emotion which satisfies the need to unite and achieve integrity at the same time is love. Love is union with somebody, or something, outside of oneself, under the condition of retaining the separateness and integrity of one's own self." (Fromm E. Values, Psychology, and Human Existence Maslow, A. ed. New Knowledge in Human Values. New York: Harper Brothers 1959. 153)

 OPERATIVE VALUES/ORGANISMIC LEARNING PROCESS Operative values are related to the organism's inborn capacities and talents. Denial or frustration of any of these needs, capacities or yearnings leads to psychopathology which can be manifested as 'evil'.

 Knowledge of human values depends on a wholistic understanding of the integration of all aspects of the human personality, incorporating the biological need for unconditional love and the divine aspects of human nature.

 Man can become free by being himself (257) In this context 'freedom' means self-realization. "The realizaion of the self is accomplished not only by an act of thinking, but also by the realization of man's total personality, by the active expression of his emotional and intellectual potentialities. These potentialities are present in everybody; they become real only to the extent which they are expressed. In other words, positive freedom consists in the spontaneous activity of the total, integrated personality."(Fromm man For Himself 258) (See Maharishi Mahesh Yogi "The Science of Being and Art of Living." International SRM Publications, l966, chapter 9 l88-200)

 In striving for 'self-realization', the natural development of human nature aims for the full maturation of the naturally inherent human potential for better adjustment to his instrinsic needs

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 "The way one experiences others is not different from the way one experiences oneself." (Fromm, Erich. "Man for Himself: an Inquiry into the Psychology of Ethics." Holt, Rhinehart and Winston, New York, l947. page 73)

In the real mastery of life, there is no suppression of emotion. There is a direct recognition of the emotional state. A person who is master of his own life is committed to doing always what is important to do, independent of emotional exprience. This does not mean that emotion must be suppressed. On the contrary, the emotional state must be recognized in order to put it in the right perspective. For the development of creative initiative, the senior force is creation. The emotions must remain subordinate to the creative process. Louis Pasteur said that " a man of science may hope for what may be said of him in the future, but he cannot think of the insults -or the compliments or his own day."

CHARACTER "A person's true wealth is the good he or she does in the world." Mohammed

“You must be the change you want to see in the world”. Mahatma Gandhi

"How wonderful it is that nobody needs wait a single moment before starting to improve the world". (Anne Frank Diary of a Young Girl)

"Teachers and schools tend to mistake good behaviour with good character. What they prize is docility, suggestibility; the child who willl do what he's told or even better, the child who will do what is wanted without having to be told. They value most in children what children least value in themselves. Small wonder that their effort to build character is such a failure." (John Holt. Why Children Fail.)

“It is the duty of a citizen in a free country not to fit into society but to make society.” John Holt

CURIOSITY "The major purpose of education is to cultivate open-mindedness and intelligence defined in terms of the attitude for acquiring knowledge... intelligence depends upon an alert curiosity. The cultivation of  intelligence depends on freedom to exercise curiosity. " (Paulo Freire. Pedagogy of the Oppressed.)

EDUCATION  Education is not preparation for life… education is life itself”. John Dewey

 FREEDOM  "Acting out of freedom does not exclude the moral laws; it includes them, but shows itself to be on a higher level than those actions which are merely dictated by such laws." (Steiner, R. Philosophy of Freedom)

"Man has never yet ceased striving to produce and to create because productiveness is the source of strength, freedom and happiness." (Fromm Man For Himself 149)

TRUTH “It is the truth that frees, not your efforts to be free.”  Krishnamurti

"The essential thing is for the task to arouse such an interest that it engages the child's whole personality." (The Absorbent Mind page 206)

"The most productive and yielding research is that which pleases the thinker and supports mankind at the same time." C . Doppler

"Address the heart and the head will follow”. John Chilton Pearce 

“Perhaps the only limits to the human mind are those we believe in.” Willis Harman     

“We cannot teach people anything; we can only help them discover it within themselves.” Galileo Galilei

 

MORAL DEVELOPMENT "What is being asserted is that...the existence of moral stages implies that moral development has a basic structural component. While motives and affects are involved in moral development, the development of these motives and affects are largely mediated by changes in thought patterns." (Lawrence Kohlberg, L. Stage and Sequence: The Cognitive-Developmental Approach to Socialization. In In D.A. Goslin (ed.) Handbook of Socialization Theory and Research. Chicago: Rand McNally 1969, 390)

TRUTH “It is the truth that frees, not your efforts to be free.”  Krishnamurti

VALUING PROCESS IN THE DEVELOPING HUMAN BEING "The living human being has, at the outset, a clear approach to values. He prefers some things and experiences and rejects others. We can infer from studying his behaviour that he prefers those experiences which maintain, enhance, or actualize his organism, and rejects those which do not serve this end. Watch him for a bit...  The infant's 'values' are clearly obvious to anyone observing his behaviour and his reactions. Hunger is negatively valued and food is positively valued. But when the hunger is satisfied then food is negatively valued. Security is positively valued. Affection is positively valued because it communicates security. New experience is valued. Pleasure is gained from the satisfaction of curiosity. Pain, bitter tastes and sudden loud sounds are negatively valued. The infant reacts overtly and gives expression to his likes and dislikes. He naturally likes what is good for him dislikes what is bad for him. The approach to 'values' which is demonstrated by the infant is a "flexible, changing, valuing process, not a fixed system...Unlike many of us, he knows what he likes and dislikes, and the origin of these value choices lies strictly within himself. He is the center of the valuing process, the evidence for his choices being spplied by his own senses... He likes a food and then dislikes the same food. He values security and then rejects it in favor of new experience. He is not influenced by anyone but is reacting as a biological organism operating within an environment in which it must satisfy its ultimate need for self-actualization. The 'values' expressed by the infant are 'operative' values. The 'operative values' are the values chosen on the basis of the organism's inherent tendency toward self-actualization". (Carl Rogers "Freedom to Learn" Charles Merrill Publishing Company, Columbus Ohio l969 From chapter l2 "A modern approach to the valuing process" 239-257)

 

 

"The essential thing is for the task to arouse such an interest that it engages the child's whole personality." (The Absorbent Mind page 206)

 

"The most productive and yielding research is that which pleases the thinker and supports mankind at the same time." C . Doppler

 

"Address the heart and the head will follow”. John Chilton Pearce

 

“Perhaps the only limits to the human mind are those we believe in.” Willis Harman   

 

“We cannot teach people anything; we can only help them discover it within themselves.” Galileo Galilei

 

WEBSITES FOR QUOTATIONS

 

      Freedom to Be    http://www.f2be.com/quotes.htm

 

      Quotes about education  http://www.inspiration-quotes.info/

 

 

"Hinduism's specific directions for actualizing man's fullest nature come under the heading of 'yoga.'" (Maslow Toward a Psychology of Being 33) Put with science educvation and value of error "A mature individual does not resent correction, for he identifies himself more with the long range self that grows through correction than with the momentary self that is being indicted. " (Maslow Towardv a Psychology of Being 49)

"The attitude toward human nature and human experience that has come in our time is new." Overstreet

"Peoples' immaturities... explain much in our history for which we have hitherto had no sufficient explanation." O0verstreet 15)

"The proper psychological undertaking of man is to move from immaturity to maturity." (Overstreet 17)

"The psychological growth of man must keep pace with his physical powers; every increase in power must be matched by an increase in understanding." (H.A. Overstreet The Mature Mind New York: W.W. Norton & Co. Inc.1949 114)

 

PSYCHOLOGICAL VALUE OF WORK "The ability to work is an aspect of the development of the personality, with which it is interrelated." (Walter Neff. Work and Human Behavior. New York: Atherton Press, 1968 )

"The 'normalized' child's activities of work (are) related to the inner construction of the personality. The motivation to learn derives from this source. Teaching which corresponds to this motivation is functional in the child's development. The child's response is the best guide for the teacher. The child's interest and concentration indicates the extent of effectiveness of the teaching methodology in opractice. The child loses motivation when the work is directed to an external goal. Teaching for external goals is not functional in the child's development." (Mario Montessori. Education for Human Development  page 67.)

"As the essential Being of the world is perceived by the person, so also does he concurrently come closer to his own Being, to his own perfection, of being more perfectly himself." (Maslow 95)

"The looking within for the real self is a kind of 'subjective biology' for it must include an effort to become conscious of one's own constitutional, temperamental, anatomical, physiological and biochemical needs, capacities and reactions i.e. one's biological individuality. It is also the path to experiencing one's specieshood, one's commoness with all other members of the human species. That is, it is a way to experiencing our biological brotherhood with all human beings no matter what their external circumstances." (Maslow 185)

"IMPROVED SELF-KNOWLEDGE (AND CLARITY OF ONE'S VALUES) IS ALSO COINCIDENT WITH IMPROVED KNOWLEDGE OF OTHERS AND OF REALITY IN GENERAL (AND CLARITY OF THEIR VALUES)." (Maslow Psychology of Being l77)

PSYCHOANALYSIS AS A TOOL FOR DISCOVERING THE NATURE OF HUMAN NATURE Maslow, Abraham. Toward a Psychology of Being  The overemphasis of traditional psychology on the pathologies, neuroses, psychoses etc. has provided abundant evidence that men's bad and evil behavior results from frustration in his efforts toward self-actualization. The inner biological core of human nature is revealed and exposed by psychoanalysis, described as an 'uncovering' therapy." (Maslow 177)

"Providing important data in the search for values, psychoanalysis could be regarded as a significant process in the efforts of philosophers to formulate a 'science of values' or 'science of ethics.' The 'science of ethics' refers to the study of the development of the individual's intrinsic value system. An individual's value system is the product of the totality of the individual's thought processes within the context of experiences in a changing social environment. A 'science of values' would constitute a significant basis for the formulation of a 'science of education.' The values which form the guidelines for living result from the individual's educational experiences.

 Psychoanalytic therapies help the individual uncover the biologically based intrinsic values with which he naturally prefers to identify. They help the individual to 'search for his identity'. An individual's search for identity is essentally a search for his own intrinsic value system, his own authentic nature, his humanness, the human core which he shares with other members of the human species. (Hartman R. 'The Science of Value' Robert Hartman in Maslow A.H. ed. 'New Knowledge in Human Values' Harper, 1959)

 

 HUMAN NATURE Maslow concludes from his scientific study of human nature : "our deepest needs are not in themselves dangerous, evil or bad." Consequently "we can reject the almost universal mistake that the interests of the individual and of the society are of necessity mutually exclusive and antagonistic, or that civilization is primarily a mechanism for controlling and policing human instinctoid impulses. All of these age-old axioms are swept away by the new possibility of defining the main function of a healthy culture as the fostering of universal self-actualization." (159 Maslow Psychology of Being)

 

HUMAN NATURE Carl Rogers provides data on the valuing process in the developing human being. "The living human being has, at the outset, a clear approach to values. He prefers some things and experiences and rejects others. We can infer from studying his behaviour that he prefers those experiences which maintain, enhance, or actualize his organism, and rejects those which do not serve this end. Watch him for a bit. The infant's 'values' are clearly obvious to anyone observing his behaviour and his reactions. Hunger is negatively valued and food is positively valued. But when the hunger is satisfied then food is negatively valued. Security is positively valued. Affection is positively valued because it communicates security. New experience is valued. Pleasure is gained from the satisfaction of curiosity. Pain, bitter tastes and sudden loud sounds are negatively valued. The infant reacts overtly and gives expression to his likes and dislikes. He naturally likes what is good for him dislikes what is bad for him. The approach to 'values' which is demonstrated by the infant is a "flexible, changing, valuing process, not a fixed system." (242) "Unlike many of us, he knows what he likes and dislikes, and the origin of these value choices lies strictly within himself. He is the center of the valuing process, the evidence for his choices being spplied by his own senses." (243) "He likes a food and then dislikes the same food. He values security and then rejects it in favor of new experience. He is not influenced by anyone but is reacting as a biological organism operating within an environment in which it must satisfy its ultimate need for self-actualization. The 'values' expressed by the infant are 'operative' values. The 'operative values' are the values chosen on the basis of the organism's inherent tendency toward self-actualization." (Carl Rogers "Freedom to Learn" Charles Merrill Publishing Company, Columbus Ohio l969 From chapter l2 "A modern approach to the valuing process" 239-257)

THE BIBLE AND HUMAN NATURE

"One of the most basic problems of theological and philosophical thought: is man basically evil and corrupt, or is he basically good and perfectable?" (Fromm The Heart of Man 19)

 "The Old Testament does not take the position of man's fundamental corruption. Adam and Eve's 'disobedience' to God are not called sin; nowhere is a hint that this disobedience has corrupted man. On the contrary, the disobedience is the condition for man's self-awareness, for his capacity to choose, and thus in the last analysis this first act of disobedience was man's first step toward freedom. It seems that their disobedience was even within God's plan; for according to prophetic thought, man is able to make his own history because he was expelled from paradise. He is able to develop his own human powers and to attain new harmony with man and nature as a fully developed individual instead of the former relationship with God in which he was not an individual. The Messianic concept of the prophets certainly implies that man is not fundamentally corrupt and that he can be saved without any special act of God's grace...the Old Testament view is that man has both capacities - that of good and that of evil - and he must choose between good and evil, blessing and curse, life and death. Even God does not interfere in his choice; he helps by sending messengers - the prophets, to teach the norms which lead to the realization of goodness, to identify evil, and to warn and to protest. But this being done, man is left alone with his two 'strivings'that for good and that for evil - and the decision is his alone. The Christian development was different. In the course of the development of the Christian Church, Adam's disobedience was conceived as sinful. In fact a sin so severe, that it corrupted his nature and with it that of all his descendents, and thus man by his own effort could never rid himself of this corruption. Only God's own act of grace, the appearance of Christ, who, died for man, could extinguish man's corruption and offer salvation for those who accepted Christ." (Fromm The Heart of Man page 20)

THE BIBLE AND HUMAN NATURE

"One of the most basic problems of theological and philosophical thought: is man basically evil and corrupt, or is he basically good and perfectable?" (Fromm The Heart of Man 19)

 "The Old Testament does not take the position of man's fundamental corruption. Adam and Eve's 'disobedience' to God are not called sin; nowhere is a hint that this disobedience has corrupted man. On the contrary, the disobedience is the condition for man's self-awareness, for his capacity to choose, and thus in the last analysis this first act of disobedience was man's first step toward freedom. It seems that their disobedience was even within God's plan; for according to prophetic thought, man is able to make his own history because he was expelled from paradise. He is able to develop his own human powers and to attain new harmony with man and nature as a fully developed individual instead of the former relationship with God in which he was not an individual. The Messianic concept of the prophets certainly implies that man is not fundamentally corrupt and that he can be saved without any special act of God's grace...the Old Testament view is that man has both capacities - that of good and that of evil - and he must choose between good and evil, blessing and curse, life and death. Even God does not interfere in his choice; he helps by sending messengers - the prophets, to teach the norms which lead to the realization of goodness, to identify evil, and to warn and to protest. But this being done, man is left alone with his two 'strivings'that for good and that for evil - and the decision is his alone. The Christian development was different. In the course of the development of the Christian Church, Adam's disobedience was conceived as sinful. In fact a sin so severe, that it corrupted his nature and with it that of all his descendents, and thus man by his own effort could never rid himself of this corruption. Only God's own act of grace, the appearance of Christ, who, died for man, could extinguish man's corruption and offer salvation for those who accepted Christ." (Fromm The Heart of Man page 20)

ASSUMPTIONS OF THE "NATURE" OF HUMAN NATURE. "It is possible to study the inner nature scientifically and to discover what it is like." (Maslow, A. Toward a Psychology of Being) "This inner nature ...is not...intrinsically evil. The basic needs - for life, for safety and security, for belongingness and affection, for respect and self-respect, and for self-actualization, the basic human emotions and the basic human capacitites, are upon their face either neutral, pre-moral or positively 'good'. Destructiveness, sadism, cruelty, malice, etc. seem to be violent reactions against frustration of our intrinsic needs, emotions and capacities." (Maslow, A. Toward a Psychology of Being) "It is best to bring out (this human nature) and encourage it rather than suppress it. If it is permitted to guide our life, we grow healthy, fruitful and happy." (Maslow, A. Toward a Psychology of Being) "Suppression or denial of this inner nature in subtle ways leads to sickness sooner or later." (Maslow, A. Toward a Psychology of Being) "This inner nature is delicate and subtle. It is easily overcome by habit, cultural pressures, and wrong attitudes towards it." (Maslow, A. Toward a Psychology of Being) "To the sense that experiences (of discipline, deprivation, frustration, pain and tragedy) reveal, foster, and fulfill our inner nature, to that extent are they desirable experiences. These experiences have something to do with a sense of achievement and ego strength and therefore with the sense of healthy self-esteem and self-confidence." (Maslow, A. Toward a Psychology of Being) "If these asssumptions are proven true, they promise a scientific etics, a natural value system, a courtt of ultimate appeal for the determination of good and bad, of right and wrong."(Maslow, A. Toward a Psychology of Being page 4) We need to find out what the human being is really like "inside, deep down, as a member of the human species and as a particular individual." (Maslow, A. Toward a Psychology of Being page 5) We all have an 'intrinsic conscience' which is based on the "unconscious and preconscious perception of our own nature, of our own destiny, of our own capacities, of our own 'call' in life." (Maslow, A. Toward a Psychology of Being page 7) "A study of the correlation between character orientation and social structure is very important to a science of ethics. As well as explaining some of the causes for the formation of character, the stduy of a specific character orientation which is common to most members of the culture, tells us which powerful emotional forces are instrumental in molding the social character and the functioning of the society. "The whole personality of the average individual is determined by the way people relate to each other and it is determined by the socioeconomic and political structure os societyn to such an extent that in in principle, one can infer from the analysis of one individual the totality of the social structure in which he lives." (Man For Himself 79)".

..the human mind is capable of transcending apparent empirical 'facts' and can penetrate to the 'world of formative ideas'. Through the power of imagination, we are able to integrate the empirical with the ideal, to place the concrete facts of our experience into a larger context of meaning, evolution and purpose. Physicist David Bohm calls this context 'undivided wholeness in flowing movement'. Gregory Bateson called it the 'pattern which connects'. Spiritual traditions have called it the Absolute, the Tao, or God. It is the infinitely creative source of Being." (Miller 16)

In "A Theory of of Metamotivation: The Biological Rooting of the Value-Life" Abraham Maslow proposes a number of hypotheses about the nature and experience of self-actualizers and self-transcenders. He first describes the hierarchy of needs in terms of 'lower' needs and 'higher' needs. The 'lower' needs are those which are obviously physiological. The 'higher' needs, the so-called 'metaneeds', are the needs for truth, beauty, transcendance etc. Both lower and higher needs have a biological basis. Failure to satsify basic physiological needs results in pathology. Failure to satisfy 'metaneeds' results in 'metapathology'. He concludes that the religious and philosophical facets of life are as intrinsic to human nature as any of the other biological needs (Walsh 121)

MYSTIC EXPERIENCE 'peak experience': "...intense feeling of unity with the universe and of one's own place within that unity the most characteristic quality of the peak experience is that the universe is 'perceived as an integrated and unified whole." ( Greeley, A. Ecstasy: A Way of Knowing 11) This experience is not merely verbal or intellectual but pervades the being and is "so profound and shaking...that it can change the person's character...forever after. "When one perceives that the universe is a unified whole and that one has a place in it, one can overcome extreme mental stresses." (Greeley, A. Ecstasy: A Way of Knowing 20) During the peak experience, a kind of knowledge occurs that Maslow calls B-cognition. (Greeley, A. Ecstasy: A Way of Knowing 20) "The mystical experience is a natural form of knowledge in the sense that one need postulate nom special intervention of the deity to exlain it. In the mystic experience, the person makes contact with the Way Things Are." (Greeley, A. Ecstasy: A Way of Knowing 49) "Mysticism is knowledge; it is an act of knowing by which a person breaks throught to what he thinks is the basic structure of the universe." (Greeley, A. Ecstasy: A Way of Knowing 82)

CONSCIOUSNESS "The Western pathology of view is to equate 'reality' with the world as perceived in waking state awareness, so denying access or credibility to reality as perceived in other states of consciousness. The complementary Eastern pathology is to see reality as wholly other than that of waking awareness, and so dismisses the physical world as illusory." (Walsh page 34) "Fully developed mystics state unequivocally that our usual state of consciousness is not only suboptimal, it is dreamlike and illusory. They assert that whether we know it or not, we, as ntrained individuals, are prisoners of our own minds, totally and unwittingly trapped by a continuous fantasy-dialogue that creates an all-consuming illusory distortion of perception or 'reality'. However, this condition goes unrecognized until we begin to subject our perceptual-cognitive processes to rigorous scrutiny such as meditation." (Walsh page 37) "Within the Western model, we recognize and define 'psychosis' in a distorted way which does not recognize the distortion. It is therefore significant to note that from the mystical perspective, our usual state fits all the criteria of psychosis in that it is suboptimal, has a distorted view of reality, and does not recognize that distortion. Indeed, from the ultimate mystical perspective, psychosis can be defined as being trapped or attached to, any one state of consciousness, which by itself is necessarily limited and only relatively 'real'. Wiilliam James was one of the earliest and most eminent psychologists who recognized and acknowledged the multiplicity of conscious states. "...our normal waking consciousness ...is but one special type of consciousness, whilst all about it parted from it by the filmiest of screens , there lie potential forms of consciousness entirely different. We may go through life without suspecting their existence; but apply the requisite stimulus and at a touch they are there in all their completeness... No account of the universe in its totality can be final which leaves these other forms of consciouness quite disregarded. How to regard them is the question. ..At any rate, they forbid a premature closing of our accounts with reality." (The varieties of religious experience, New York, New America Library, l958 cited by Walsh...page 298)

 Two general characteristics of the evolutionary process must be kept in mind in any discussion of the origins of human nature. First, evolution is utilitarian - because the main directing force of evolutionary change is natural selection. Secondly, it is opportunistic - because it lacks a prescience of the future... Man became a winner in the evolutionary race because of powers of his brain not of his body...The unique human quality which has brought about the biological ascendancy of our species is the ability to think in terms of symbols and abstractions. This ability has permitted the development of the peculiarly human mode of communication, by means of symbolic languages." (Dobjansky T. Human Nature as a Product of Evolution 78)

"As a biological species, the human species is endowed with a genetic make-up which ensures instinctive drives to adaptation for survival of the individual and continuation of the survival of the species.... The 'naked ape' is essentially an exploratory species." (Morris D. The Naked Ape)

 We need to find out what the human being is really like "inside, deep down, as a member of the human species and as a particular individual." (Maslow, A. Toward a Psychology of Being page 5) "It is possible to study the inner nature scientifically and to discover what it is like...this inner nature ...is not...intrinsically evil. The basic needs - for life, for safety and security, for belongingness and affection, for respect and self-respect, and for self-actualization, the basic human emotions and the basic human capacitites, are upon their face either neutral, pre-moral or positively 'good'. Destructiveness, sadism, cruelty, malice, etc. seem to be violent reactions against frustration of our intrinsic needs, emotions and capacities." (Maslow, A. Toward a Psychology of Being) "It is best to bring out (this human nature) and encourage it rather than suppress it. If it is permitted to guide our life, we grow healthy, fruitful and happy." (Maslow, A. Toward a Psychology of Being) "Suppression or denial of this inner nature in subtle ways leads to sickness sooner or later." (Maslow, A. Toward a Psychology of Being) "This inner nature is delicate and subtle. It is easily overcome by habit, cultural pressures, and wrong attitudes towards it." (Maslow, A. Toward a Psychology of Being) Maslow concludes from his scientific study of human nature: "our deepest needs are not in themselves dangerous, evil or bad." Consequently "we can reject the almost universal mistake that the interests of the individual and of the society are of necessity mutually exclusive and antagonistic, or that civilization is primarily a mechanism for controlling and policing human instinctoid impulses. All of these age-old axioms are swept away by the new possibility of defining the main function of a healthy culture as the fostering of universal self-actualization." (159 Maslow Toward a Psychology of Being)

AMERICAN CULTURE and CONCEPT OF ECONOMIC MAN: ADAM SMITH'S PHILOSOPHY AND MISINTERPRETATION OF DARWIN Adam Smith's economic theories "cut the bonds of mutual responsibility between man and man" Darwin's phrase 'survival of the fittest' was used to signify that man proves his fitness by amassing wealth and running his competitors out of business. Also, sympathy spent on victims of the economic struggle was sympathy wasted: such victims were Nature's 'unfit'. "The concept of 'economic man' not only pitted one individual against another, each absorbed in his own self-interest, but fostered yet another type of human fragmentation: it set one phase of man's nature against other phases. Economic advantage became something that could be pursued by means not subject to supervision by religion or ethics. Thus the life of the individual was divided into compartments with such sound proof walls between them that a person in his role as 'religious man', 'civic man' or 'domestic man' could not even hear what he said in his role as 'economic man'. Not only were men divided against themselves, but man was divided against himself". (Fromm Man For Himself 130)

"Hinduism's specific directions for actualizing man's fullest nature come under the heading of 'yoga.'" (Maslow Toward a Psychology of Being 33)

 Value of error "A mature individual does not resent correction, for he identifies himself more with the long range self that grows through correction than with the momentary self that is being indicted. " (Maslow Toward a Psychology of Being 49)

H.A. Overstreet The Mature Mind New York: W.W. Norton & Co. Inc.1949 "The attitude toward human nature and human experience that has come in our time is new."

Peoples' immaturities "explain much in our history for which we have hitherto had no sufficient explanation." (H.A. Overstreet The Mature Mind New York: W.W. Norton & Co. Inc.1949 15)

"The proper psychological undertaking of man is to move from immaturity to maturity." (H.A. Overstreet The Mature Mind New York: W.W. Norton & Co. Inc.1949 17)

 "The psychological growth of man must keep pace with his physical powers; every increase in power must be matched by an increase in understanding." (H.A. Overstreet The Mature Mind New York: W.W. Norton & Co. Inc.1949 114)

QUOTATIONS ON EDUCATION

"Discipline is born when the child concentrates his attention on some object that attracts him and which provides him not only with a useful exercise but with a control of error." (Maria Montessori. The Absorent Mind. 264)

"'Freedom' is one of the most frequently used words in our time and should be defined. There are two kinds of freedom corresponding to the inner and outer aspects of life. Outer freedom is freedom of action, political or social freedom. Inner freedom is freedom of the mind, freedom from the bondage of ignorance of human nature and its potentialities. Ignorance breeds fear, suspicion, hatred, and confusion. As a result the individual lives in the prison of his own limitations, restricted understanding, emotions and activities. In American culture the emphasis is on freedom of the outer aspect of life, freedom of choice and action. The individual is not allowed the inner freedom to act from conviction and internal harmony. (See Erich Fromm Escape from Freedom)

The individual does not know what he wants, what he thinks or what he feels. He is not free according to his own will, acting from inner harmony and conviction. In order to function in the society, he must give up his identity, conform to anonymous authorities and adopt successful roles. The more he escapes from his inner freedom to act according to his will, the more powerless he feels and the more meaningless his life seems to be.

 "If life loses its meaning because it is not lived, man becomes desperate." (Fromm 255-256) "Man can become free by being himself" (257) In this context 'freedom' means self-realization. "The realizaion of the self is accompllished not only by an act of thinking, but also by the realization of man's total personality, by the active expression of his emotional and intellectual potentialities. These potentialities are present in everybody; they become real only to the extent which they are expressed. In other words, positive freedom consists in the spontaneous activity of the total, integrated personality."(258) "Positive freedom ...is identical with the full realization of the individual's potentialities, together with his ability to live actively and spontaneously." (270) Maharishi writes "As long as the mind does not function with its full potential and is not in position to use all the faculties it has, its freedom is restricted. Therefore the first important step in making the mind really free is the full unfoldment of its potentialites." ('The Science of Being and Art of Living' 234-235)

"None are more hopelessly enslaved than those who falsely believe they are free." Goethe

"Is there some sense in which principles of pedagogy can be derived from our knowledge of man as a species - from knowledge of his characteristic growth and dependence, of the properties of his nervous system, of his modes of dealing with culture?." (Jerome Bruner, 1971, Relevance of Education New York: W.W. Norton & Co. Inc. 118)

 "If the school, as an educational institution, is to realize its potentialities for benefiting life, then this school, first of all, should not give the highest priority to purely intellectual activity or to its own institutional status, but set as its chief educational goal the task of helping to solve life's problems." (Clay Warren, "Andragogy and N.F.S. Grundtvig: A Critical Link," Adult Education Quarterly, 39:4, Summer 1989, 216)

"The relationship between society and the individual is not to be understood simply in the sense that cultural patterns and social institutions 'influence' the individual. The interaction goes much deeper; the whole personality of the average individal is molded by the way people relate to each other, and it is determined by the socioecoomic and political structure of society to such an extent, that in principle, one can infer from the analysis of one individual the totality of the social structure in which he lives." (Fromm Man For Himself, 78)

"We must not forget that much of what happens in the school is in the context of a larger society in action...the impact of the world beyond the school cannot be underestimated. In terms of immersion and how the brain learns, all of society participates in education. We need to think in new, global ways about education generally." (Caine Making Connections 125)

"The greatness of the human personality begins at the hour of birth.... education must start from birth... 'Education' must be understood as a help to the unfolding of the child's inborn psychic powers. The child's true constructive energy, a dynamic power, has remained unnoticed for thousands of years....From the earliest dawn of man's life on earth, these energies have been repressed and nullified... It is the child himself who presents us with revelations of man's spirit. (Maria Montessori The Absorbent Mind 5)

The aims of education are connected with developmental needs - spiritual 'metaneeds' as well as physiological and psychological needs. The goals of education should foster "that which facilitates love, justice, community and joy." (Purpel xi)

 The human organism is naturally meant to survive in humane societies based on human needs - not inhumane societies based on inhuman politicl and economic theories. "Not in the service of any political or social creed should the teacher work, but in the service of the complete human being, able to exercise in freedom a self-disciplined will and judgement, unperverted by prejudice and undistorted by fear." Maria Montessori. To Educate the Human Potential. Adyar, Madras, India: Kalakshetra Publications, 1961.3)

Theme: The key to motivation is recognition of the developmental needs - needs and 'metaneeds' - of the human organism.

 "Human evolution is rooted in man's adaptability and in certain indestructible qualities of his nature which compel him never to cease his search for conditions better adjusted to his intrinsic needs" (Fromm. Man For Himself, 23)

In a cultural context, the process of education is dermined by the premises of the cultural worldview - paradigm. "The relationship between society and the individual is not to be understood simply in the sense that cultural patterns and social institutions 'influence' the individual. The interaction goes much deeper; the whole personality of the average individal is molded by the way people relate to each other, and it is determined by the socioecoomic and political structure of society to such an extent, that in principle, one can infer from the analysis of one individual the totality of the social structure in which he lives." (Fromm Man For Himself, 78)

 "To educate in its fullest sense is to create conditions in which the child can live-and is led by these conditions led to live-as fully as possible through each succeeding stage of his development, meeting and solving in his own experience the problems of each stage as it comes, and so gaining the power to meet and to solve the problems that await him in further stages. Such conditions it is for a school to provide. ("BADLEY, J.H. from book "Dr. Ovide Decroly " Editor Albert Decordier, Amicale Rijksbasisonderwijs, Renaix, Belgium)

"It has frequently been suggested that the pursuit of self-knowledge is inherently a selfish one that detracts from an involvement with, and contribution to, society. However such criticism is not valid inasmuch as the product of this work is necessarily a transcendence of limited self-interest. Concern with the general good of one's fellow beings and a desire for harmony with the broader universe is intrinsic to the work. Eric Schumacher writes: 'It is a grave error to accuse a man who pursues self-knowledge of 'turning his back on society.' The opposite would be more nearly true: that a man who fails to pursue self-knowldege is and remains a danger to society, for he will tend to misunderstand everything that other people say or do, and remain blissfully unaware of the significance of many of the things he does himself. (Schumacher, E "A Guide for the Perplexed." New York, Harper and Row, l977) " (Walsh 199)

"Surely an education designed for the nineteenth century industrial society does not address the needs of our time. Our schools not speak to the confused, fearful condition of the young generation who must inherit this troubled culture and this threatened planet. Consequently, American education has entered a period of upheaval and conflict from which it cannot emerge unchanged. Corporate leaders call for 'excellence' and accountability, while mainstream politicians seek to educate for a gobally competitive economic system; teachers demand greater professional autonomy, and minority communities and progressives work to make education responsive to a diverse multicultural society. Religious conservatives desert the public schools for more disciplined Christian academies and homeschooling, while more child-centered parents and educators seek greater freedom and meaningful learning for young people, sometimes througn homeschooling as well. Some factions advocte greater choice, through vouchers or magnet schools, while others warn against ababndoning the vision of common schooling. This last group will ultimately be the most disappointed, for the conflicts over education today result from the bare fact that there is no longer a societal consensus supporting the nineteenth century model of common schooling. A radically different paradigm, not yet clearly defined, is emerging." ( Ron Miller, 1993. Renewal of Meaning in Education: Responses to the Cultural and Ecological Crisis of Our Times. Brandon, VT: Holistic Education Press.)

"...the ballast of factual information, so far from being just about to sink us, is growing daily less...In all sciences we are being progressively relieved of the burden of singular instances, the tyranny of the particular. We need no longer record the fall of every apple." (Medawar, P. The Threat and the Glory: Reflections on Science and Scientists. New York: Harper Collins, 1990. xv)

 "Hinduism's specific directions for actualizing man's fullest nature come under the heading of 'yoga.'" (JUNG C. G. Psyche and Symbol, Garden City, New York: Doubleday and Co. 1958. 33)

Maslow concludes from his scientific study of human nature : "our deepest needs are not in themselves dangerous, evil or bad." Consequently "we can reject the almost universal mistake that the interests of the individual and of the society are of necessity mutually exclusive and antagonistic, or that civilization is primarily a mechanism for controlling and policing human instinctoid impulses. All of these age-old axioms are swept away by the new possibility of defining the main function of a healthy culture as the fostering of universal self-actualization." (159 Maslow Psychology of Being)

 Man's value judgements - his criteria for good and evil- are derived from the meaningfulness of his own existence. Man finds fulfillment and happiness through love - the power by which he relates to the world through his fellow man."Living' as an art : the process of developiong into that which one is potentially. "Humanistic ethics is the applied science of the 'art of living' based upon the theoretical 'science of man'. (18) "The aim of man's life is the unfolding of his powers according to the laws of his nature" In huamnistic ethics 'good' is the affirmation of life, the unfolding of man's powers. 'Virtue' from 'Virtus' is 'responsibility toward one's existence, excellence of one's achievement." 'Vice' is "irresponsibility toward one's own existence." (Fromm Man For Himself: An Inquiry into the Psychology of Ethics" 20)

"A scientific inquiry should be characterized by a faith in the truth of a rational vision; faith in the hypothesis as a likely and plausible proposition; faith in the final theory ...This faith is rooted in one's own experience, in the confidence in one's power of thought, observation and judgement...rational faith is rooted in an independent conviction based upon one's own productive observing and thinking." (Fromm, Man For Himself 205)

 Introduction: Wholistic education is based on a reconceptualization of the 'traditional' teaching methodologies. Wholistic education is based on the acknowlegement of the brain's natural rules for meaningful learning. Known as brain-based learning, wholistic learning uses to full advantage the brain's capacity to make connections. A reconceptualization of teaching for brain-based learning "requires a framework with 'bottom line' integrity.... that means it must integrate human behaviour and perception, emotions and physiology... borrowing heavily from cognitive psychology, education, philosophy, sociology, science and technology, the new physics, and physiological responses to stress, as well as the neurosciences." (Renate Nummela Caine and Geoffrey Caine, in "Making Connections: Teaching and the Human Brain" Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Alexandria, Virginia 1991. p.viii )

The integration of behavior, perception, emotions and physiology is a natural outcome of the integrated functions of the human brain. A theoretical framework for wholistic education is based on the biological knowledge of the human organism and the functioning of the human brain. Education as the fostering of natural human development. "Not in the service of any political or social creed should the teacher work, but in the service of the complete human being, able to exercise in freedom a self-disciplined will and judgement, unperverted by prejudice and undistorted by fear." Maria Montessori. To Educate the Human Potential. Adyar, Madras, India: Kalakshetra Publications, 1961.3)

 "We must not forget that much of what happens in the school is in the context of a larger society in action...the impact of the world beyond the school cannot be underestimated. In terms of immersion and how the brain learns, all of society participates in education. We need to think in new, global ways about education generally." (Caine Making Connections 125)