DEFINITION OF SCIENCE: SCIENCE AS COMMON SENSE INQUIRY
Theme: Human survival depends on the acquisition of information or 'knowledge' required for adaptation to changing environmental conditions i.e. 'adaptability'. Human adaptability depends on the knowledge resulting from the human activity of common sense inquiry or 'curiosity' which is rooted in the instinct for self-preservation i.e. 'science'. Science is not about proof. It is about discovering the knowledge of reality or 'truth'. . "Truth is central to science" (Bronowski The Ascent of Man p.56)
It is a misconception to view science as "something 'out there', something spelled with a capital S, a body of knowledge existing in space and time...a systmetized and organized collection of tentatively verified facts...(with) a socially approved methodology for accumulating this body of knowledge and continuing its verification. ...involving depersonalization, a tendency to manipulate and a denial of the basic freedom of choice..." (Rogers, C. On Becoming a Person. Cambridge, MA:: Riverside Press 1961. 216)
"If we define science in terms of its beginnings and its simplest levels rather than in terms of its highest and most complex levels, then science is simply looking at things for yourself rather than trusting to a priori authority of any kind. It is this empirical attitude I claim can and should be taught to all human beings – including young children. Look for yourself! Let's see how it works! Is that claim correct? How correct? When phrased in this way - keeping in touch with reality, keeping your eyes open - the empirical attitude becomes almost a defining characteristic of humanness itself." (Maslow, A. The Psychology of Science: A Reconaissance. New York and London: Harper and Row 1966 p.136)
Science is common sense inquiry required for adaptation to changing conditions... 'adaptability' Common sense and scientific inquiry: Biological organisms respond to environmental conditions in the process of carrying out the various life functions... In doing so they modify the environmental conditions. As a result of the modification of their living conditions, the relations of the organisms to the conditions are modified. The process is one of reciprocal adaptation - organisms continually adapt to the modified conditions - is required for the maintenance of life functions (co-evolution). Human organisms are involved in the same sort of process. For the human organism the environmental conditions are cultural as well as physical. In a cultural environment, physical conditions are modified by the complex of social customs, traditions, occupations, interests and purposes. With the use of language, the contents of the cultural conditions can be stated as problems for inquiry. The environment in which human organisms are involved is their 'commonsense' environment - their 'world'. They make common sense inquiries in order to discover what adjustments in their behavior are require for the maintenance of environmental conditions which are necessary for their continued survival and the survival of the human species. The human activity known as 'science' is a manifestation of the need to make commonsense inquiries about the environment upon which it depends for it s life functions. Look at the human as a biological organism to understand.
A science necessarily values truth
"Upon the biological level, organisms have to respond to conditions about them in ways that modify those conditions and the relations of organisms to them so as to restore the reciprocal adaptation that is required for maintenance of lifefunctions. Human organisms are involved in the same sort of predicament. Because of the effect of cultural conditions, the problems involved not only have different contents but are capable of statement as problems so that inquiry can enter as a factor in their resolution. Modes of response are correspondingly transfornmed. They avail themselves of the significance which things have acquired, and of the meanings provided by language. ....the environment in which human beings are directly involved is the 'commonsense' environment or 'world' and the inquiries that take place in making the required adjustments in behavior are 'common sense' inquiries." (Rosen H. The Development of Socio-moral Knowledge: A Cognitive -Structural Approach. New York: Columbia University Press, 1980. p. 60)
"It is a misonception to view science as something 'out there', something spelled with a capital S, a body of knowledge existing in space and time... a systmetized and organized collection of tentatively verified facts...(with) a socially approved methodology for accumulating this body of knowledge and continuing its verification. ...involving depersonalization, a tendency to manipulate and a denial of the basic freedom of choice...
" Science is rooted in and based upon the immediate subjective experience of a person... It springs from the inner, total, organismic experiencing which is only partially and imperfectly communicable... feelings and cognition merge into one unitary experience which is lived rather than examined, in which awareness is non-reflective, and where I am participant rather than observer. But because I am curious about the exquisite orderliness which appears to exist in the universe and in this relationship I can abstract myself from the experience and look upon it as an observer, making myself and /or others the objects of that observation. As observer I use all the hunches which grow out of the living experience. To avoid deceiving myself as observer, to gain a more accurate picture of the order which exists, I make use of all the canons of science. 'Science' is the best instrument we have yet been able to devise to check upon our organismic sensing of the universe. Not only is the origin, process, and conclusion of science something which exists only in the subjective experience of persons so also is its utilization. 'Science' will never depersonalize, or manipulate or control individuals. It is only persons who, can and will do that. " (Carl Rogers On Becoming a Person Cambridge, MA:: Riverside Press 1961 p.222-223)
In the course of human evolution and human history, 'science' is a human activity involving a given perspective of the world... 'paradigm'
Science is essentially based on curiosity about nature: humanistic approach to science. "...old and widely held notion that emotions are only disrupting, that they are the enemy of true perception and good judgement, that they are the opposite of sagacity and are and must be mutually excluding of truth. A humanistic approach to science generates a different attitude, i.e. that emotion can be synergic with cognition, and a help in truth-finding." (Maslow, A. The Psychology of Science: A Reconaissance. New York and London: Harper and Row 1966 page ?112)
Science as a human enterprise (Maslow, A. The Psychology of Science: A Reconaissance. New York and London: Harper and Row 1966 page 127) Science is about 'truth'. "Science is in the service of a value and so are all scientists." (See Bronowski, J.1. The Common Sense of Science. London: Heinemann, 1951. 2. Science and Human Values. New York: Harper and Row, 1956. 3. "The Values of Science" in New Knowledge in Human Values, ed. A.H. Maslow, New York: Harper & Row, 1959. For discussion of 'truth': Maslow, A.H. "Notes on Being-Psychology," Journal Humanistic Psychology, II (1962), 47-71)
Any science is a science because it discovers an aspect of nature which was unknown before it was discovered. (Newton discovered the force of 'gravity' and described it in his 'laws of mechanics'. Freud discovered the 'unconscious' level of the human mind and described it in his 'science of psychology'.)the 'science' of creative intelligence brings to our awareness the existence of an aspect of human nature...
"Any 'science' is a 'science' because it brings to our awareness an aspect of nature which exists already but the existence of which we were unaware before the 'science' discovered it and made us aware of it. In the 'science of 'physics' Newton made us aware of the force of gravity.... Freud's scientific discoveries made us aware of the unconscious level of the human 'mind.'" (Jack Forem "Transcendental Meditation" Maharishi Mahesh Yogi and the Science of Creative Intelligence. New York: E.P. Dutton & Co.,Inc. l966, l974)
The natural definition of science in terms of the 'origins of science' Science originates in the human instinct for self-preservation and its function in dealing with the fundamental problems of life and human experience. Science is a way of life. Science is the activity of inquiry - the primary tool for following up and testing conclusions suggested by the facts and events of life. In this sense science is rooted in the total inner organismic experiencing of every human being - every adult and every child. Science is a human activity which probes on the basis of presuppositions. Scientific progress is determined by scientists whose goals are to test and revise old presuppositions and create new ones. Progress depends on one's willingness to sustain the state of doubt which stimulates inquiry so that an idea or belief is not accepted until evidence to support it has been found.
"Science has its origins in the needs to know and to understand (or explain), i.e. cognitive needs ...exploration and inquiry or 'curiosity' (Maslow Psychology of Science p.20)
In the traditional sense, science is defined in terms of the systematic organization of collections of facts which have been tentatively verified using a socially approved methodology known as the 'scientific method'. The scientific method or 'empirical method' (from the Greek word 'empeiria' meaning experience) is an experimental method used to facilitate the process of discovery in the accumulation of verifiable facts. So-called 'empirical science' originated with the physicists and astronomers of the 16th and 17th century Scientific Revolution ('history of science').
The philosophical doctrine of so-called 'scientific objectivity' rejected the projection of human purposes as harmful to full understanding.
"Science is a human activity. Scientists make models of the physical world. On the basis of certain metaphysical assumptions, they design experiments to test their models. Using guidelines formulated within the framework of a given value system, they carry out experiments to test their models. The metaphysical assumptions which form the foundation of modern science (logical empiricism) include the following: the observer and the observed are separate entities (objectivism), complex phenomena can be explained in terms of simple phenomena (reductionism), all scientific knowledge can be derived from physically measurable data (positivism), and it is possible to predict phenomena on the basis of scientific laws (determinism). These assumptions have become so well established that many scientists make the mistake of confusing them with the definition of modern science. They believe that any knowledge system that does not account for these assumptions must not be in the realm of 'science.'" (Willis Harman, The Shifting Worldview: Toward a More Holistic Science," Holistic Education Review. September 1992: 15-25)
In this sense orthodox science becomes a limited form of ethnocentric scientism' based on the fallacious notion that science is an entity which depends on the 'scientific method' for verification... or 'proof'.
"As a philosophical doctrine, orthodox science is ethnocentric, being Western rather than universal... Our classical science wisely tossed out of its study of the physical universe the projection of purposes, whether of a God or of man himself. ..In the physical sciences the projection of purpose ...is harmful to full understanding. But the case is completely different with human beings. They have purposes and goals...This simple fact makes classical science less appropriate for studying human behavior. It does not differentiate between means and ends. ...the puroposes can be unknown to the person himself." (Greeley18)
Scientific method - new 'discovery' to facilitate the process of discovery using empirical method (root of word - try) of true empirical science. Empirical experiment: a situation is devised (requires creative intelligence) in which all variables are held constant except one. Run the experiment several times. Note results and draw conclusions. Data is collected by measuring the varying quantities of the one variable
"It was primarily the physicists and the astronomers who created the Weltanschauiung and the subculture known as Science (including all its goals, methoids, axiomatic values, concepts, languages, folkways, prejudices, selective blindnesses, hidden assumptions). ...the impersonal model failed with the personal, the unique, the holistic....the fully human person" fatal weakness of science is its inability to deal impersonally with the personal, with the problems of value, of individuality, of consciousness, of beauty, of transcendance, of ethics.(Maslow Psychology of Science xiii)
"The term 'scientific objectivity' has, in effect, been preempted by the physics-centered theorists of science and bent to the use of their mechanomorphic 'Weltanschauung'. It was certainly necessary for astronomers and physicists to assert their freedom to see what was before their eyes rather than having truth determined a priori by the church or state. This is the kernel of sense in the concept 'value-free science'. But is this generalization, uncritically accepted today by many, that has crippled so many human and social scientists.....classically 'scientific objectivity' has been most successfully achieved when its objects were most distant from human aspiratons, hopes, and wishes. It is easy to feel uninvolved, detached, clear-eyed, and neutral if one is studying the nature of rocks, or heat, or electrical currents. One doesn't identify with a moon. One doesn't 'care' about it as one does about one's child. It is easy to take the laissez-faire attitude with oxygen or hydrogen and to have non-interfering curiosity, to be Taoistically receptive, to let things be themselves. To be blunt about it, it is easy to be neurtrally objective, fair, and just when you don't care about the outcome, when you can't identify or sympathize, when you neither love or hate...if you love something or someone enough at the level of Being, then you can enjoy its actualkiization of itself, which means that you will not want to interfere with it, since you love it jas it is inb itself. ...you will be able to see it as it is...you will (not ) be prone to judge tuse it improve it or in any other way project your own values onto it. This also tends to mean more concerete experiencing and witnessing; less abstracting, simplifying, organizing, or intellecxtual manipulation. Leaving it alone to be itself also implies a more holistic, global attitude and less active dissecting. ... This is possible in Being-Cognition and Being-Love.. difficult to put into words. The ability to B-love is a characteristic of a higher level if personal maturity. Therefore personal maturity is a pre condition for this kind of perspicuity, and one way to improve this kind of knowing would be to improve the maturity of the knower. What could this imply for the education of scientists?" (Maslow, A. The Psychology of Science: A Reconaissance. New York and London: Harper and Row 1966 page 116)
"The scientist is not the clever manipulator of instruments, he is the worshipper of nature...the thing we should cultivate in our teachers is more the spirit than the mechanical skill of the scientist...the direction of the preparation should be towards the spirit rather than towards the mechanisms." (Maria Montessori)
The person who is curious about nature is able to abstract themselves from the experience and look upon it objectively as an observer. They make themselves the object of observation and avoid self-deception. They strive for accuracy in evaluating their observations and use all the insights arising from their own living experience. In this sense science is a method of verifying the organismic sensing of the universe. The scientist is a 'mystic' who experiences wonder, awe and mystery leading to religious, poetic and philosophical insights - also known as 'B-cognitions' or In essence the scientist is a 'mature mind' with 'scientific attitudes' of mature moral judgement which allows for the awareness of its own assumptions or 'presuppositions'. Awareness of presuppositions is prerequisite to the expression of those presuppositions and the scientific inquiry to test them. Testing of presuppositions is a process which leads to knowledge and with understanding i.e. 'mature science'.
Mature science is a function of the constant interplay of theoretical abstraction or 'theory' and corroborating evidence from experience and leads to reliable insights into the nature of nature i.e. 'reliable science'. (In contrast the ignorance of immaturity - lack of awareness of its own presuppositions and its inability to express them leads to 'immature science' for possession and control i.e. 'unreliable science'. The immature mind has an inappropriate response to the articulate statement of presuppositions presuming them to be expressions of hostility or mockery and even authoritarianism.)
"The most recent of the great insights that have invited man to maturity came with the development of science. The scientific method is not commonly regarded as an insight into human nature; but this, in its essence, is what it is. It is a systematized expression of the fact that man is a species capable of transcending his own limitations of sense and of subjectivity." Maturity is having a philosophic sense of the whole. (Overstreet The Mature Mind)
"A mature individual does not resent correction, for he identifies himself more with the long range self that grows through correction than with the momentary self that is being indicted. " (Maslow Towards a Psychology of Being 49)
"Science at its highest level is ultimately the organization of, the systematic pursuit of, and the enjoyment of wonder, awe, and mystery. The greatest rewards that the scientist can have are peak experiences and B-cognitions. But these experiences can equally be called religious, poetic or philosophical experiences. ...Not only does science begin in wonder; it also ends in wonder." ( Maslow, A. The Psychology of Science: A Reconaissance. New York and London: Harper and Row 1966 page 151)
Science as making of truth in the interpersonal relation: "The making of truth in the interpersonal relation: The picture of truth and of reality that we have inherited from the classical science of the impersonal is that it is 'out there' perfect, complete, hidden but uncoverable. In the earlier versions the observer simply observed. In later versions it was understood that the observer had spectacles that distorted but which could never be removed. Most recently physicists and psychologists have learned that the act of observation is itself a shaper, a changer, an intruder into the phenomenon being observed. In a word, the observer partly creates the reality, i.e. the truth. Reality seems to be a kind of alloy of the perceiver and the perceived, a sort of mutual product, a transaction. For instance, see the many researches with reafference and with the effects of observer-expectation, to mention only two well-known lines of experimentation. I mean here more than the 'personal equation;' of the astronomer or even Heisenberg's principle of indeterminacy. I refer rather to the impossibility of finding out what, for example, a preliterate culture would 'really' be like, undistorted by the observing ethnologist." (Maslow)
Science' involves 'love' as caring. Science is knowledge for understanding. "Science is knowledge through Being-love...The ability to B-love is characteristic of a higher level of personal maturity. Therefore personal maturity is a pre-condition for this kind of perspicuity, and one way to improve this kind of knowing would be to improve the maturity of the knower. What could this imply for the education of scientists?" (Maslow, A. The Psychology of Science: A Reconaissance. New York and London: Harper and Row 1966 page 118)
Freedom and function of error:
... ERRORS HAVE A FUNCTION IN SCIENCE, THE HUMAN ACTIVITY OF ACQUIRING KNOWLEDGE... DENIAL OF ERROR MAKES IT IMPOSSIBLE TO IDENTIFY AND CORRECT MISTAKES... ERRORS WHICH ARE NOT IDENTIFIED AND CORRECTED ARE REPEATED... FAILURE TO CORRECT ERRORS RESULTS IN ILLUSION AND DISTORTED PERCEPTIONS OF REALITY." (Montessori The Absorbent Mind) SCIENTIFIC METHOD ACCOUNTS FOR THE VALUE OF ERROR AND THE VALUE OF DOUBT
. FREEDOM IN EDUCATION means FREEDOM TO MAKE MISTAKES, TO LEARN THE VALUE OF MISTAKES, TO LEARN FROM THE MISTAKES. "Freedom in school means freedom to work and freedom to learn....
ONE MUST SHOW POSITIVE INTEREST IN ERRORS AND MISTAKES. IT IS THE AWARENESS OF ERROR WHICH GUARANTEES SCIENTIFIC OBJECTIVITY... In science and in education one must learn to recognize one's mistakes. Progress comes from freedom to make mistakes, to recognize mistakes and to correct mistakes. Errors divide human beings. Admission of errors serves to link human beings in fellowship. In science, errors must remain impersonal and amenable to control - THUS the principle of 'control of error'.
"Science and knowledge are not a finished enterprise... Science is essentially a self-correcting activity...scientists are people who correct the picture of the moment with another one as a natural evolution toward a 'true' picture of the world." (Bronowski, Jacob. The Origins of Knowledge and Imagination. New Haven: Yale University Press 1978 122)
Natural stages of scientific inquiry. The word 'science' derives from the Latin word 'scio' meaning 'I know'. Scientific knowledge is 'experiential knowledge' which originates in the human cognitive need to explore, to inquire, to understand and to explain or 'know' i.e. 'curiosity'. Scientific activity can be described in terms of three stages. The first is the 'stage of doubt - the unconscious feeling of uneasiness that 'something isn't quite right here'. Science originates as reflective thinking in a state of doubt, hesitation, perplexity, mental difficulty... 'contemplation'. The second is the stage of inquiry... searching, hunting and inquiring in order to find information that will resolve the doubt and dispose of the perplexity... the stage of inchoate ambiguous knowledge - the non-verbalized hunch, guess, intuition or 'pre-thought'... the 'presupposition'. The third stage is the 'hypothesis stage' - a hypothesis is formed and tested with observation and verified with the factual data or 'facts' from research. The verified facts are the consequence of the original presupposition.
"A scientific inquiry should be characterized by a faith in the truth of a rational vision; faith in the hypothesis as a likely and plausible proposition; faith in the final theory ...This faith is rooted in one's own experience, in the confidence in one's power of thought, observation and judgement...rational faith is rooted in an independent conviction based upon one's own productive observing and thinking." (Fromm, Man For Himself 205)
Utilisation of scientific knowledge: 'problem of ethics'
" Not only is the origin, process, and conclusion of science something which exists only in the subjective experience of persons so also is its utilisation. 'Science' will never depersonalize, or manipulate or control individuals. It is only persons who, can and will do that. (Rogers, C. On Becoming a Person Cambridge, MA:: Riverside Press 1961. 221)
The utilisation of scientific knowledge depends on human values. Science in the service of human values can deal with human problems of value. It can resolve the dichotomies inherent in concepts such as 'valuefree science', 'scientific objectivity', 'individual freedom', 'responsibility to society' i.e. 'problem of ethics'. The age-old problem of ethics is a pseudo-problem resulting from the false premise that human nature is innately immoral and not to be trusted. Its resolution depends on knowledge of the nature of the human personality i.e. 'human nature'. Human nature is defined in terms of the instinctive motives for human behaviour or 'human needs'. Human needs include not only the obvious physiological needs for survival of the organism but also the 'basic psychological needs' for self esteem - the 'ego needs' - and the 'higher psychological needs' for growth and personality integration - the 'growth needs' or spiritual needs' i.e. 'metaneeds'. Metaneeds are subconscious needs for awareness ofinstinctive needs of the human organism as a social organism i.e. spiritual values... the values for living or 'social values'or 'human values' - values of human solidarity and social cooperation for 'creative socialisation' required for human adaptation and survival. Each of the human values represents a different facet of the development of 'moral conciousness' or 'conscience' - the 'human spirit' or 'soul' - source of 'ethical reasoning' or 'moral rationality' i.e. 'moral intelligence' or 'morality. Morality as rational thought and action is of survival value to the human organism as a social organism because it allows for maintenance of personality integration during process of adaptation to social changes. Development of conscience - an emergent property of the brain - depends on gratification of metaneeds in a process of 'spiritual growth' in which the subconsious metaneeds rise to the conscious level of awareness.
Motivation by the metaneeds is 'growth motivation' or 'metamotivation'.
Holistic perception of human organism as a social organism: human psychology Resolution of human problems depends on scientific inquiry based on perception of human organism as a social organism... a function of 'holistic perception'. Holistic perception is perception of reality in terms of its true and natural proportions, its natural organic state, its natural relationships and connections. Holistic perception leads to 'complete cognition' of science at its highest level in the realm of spiritual values in which the individual is both participant and observer i.e. 'holistic science'. Holistic science involves the unconscious awareness of reality... the deep 'inner knowing' of 'intuition'. Intuition engages the subjective aspect of the truth-finding process or 'contemplation'. The contemplative experience involves the merging of feelings and cognition into one immediate unitary subjective experience - 'peak experience' - which can be communicated only partially and imperfectly.
Holistic science is appropriate for the study of human growth or 'psychology' because it incorporates the expanded consciousness of the human mind i.e. 'ego-transcendance'.
Human psychology as a function of development of social intelligence Human psychology is a function of development of the personality of the human organism as a social organism. It depends on development of the human 'brain' - a social brain specialised for the function of adaptation to continually changing social conditions i.e. 'adaptability'. Human adaptability depends on morality as moral intelligence or 'social intelligence'. Social intelligence is a function of mature growth involving development of all aspects of the human personality - psychological, emotional, intellectual, moral and spiritual aspects i.e. 'self-actualisation'. The individual's level of social intelligence - 'sociocognitive stage' - determines their motivation or 'motivational type'.
Motivational type is a function of perception of the social reality and therefore of the capacity for socialisation.
Knowledge through self-knowledge: "Improved self-knowledge makes better knowers"(Bronowski)
"Improved self-knowedge (and clarity of one's values) is also coincident with improved knowledge of others and of reality in general (and clarity of others' values)." (Maslow Toward a Psychology of Being l77)
Implications for education: holistic education for self-knowledge... for 'B-cognition' Critical to educational policy is the question 'which worldview is shaping educational theory and the goals of education'? Educational goals are set within the framework of a worldview or 'paradigm'. The prevailing paradigm determines the way in which information is presented and reflected upon. Until recently, goals of education have been shaped by the paradigm of impersonal empirical science or 'scientism' i.e. traditional paradigm of education as 'schooling'. Education as schooling implies depersonalisation, manipulation, control and the denial of freedom. The human individual is treated as an object to be manipulated rather than a person to be released from control and allowed to grow in freedom. This traditional paradigm is being challenged by a new paradigm based on the holistic view of the human organism as a social organism with social values. In the holistic paradigm goals of education are based on the need for complete development of the human personality through personal growth and understanding which derives from the 'freedom to learn' and the 'freedom to work' i.e. 'personal development' or 'self-knowledge'. Education for self-knowledge is 'holistic education'. Holistic education which engages personal goals as well as the means for achieving them is education for the responsibility of freedom i.e. 'responsible education'. Holistic education involves the individual's mature growth or 'self-actualisation'. Education for self-actualisation makes better 'knowers' or 'scientists' and raises science to the highest level of consciousness i.e. the science of interconnectedness and wholeness or 'holistic science'. Holistic science in the realm of human values transforms the impersonal science for possession and destruction - scientism- into science for understanding and compassion.
"The search for truth requires independence of mind which safeguards originality - the tool with which new discoveries are made. Independence of mind and originality must be allowed expression and thus 'dissent' must be valued. The high moments of dissent are monuments in our literature: the writings of Milton, the Declaration of Independence, the sermons of John Wesley and the poetry of Shelley." (Bronowski. The Ascent of Man 58)
...defined in terms of the intrinsic nature and value of what it is to be human. Cognitive knowledge is not considered in terms of its intrinsic value to the development of the human potential. Nor is it considered in terms of the enrichment of the human life or the inner life. Educational policy formulated in the context of the modern scientific worldview disregards knowledge systems which are not considered to be in the realm of 'science.'
"Although science has been defined traditionally by an exact statement or classification of knowledge where the results of investigation have been verified, it is also the ability to do as the result of knowledge gained. It is a way of thinkng, based on logic, a way of doing, and truly, a way of life." (Competencies in science and the 'back to basics' movement." by Bette J. Del Giorno, Connecticut Journal of Science Education. Volume 16 no. 2, 1979)
"Science is in the service of a value and so are all scientists."
Maslow, Abraham Religions, Values and Peak Excperiences...
......... Science and Human Values. New York: Harper and Row, 1956.
Bronowski, J. The Common Sense of Science. London: Heinemann, 1951.
Bronowski, "The Values of Science" in New Knowledge in Human Values, ed. A.H. Maslow, New York: Harper & Row, 1959.
Maharishi Mahesh Yogi. The Science of Being and Art of Living. International SRM Publications, l966
power as mythification of reality ...propaganda
reliable insights into the world require a never-ending interplay of theoretical abstraction and the stuff of experience (from foreward by Arthur Wirth Greely)
"Science has its origins in the needs to know and to understand (or explain), i.e. cognitive needs ....curiosity, exploring, manipulating ...(Bronowski, "The Values of Science" in New Knowledge in Human Values, ed. A.H. Maslow, New York: Harper & Row, 1959..20)
"...human evolution is rooted in man's adaptability and in certain indestructible qualities of his nature which compel him never to cease his search for conditions better adjusted to his instrinsic needs." (Erich Fromm. Man For Himself: An Inquiry into the Psychology of Ethics. New York: Holt, Rhinehart and Winston, 1947)
SCIENCE OF MAN: HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AND PERCEPTION OF REALITY a. History of 'science' and 'philosophy' b. History of the philosophical perception of 'reality' c. History of the scientific perception of 'reality' d. Perception of 'reality' as level of consciousness psychology, neurosis, psychosis etc. individual in cultural context: distorting influences of language and culture (
origin and history of the word Syntopicon chapter 83
B. HISTORY OF SCIENCE AND SCIENTIFIC PERCEPTION OF REALITY THE DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENTIFIC THINKING THEME: The deductive approach of rationalism served to maintain the false perceptions of reality. The approach of rationalism added nothing new to our knowledge of nature. For centuries, rationalism hindered progress in our knowledge of nature. RATIONALISM 'Rationalism' and the 'rationalistic' approach referred to the search of truth by the power of reason alone. The term 'reason' referred to the philosophical process of 'logical thought'. 'Reason' was used to refer to the process of logical thought. The process of 'reasoning' was considered to be the natural procedure for obtainining information about 'reality'.
WHAT IS 'DEDUCTION'? PROCESS OF DEDUCTION - LOGICAL PROOF Logical deduction leads to a conclusion regardless of the truth or untruth of the premises. Conclusions are drawn on the basis of given 'self-evident' premises. If the premise is false, conclusions are nevertheless deduced from the false premise through a process of logical proof. The logical thought process which leads to the conclusion is known as 'logical deduction'. In this way, a conclusion is logically deduced from a given premise, regardless of whether or not the premise is true. In this way impeccably logical philosophies can be built on false premises. At the time of Aristotle, very little was known of the scientific data which we have today. Aristotle's theory of the universe was based on empirical knowledge of the world as it was understood at the time. Aristotle and his followers formulated a system of philosophy, science and 'logic' in terms of false notions of the world. The 'knowledge' of the world consisted of a number of supposedly 'self-evident' principles which were in fact false notions of the world. The principles were fabricated out of the imagination and arbitrarily assigned as the given 'premises' for systems of logical thought.
REALITY IS CONSCIOUSNESS AND AWARENESS
History of science and 'scientific' perception of reality
The empirical approach with the use of a mathematical description of nature have remained important criteria of scientific theories up to the present day.
"...the ballast of factual information, so far from being just about to sink us, is growing daily less... In all sciences we are being progressively relieved of the burden of singular instances, the tyranny of the particular. We need no longer record the fall of every apple."(Medawar, P. The Threat and the Glory: Reflections on Science and Scientists. New York: Harper Collins, 1990. xv)
Science has been defined traditionally by an exact statement or classification of knowledge where the results of investigation have been verified. Science is also the ability to do as the result of knowledge gained. Science is a logical way of thinking, a way of doing, and a way of life. "Science at its highest level is ultimately the organization of, the systematic pursuit of, and the enjoyment of wonder, awe, and mystery. The greatest rewards that the scientist can have are peak experiences and B-cognitions. But these experiences can equally be called religious, poetic or philosophical experiences. ...Not only does science begin in wonder; it also ends in wonder." (Maslow, A. The Psychology of Science: A Reconaissance. New York and London: Harper and Row 1966 151)
See David Watson. The Study of Human Nature. Antioch, Ohio: Antioch Press,1953
Montaigne: "All knowledge is hurtful to him who has not the sense of goodness." Education should involve the formation of character as well as the acquisition of knowledge. Education is for the simultaneous development of the intellectual and the moral life.
Unlike 'education' for knowledge as a commodity for the 'market', wholistic education is for knowledge through observation, analysis and understanding. (Decroly science as 'observation)
Forget the meaning of the word 'science' from the school point of view. Replace it with terms such as 'exploration' 'inquiry' or 'observation' Teaching young children, the concern is not so much with what they learn as how they learn what they learn.
"Although science has been defined traditionally by an exact statement or classification of knowledge where the results of investigation have been verified, it is also the ability to do as the result of knowledge gained. It is a way of thinking, based on logic, a way of doing, and truly, a way of life." (Competencies in Science and the 'Back to Basics' Movement by Bette J. Del Giorno, Connecticut Journal of Science Education, Volume 16 no. 2 1979)
"Science is a communal enterprise. Leonardo da Vinci, a prolific, vivid, imaginative and inventive scientist and artist made no impact on the body of science because there was no 'scientific community' at the time.(Jacob Bronowski. The Origins of Knowledge and Imagination. London, New Haven: Yale University Press 1978, 122)
Scientism' involves 'non-love' as non-caring. Scientism is knowledge for possession