Traditional education is based on the paradigm of behavioural psychology which emphasizes conditioned learning and indoctrination... based on fear of change and protection of the status quo… goal of traditional education is to control the individual.

                  The Paradigm of Traditional Education as Expression of Power and Politics

theme:Traditional paradigm of education for the 'needs of the society'... traditional education: education as 'schooling' is based on mistrust in the human personality or 'human nature'. The paradigm of traditional education as 'schooling' is based on the assumption that human nature is basically immoral and antisocial. The mistrust of human nature leads to the fallacious notion that the exclusivity of the indvidual's interests and those of society provides a purpose of civilisation as the means to control human impulses or 'antisocial instincts' (Freud). 

With the focus on the political ideals of the 'nation', the 'purposes of educaton' have been defined in terms of ideological principles and economic theory. Theoretical alternatives have been overlooked.

What would be the implications for education if it were based on the fact that the human organism is a social organism with a social brain with social instincts?

"Traditionally, throughout the history of philosophy, theology, psychology, natural desires have been considered annoying and even threatening... Theologians, political philosophers and economic theorists have conceived of various strategies to remove, deny or avoid people's 'unwanted' desires and needs. People's happiness has been considered in terms of improving their conditions with a view to eliminating their needs." (Maslow Toward a Psychology of Being 28)

 orthodox science... modern reductionism and the desacralising of science... 'scientism

behaviourism....

traditional education is based on assumptions of reductionist science or 'reductionism'...

traditional education and social control...

banking education...

traditional education and imposition of ideals encourages conformity...  

 originated with Industrial Revolution...   emphasis on mechanics of learning and methods of teaching...

emphasis on conditioned learning...    discipline as obedience to rules...  

  schooling...   rote learning.. evaluation and grading... 

hidden curriculum as process..  term 'hidden curriculum' coined by Phillip  Jackson...  

reform depends on change in philosophcal worldview or 'paradigm'...

responsible education: school's function is socialisation in terms of children's growth...  aims of education and American ideals... 

beginnings of reductionism and Newtonian science...   scientific objectivity depends on observer detachment...

traditional paradigm...   modern reductionism...

 inadequate for solving human problems...    shift from reductionism to wholism...

 implications for education...

....................................................

 In the traditional paradigm, the teacher’s role is considered to be the transmission of collective social values from one generation to the next. Children are expected to be obedient and to imitate the adult. Though these are natural characteristics, little attention is paid to children’s growth needs and the laws of psychological development.The exclusivity of the two is the basis for the passive methods of traditional education. Instead of preparing the individual for his own future as a self-responsible social being, the institutions of education focus on the individual's preparation as a 'contributing member of society', the educational system neglects to foster the individual's innate capacities for adaptation to changing social conditions.Incapacitated individuals in a changing society constitute the evidence of an anomalous social situation.

         ORTHODOX SCIENCE AND THE DESACRALALISING OF SCIENCE: 'SCIENTISM'

 theme: The definition of 'science' has become confused with the assumptions of orthodox science or 'scientism'. Scientism is science as the pursuit of knowledge for possession and exploitation.  It is the pursuit of knowledge for understanding iwhich is true 'science'.

  "Since Bacon, the goal of science has been knowledge that can be used to dominate and control nature ...today both science and technology are used predominantly for purposes that are profoundly antiecological."(Capra The Turning Point p. 56)

 "Scientists make models of the physical world. On the basis of certain metaphysical assumptions, they design experiments to test their models. Using guidelines formulated within the ramework of a given value system, they carry out experiments to test their models. The metaphysical assumptions which form the foundation of modern science (logical empiricism) include the following: the observer and the observed are separate entities (objectivism), complex phenomena can be explained in terms of simple phenomena (reductionism), all scientific knowledge can be derived from physically measurable data positivism), and it is possible to predict phenomena on the basis of scientific laws (determinism). These assumptions have become so well established that many scientists make the mistake of confusing them with the definition of modern science. They believe that any knowledge system that does not account for these assumptions must not be in the realm of 'science.'" (Willis Harman. "The Shifting Worldview: Toward a More Holistic Science." Holistic Education Review. September 1992)

history of science... 

traditional paradigm:

                scientific revolution...   definition of science ...  ethnocentricity of orthodox science...  

                scientific objectivity as 'value-free'...   

                 scientism' as desacralising of science...   no recognition of the 'inner life'...

holistic paradigm: true objectivity and holistic perception...

implications for education...

Scientific revolution Traditional science began with the Scientific Revolution when astronomers and physicists found it necessary to assert their freedom to see what was before their own eyes rather than having the truth determined a priori by the church or state. Science originated in their determination not to have to rely on ecclesiastical authority, the ancients or on pure logic. It was originally a matter of looking for oneself rather than trusting anyone else's preconceived notions. Traditional science rejected the projection of purposes (whether of a God or man) in the study of the physical universe because the projection is harmful to full understanding of the physical universe. Classical science with its goals, methods, concepts, language and hidden assumptions was created by  physicists and astronomers of the Scientific Revolution. "It was primarily the physicists and the astronomers who created the Weltanschauung and the subculture known as Science (including all its goals, methods, axiomatic values, concepts, languages, folkways, prejudices, selective blindnesses, hidden assumptions). ...the impersonal model failed with the personal, the unique, the holistic....the fully human person... The fatal weakness of science is its inability to deal impersonally with the personal, with the problems of value, of individuality, of consciousness, of beauty, of transcendance, of ethics". (Abraham Maslow Psychology of Science xiii)

Ethnocentricity of orthodox science  Orthodox science is a philosophical doctrine which is ethnocentric because it is Western rather than universal. Western science started as the symbolic, dualistic knowledge of Greek philosophy of dualisms and the dichotomies of a dualistic universe. Dualistic knowledge derives from the use of symbols for representation and focuses on the 'shadows' of symbolic knowledge. With the creation of symbolic knowledge, there 'seems' to arise a split betweeen the 'knower' and the 'known,' the 'thinker' and the 'thought', the 'subject' and the 'object'. The notion that the universe is severed into subject vs. object is the cornerstone of Western philosophy, theology and science. "As a philosophical doctrine, orthodox science is ethnocentric, being Western rather than universal." ( Maslow, A. The Psychology of Science: A Reconaissance. New York and London: Harper and Row 1966 p. 1)

 Original meaning of 'scientific objectivity'... 'scientism'
With the institutionalization of traditional or 'classical' orthodox science, the term 'value-free science' has come to mean that science has nothing to do with values.The original meaning of scientific objectivity refers to the scientist's sense of non-involvement, detachment and neutrality in the study of objects which cannot be affected by human aspirations - the moon, the elements, rocks, heat, electrical currents and so on. People were taught values are subjective evaluations and that 'emotions' cannot be trusted... that both distort the world of objective fact and should not be taken into account in descriptions of 'reality'. Strict adherence to scientific objectivity led to the notion that science has nothing to do with values... that science is free of values hence 'value-free science'. The concept of value-free science was institutionalized and led to the creation of the traditional 'classical science' or 'orthodox science' or 'scientism'. Scientism is obedience to the impersonal model of so-called 'value-free science'. The term 'scientism' was coined in the 1940s by sociologists to refer to the the scientists' acceptance of theories as 'truths'. Science as scientism is based on denial of personal freedom.. depersonalization... involving manipulation and control. People in the name of 'science' depersonalize, manipulate and control... based on the misconception that science is a body of knowledge which exists in space and time... a systematized and organized collection of accumulated facts which have been tentatively verified using the socially approved scientific method ...which can continue to be verified using the same method...

 Scientism as dogma of the exclusiveness of logical empiricism has a crippling effect on human and social sciences - 'psychology' and 'sociology' - if it is uncritically accepted as a generalized methodology.   

 "The term 'scientific objectivity' has, in effect, been preempted by the physics-centered theorists of science and bent to the use of their mechanomorphic 'Weltanschauung'. It was certainly necessary for astronomers and physicists to assert their freedom to see what was before their eyes rather than having truth determined a priori by the church or state. This is the kernel of sense in the concept 'value-free science'. But is this generalization, uncritically accepted today by many, that has crippled so many human and social scientists.....classically 'scientific objectivity' has been most successfully achieved when its objects were most distant from human aspirations, hopes, and wishes. It is easy to feel uninvolved, detached, clear-eyed, and neutral if one is studying the nature of rocks, or heat, or electrical currents. One doesn't identify with a moon. One doesn't 'care' about it as one does about one's child. It is easy to take the laissez-faire attitude with oxygen or hydrogen and to have non-interfering curiosity, to be Taoistically receptive, to let things be themselves. To be blunt about it, it is easy to be neutrally objective, fair, and just when you don't care about the outcome, when you can't identify or sympathize, when you neither love or hate...if you love something or someone enough at the level of Being, then you can enjoy its actualization of itself, which means that you will not want to interfere with it, since you love it as it is itself... you will be able to see it as it is...you will (not) be prone to judge, use it, improve it or in any other way project your own values onto it. This also tends to mean more concrete experiencing and witnessing; less abstracting, simplifying, organizing, or intellectual manipulation. Leaving it alone to be itself also implies a more holistic, global attitude and less active dissecting. ... This is possible in Being-Cognition and Being-Love.. difficult to put into words... The ability to B-love is a characteristic of a higher level of personal maturity. Therefore personal maturity is a pre- condition for this kind of perspicuity, and one way to improve this kind of knowing would be to improve the maturity of the knower. What could this imply for the education of scientists?" (Maslow, A. The Psychology of Science: A Reconaissance. New York and London: Harper and Row 1966 page 114-118)

Definition of science in the traditional paradigm  Science is defined in terms of exact statements and classifications of knowledge which can be verified. Methods are based exclusively on the following metaphysical assumptions: the separate existence of observer and observed, 'objectivism', explanation of complex phenomena in terms of simple phenomena - 'reductionism', derivation of scientific knowledge from physically measurable data - 'positivism', and the prediction of natural phenomena on the basis of scientific laws - 'determinism'. The composite of these assumptions - objectivism, reductionism, positivism and determinism - results in  the process of basing all knowledge on experience i.e 'logical empiricism'. Guidelines for methodology - the 'scientific method' - are formulated within the framework of logical empiricism.The assumptions of logical empiricism have become so well established that they are confused with the true definition of science.

Many people including scientists believe that to be in the realm of 'science' a study must account for the assumptions of logical empiricism.

"Scientists make models of the physical world. On the basis of certain metaphysical assumptions, they design experiments to test their models. Using guidelines formulated within the framework of a given value system, they carry out experiments to test their models. The metaphysical assumptions which form the foundation of modern science (logical empiricism) include the following: the observer and the observed are separate entities (objectivism), complex phenomena can be explained in terms of simple phenomena (reductionism), all scientific knowledge can be derived from physically measurable data (positivism), and it is possible to predict phenomena on the basis of scientific laws (determinism). These assumptions have become so well established that many scientists make the mistake of confusing them with the definition of modern science. They believe that any knowledge system that does not account for these assumptions must not be in the realm of 'science.'" (Willis Harman. "The Shifting Worldview: Toward a More Holistic Science." Holistic Education Review. September 1992)

 

  The assumptionsof logical empiricism have become so well established that they are confused with the definition of 'science'. Many people including scientists believe that to be in the realm of 'science'a study must account for the assumptions of logical empiricism. In this sense, science becomes 'scientism'. Scientism is the obedience to the dogma of the exclusivenessof logical empiricism and the impersonal model of value-free science. It is based on the misconception that science is something 'out there', something spelled with a capital S.cience as scientism is a body of knowledge which exists in space and time. Science as scientism is a systematized and rganized collection of accumulated facts which have been entatively verified and which can continue to be verified usingthe socially approved scientific method. Science as scientismis based on denial of personal freedom and involves manipulation and control. It is not 'Science' which will depersonalize, or manipulate or control individuals. People will do that. If uncritically accepted as a generalization the concept f 'value-free science' has a crippling effect on human and ocial sciences such as psychology and sociology. Orthodox science today attempts to be free not only of values but of emotions. It is assumed that the best means for discovering any kind of scientific truth is cool perception and neutral inking without feeling. In this sense, science is desacralized.All experiences of transcendence are banished from the realmof knowledge. All emotions for awe, wonder, mystery, ecstasy, and mysticism are denial their place in the search for truth. Science is a human activity which involves human observation,human curiosity and human motivation by a human conscience. s a human activity, science depends for its validity on maturityof human conscience. The scientist with mature conscience lives at the consciousness level of ego-transcendance - the 'level of Being'. At the level of being, it is possible to see things as they without proneness for judgement or exploitation, without desires for projection of one's own values i.e. objectively. Scientific objectivity means concrete experiencing and witnessingssarily having to dissect, to abstract, to simplify, to organize, or to manipulate in any other way. True scientific objectivity requires a global or 'holistic' attitude - an attitude which is possible with so-called 'being-cognition'
and 'being-love'.

'Scientific method' Logical empiricism is the basic framework within which scientists formulate guidelines for methodology i.e. the 'scientific method'. According to the scientific method scientists postulate working hypotheses, make models of the natural world and then design experiments to test their models. They analyse their experimental data and arrive at conclusions which are assessed for their validity and then used accordingly to describe the natural world.

DETACHMENT OF THE OBSERVER Many scientists make the mistake of confusing the definition of modern science with the assumptions upon which it is based. They believe that any knowledge system which does not account for these assumptions must not be in the realm of 'science.' According to the worldview of reductionist science, scientific reality is perceived objectively without the participation of the observer. There is no recognition for the scientific reality of the human inner life. Scientific methodology is based on the assumption that the process of observation involves the detachment of the observer. Of great significance in the Western tradition, this quality of detachment from the objective world is the origin of the concept of individuality and individual freedom. The price has been a sense of alienation from the outer world - a loss of the sense of 'oneness' with the universe, a loss of the wholistic perspective. In the extreme form of detachment, the individual treats other human beings as objects.

 "Our classical science wisely tossed out of its study of the physical universe the projection of purposes, whether of a God or of man himself. In the physical sciences the projection of purpose ...is harmful to full understanding. But the case is completely different with human beings. They have purposes and goals...This simple fact makes classical science less appropriate for studying human behavior. It does not differentiate between means and ends. ...the purposes can be unknown to the person himself." (Bronowski, "The Values of Science" in New Knowledge in Human Values, ed. A.H. Maslow, New York: Harper & Row, 1959. p.18)

 "One trouble with classical science applied to psychology is that all it knows how to do well is to study people as objects, when what we need is to be able to study them also as subjects." (Greeley?54)

Scientism as the 'desacralising of science' Orthodox science today attempts to be free not only of values but of emotions. It is assumed that the best means for discovering any kind of scientific truth is cool perception and neutral thinking without feeling. In this sense, science is desacralized. All experiences of transcendence are banished from the realm of knowledge. All emotions for awe, wonder, mystery, ecstasy, and mysticism are denial their place in the search for truth. Science is a human activity which involves human observation, human curiosity and human motivation by moral consciousness or 'conscience'. As a human activity, science depends for its validity on maturity of human conscience. The scientist with mature conscience lives at the consciousness level of ego-transcendance - the 'level of Being'. At the level of being, it is possible to see things as they without proneness for judgement or exploitation, without desires for projection of one's own values i.e. objectively.

'Taught that 'values' are subjective evaluations and 'emotions' cannot be trusted, scientists are led to believe that both distort the world of objective fact. They should not be taken into account in descriptions of 'reality.' The orthodoxy of the scientific institution has created a desacralized science, devoid of values and feelings of humility, reverence, mystery, wonder, and awe. Denying the reality of these feelings, scientists have cut themselves off from the most real aspects of the 'reality' of the world. The job of the scientist is to see reality for what it is. The 'psychologically healthy scientist' - a self-actualizing human being - approaches his work with love, devotion, and self-abnegation, as if he were entering a holy of holies. His self-forgetfulness can certainly be called a transcendence of the ego. His absolute morality and honesty and total truth can certainly be called a 'religious' attitude, and his occasional thrill or peak-experience, the occasional shudder of awe, of humility and smallness before the great mysteries he deals with - all these can be called sacred." (Abraham Maslow,  Psychology of Science l44)

No recognition of the 'inner life' .. effect on educational methodology or 'pedagogy' Educational methodology which is formulated within the context of this worldview does not recognize the scientific reality of the human inner life. Pedagogocal principles have been formulated with a view to the learner's detachment in the learning process. In the past, the worldview of reductionist science has been shaping the goals of education. The scientific process of logical empiricism has shaped the perception of the learning process in education. With a bias toward completely 'objective' knowledge, scientific methodology has directly influenced the educational methodology. The aims of education have been formulated in terms of the acquisition and measurement of 'objective' knowledge. The assumption is made that cognitive knowledge can only be measured with 'objective' testing methods. The 'objectives' of classwork and coursework have been described in terms of test-taking skills and test performance. The value of knowledge has been measured in terms of its objectives and its usefulness. In the context of this scientific paradigm and worldview, the objective scientific reality of 'being human' is defined in terms of objective scientific reality. It is not defined in terms of the intrinsic nature and value of what it is to be human. Cognitive knowledge is not considered in terms of its intrinsic value to the development of the human potential. Nor is it considered in terms of the enrichment of the human life or the inner life. Educational policy formulated in the context of the modern scientific worldview disregards knowledge systems which are not considered to be in the realm of 'science.'

 True scientific objectivity requires a global or 'holistic' attitude - 'holistic perception'. Holistic perception is an attitude which involves concrete experiencing and witnessing without necessarily having to dissect, to abstract, to simplify, to organize, or to manipulate in any other way - possible with so-called 'being-cognition' and 'being-love'.

"...if you love something or someone enough at the level of Being, then you can enjoy its actualization of itself, which means that you will not want to interfere with it, since you love it as it is itself... you will be able to see it as it is...you will (not) be prone to judge, use it, improve it or in any other way project your own values onto it. This also tends to mean more concrete experiencing and witnessing; less abstracting, simplifying, organizing, or intellectual manipulation. Leaving it alone to be itself also implies a more holistic, global attitude and less active dissecting." (Maslow, A. The Psychology of Science: A Reconaissance. New York and London: Harper and Row 1966 page 114) 

 The 'reductionist' scientific paradigm is insufficient for the study of the physical world... for the study of human affairs as well. The shift in the dominant scientific paradigm and world view has profound... far-reaching implications for education. The worldview of wholistic science based on the assumption of oneness and wholeness... recognizes the intrinsic nature and value of the human inner life... validates the inner subjective experience as well as objective physical sense data.  

 "Although it has been described for centuriies, Western philosophers and scientists have tended to forget the distinction between the two major types of knowledge, symbolic and intimate. Symbolic, map or inferential knowledge, as opposed to the direct knowing of an object that comes from nonsymbolic intimate knowledge. In 'Two Modes of Knowledge,' Ken Wilbur reminds us of this distinction and points out that the failure to remember it results in forgetting that our ordinary conception of the world is only a symbolic knowledge map - a conceptual creation rather than the real world itself. Only by moving to the intimate nonsymbolic knowledge of the contemplative mode and its corresponding state of consciousness can we know the real world." (Walsh l98-l99)

Implications for education:

Education for personal development ... mature growth i.e. 'self-actualisation'    ... moral development... development of moral conscousnes or conscience' ... science with values of developmed conscience or 'soul'... mature science... science of personal freedom... science of human values... moral science...  science based on education for human 'self-actualisation'.

Human education is a function of human learning behaviour which is driven by states of motivation... 'motivational states'. The study of human motivation and human behaviour - the realm of the 'personal' - is not possible with the impersonal methods of orthodox science. Orthodox science which does not recognize purposes and goals is inadequate for the study of human behaviour. Human beings - including scientists - are motivated by their own purposes and those purposes can be unknown even to those who have them. The study of human problems such as those concerned with politics, education, psychology, values, ethics, freedom, individuality, consciousness, religion and so on requires a science which is based on the holistic perspective i.e. 'holistic science'... a function of personal maturity.

 The ability to B-love is a characteristic of a higher level of personal maturity. Therefore personal maturity is a pre-condition for this kind of perspicuity, and one way to improve this kind of knowing would be to improve the maturity of the knower. What could this imply for the education of scientists?" 116)

References: Maslow, A. The Psychology of Science: A Reconaissance. New York and London: Harper and Row 1966

 Editor Abraham Maslow. New Knowledge in Human Values. New York: Harper Brothers 19

"It is a misconception to view science as something 'out there', something spelled with a capital S, a body of knowledge existing in space and time...a systmetized and organized collection of tentatively verified facts...(with) a socially approved methodology for accumulating this body of knowledge and continuing its verification. ...involving depersonalization, a tendency to manipulate and a denial of the basic freedom of choice..." (Rogers, C. On Becoming a Person. Cambridge, MA:: Riverside Press 1961.56? 216)

 "...both orthodox science and orthodox religion have been institutionalized and frozen into a mutually excluding dichotomy. This separation into Aristotelian a and not-a has been almost perfect...every jurisdiction, every task has been assigned to either one or the other...one consequence is that they are both pathologized ...ripped apart into a crippled half-science and a crippled half-religion...the most important parceling out of jurisdictions is that science has nothing to do with values. Orthodox science has been defined as 'value - free'. The situation is even worse than it was during the Renaissance, because more recently all the value fields - humanities and arts - have been included in this world of nonscience i.e. of the 'unscientific'. Science began originally as a determination to rely on one's own eyes instead of on the ancients or upon ecclesiastical authority or pure logic. It was originally just a kind of looking for oneself rather than trusting anyone else's preconceived ideas. Orthodox science today attempts to be free not only of values but of emotions... The unquestioned assumption that 'cool' perceiving and neutral thinking (without emotion) are best for discovering any kind of scientific truth...An important by-product of this dichotomizing is the desacralizing of science, the banishment of all the experiences of transcendence from the realm of the respectably known and the respectably knowable, and the denial of a systematic place in science for awe, wonder, mystery, ecstasy, beauty, and peak experiences." (Maslow 119-121) )

  The methods of modern science based on the well established assumptions of objectivism, reductionism, positivism and determinism have become established 
as an orthodox 'reductionist science'. The goals of education and educational policies of the traditional paradigm of education are formulated on the basis
 of values inherent in the assumptions of reductionist science. 

 In the paradigm of reductionist science, scientific methodology is based on the assumption that for observation and inquiry to remain objective, the observer must observe without participating. In the process of observing, the observer must remain detached. Objective observation and valid perception or 'scientific objectivity' requires observer detachment. Using a 'scientific method', scientists make models of the physical world; they postulate hypotheses and design experiments to test their models; they analyse the data and reach conclusions which they use as the basis for their description of the world. The 'scientific' demand for objectivity in scientific inquiry and observation as detachment from the objective world is of great significance in Western scientific tradition. The notion of objective observation and observer detachment contributed to the concept of individuality and individual freedom. But the price was high. The concept of 'scientific objectivity' has been misinterpreted and this has led to a sense of alienation from the natural world - both the 'outer world' of nature and the 'inner world' of human nature. It has led to a loss of the sense of 'oneness' with the universe and a loss of the wholistic perspective. In the extreme form of alienation, individuals treat themselves as objects and other people as well. In the paradigm of reductionist science, the human mind is considered to be separate from nature and therefore in a position to control it. But modern reductionist science is often confused with the assumptions upon which it is based. In the confusion, knowledge systems which do not account for reductionist assumptions are disregarded. They are excluded from the realm of 'science'. It is this perception of reductionist science which predominates as a worldview. People subconsciously perceive reality within its framework and common beliefs are structured according to its assumptions. The repercussions pervade all areas of public endeavor including education. Educational policies are formulated on the basis of the values inherent in the cultural and scientific belief systems. It is the reductionist paradigm which shaped traditional education. Educational methodology is directly influenced by the scientific methodology of reductionist science and its bias toward completely 'objective' knowledge. They are formulated within the framework of the reductionist paradigm. Consistent with reductionist science is the belief that objectivity of observation and inquiry depends on the exclusion of subjective participation. In the context of this scientific paradigm and its worldview, the reality of 'being human' i.e. the 'inner life' is defined in terms of objective science and not in terms of the intrinsic nature and value of what it is to be human. In the reductionist interpretation of observer detachment, the scientific reality of the inner life is not even recognized. The scientific nature of human subjectivity is discredited as contributing no valid evidence. Policies in education which are formulated within the framework of the reductionist worldview disregard knowledge systems which are believed should be excluded from the realm of 'science.' They consider the individual's 'inner reality' to be invalid as a source of knowledge. This basic assumption is reflected in the educational methodology based on the detachment of the learner in the process of observation and inquiry or 'learning'. According to the concept of learning which is shaped by reductionist science, the learner is expected to be detached from the learning experiences of life. Educational methodologies are devised on that basis. The aims of education are formulated in terms of the acquisition and measurement of cognitive knowledge which is objective. Cognitive knowledge is assumed to be valid only if it can be tested and measured with 'objective' testing methods. The 'objectives' of classwork and coursework are described in terms of the acquisition and measurement in terms of the individual's 'performance' on tests. Emphasis is placed on the 'objective' manifestations of learning - test scores, grades, diplomas, credentials etc and successful performance in education. The value of knowledge is measured in terms of its objectives and its usefulness. This is the legacy of the 'traditional' curriculum conceived for the purposes of training individuals for the factory.

The paradigm of reductionist science is insufficient for the resolution of human problems which depend on a definition of cognitive knowledge in terms of its intrinsic value to the development of the human potential and the enrichment of human life. The dominant scientific paradigm of reductionism as a worldview is being reexamined and a fundamental shift is taking place. There is a trend away from the assumptions of reductionist science and towards the assumptions of a science of 'wholeness' and 'connectedness' i.e. 'holistic science'. Holistic science recognizes the intrinsic nature and value of the whole person and this includes the inner life. Holistic science validates not only the objectivity of physical sense data but also the inner subjective experience of the human person. It validates human subjectivity as a source of valid evidence and 'knowledge'. This has profound implications for education

 Reductionist science began with the Scientific Revolution when the Christian worldview was replaced by a scientific worldview.

 It is the reductionist paradigm which shaped traditional education.

 The dominant scientific paradigm of reductionism as a worldview is being reexamined and a fundamental shift is taking place.

The definition of 'science' has become confused with the assumptions of orthodox science or 'scientism'.

  TRADITIONAL EDUCATIONAL METHODOLOGY: EFFECT OF REDUCTIONIST  SCIENCE OR 'REDUCTIONISM'  The methods of modern science based on the well established assumptions of objectivism, positivism and determinism have become established as an orthodox science or 'scientism'. Scientism is biased towards objective knowlege and the mechanistic worldview i.e. reductionist science or 'reductionism'. Reductionism' originated with the philosophy and science of Descartes (1596-1650) and flourished with the Scientific Revolution when the Christian worldview was replaced by a scientific worldview.The scientific methodology of reductionism  has directly influenced educational methodology. The assumptions of reductionism form the basis for educational policies of the traditional paradigm.  It is the reductionist paradigm which shaped traditional education. The goals of education and educational policies of the traditional paradigm of education are formulated on the basis of values inherent in the assumptions of reductionist science. The aims of education are formulated in terms of the acquisition and measurement of 'objective knowledge'.

 "Reductionistic science, superb for the prediction-and-control task for which it was designed, has mistakenly been elevated by modern society to the position of a worldview. The time seems right for insistence on a holistic science, based on new metaphysical foundations, within which present positivistic, reductionistic science is a limiting case." (Willis Harman. The Shifting Worldview: Toward a More Holistic Science. Holistic Education Review. vol.5 no.3 1992. pp 59-64)                                                                                                                                           

In the process of observing, the observer must remain detached. Objective observation and valid perception or 'scientific objectivity' requires observer detachment. Using a 'scientific method', scientists make models of the physical world; they postulate hypotheses and design experiments to test their models; they analyse the data and reach conclusions which they use as the basis for their description of the world. The 'scientific' demand for objectivity in scientific inquiry and observation as detachment from the objective world is of great significance in Western scientific tradition. The notion of objective observation and observer detachment contributed to the concept of individuality and individual freedom. But the price was high. The concept of 'scientific objectivity' has been misinterpreted and this has led to a sense of alienation from the natural world - both the 'outer world' of nature and the 'inner world' of human nature. It has led to a loss of the sense of 'oneness' with the universe and a loss of the wholistic perspective. In the extreme form of alienation, individuals treat themselves as objects and other people as well.

Using a 'scientific method', scientists make models of the physical world; they postulate hypotheses and design experiments to test their models; they analyse the data and reach conclusions which they use as the basis for their description of the world. The 'scientific' demand for objectivity in scientific inquiry and observation as detachment from the objective world is of great significance in Western scientific tradition. The notion of objective observation and observer detachment contributed to the concept of individuality and individual freedom. But the price was high. The concept of 'scientific objectivity' has been misinterpreted and this has led to a sense of alienation from the natural world - both the 'outer world' of nature and the 'inner world' of human nature. It has led to a loss of the sense of 'oneness' with the universe and a loss of the wholistic perspective. In the extreme form of alienation, individuals treat themselves as objects and other people as well. In the paradigm of reductionist science, the human mind is considered to be separate from nature and therefore in a position to control it. But modern reductionist science is often confused with the assumptions upon which it is based. In the confusion, knowledge systems which do not account for reductionist assumptions are disregarded. They are excluded from the realm of 'science'. It is this perception of reductionist science which predominates as a worldview. People subconsciously perceive reality within its framework and common beliefs are structured according to its assumptions. The repercussions pervade all areas of public endeavor including education. Educational policies are formulated on the basis of the values inherent in the cultural and scientific belief systems. It is the reductionist paradigm which shaped traditional education. Educational methodology is directly influenced by the scientific methodology of reductionist science and its bias toward completely 'objective' knowledge. They are formulated within the framework of the reductionist paradigm. Consistent with reductionist science is the belief that objectivity of observation and inquiry depends on the exclusion of subjective participation.

 

Reductionist science began with Newtonian mechanics... Reductionist science began with sixteenth and seventeenth century Scientific Revolution or 'Enlightenment' when the Christian view of the universe... worldview 'or paradigm' was replaced by the 'scientific philosophy' of Descartes. Descartes' philosophy was based on the assumption that the material and spiritual realms of human existence are disconnected. It was even thought that the human mind is separate from nature and was therefore in a position to control it. The 'Cartesian method' of analytic thought  promoted the mathematical description of nature. The defining feature of this scientific worldview was emphasis on the cause/effect relationships of the material world in which natural events were assumed to be governed by observable natural laws.

 

Science was defined as an human activity of observation and inquiry involving a set of metaphysical assumptions known as 'objectivism', 'positivism', 'determinism' and 'reductionism. According to objectivism, the scientist experiences the world objectively  the observer and the observed are separate ... in a process of 'logical empiricism'; according to positivism, all scientific knowledge can be derived from physically measurable data; according to determinism, it is possible to predict phenomena on the basis of scientific laws; according to reductionism, all complex phenomena of physical reality can be explained in terms of simpler phenomena.

 

  The scientific worldview of early reductionist science was based on the work of Isaac Newton. Newton believed that the universe is a giant mechanism which was set in motion by a Creator and made to obey universal laws of motion i.e. 'Newtonian mechanics'. According to Newton's laws,Newtonian mechanics, the universe  is made up of uniformly behaving bodies exerting forces on each other which are governed the laws of motion determined by simple relationships between them...


The methods of modern science based on the well established assumptions of objectivism, reductionism, positivism and determinism have become established as an orthodox 'reductionist science'. The goals of education and educational policies of the traditional paradigm of education are formulated on the basis of values inherent in the assumptions of reductionist science. The methods of modern science which are based on these well established assumptions have become established as an orthodox reductionist science.

 

 Paradigm of reductionism: observer detachment and 'scientific detachment'...

In the paradigm of reductionist science, scientific methodology is based on the assumption that for observation and inquiry to remain objective, the observer must remain detached and observe without participating... the objectivity of scientific activity depends on the absence of observer participation in the observation process i.e. 'scientific objectivity'. As objective observation and valid perception 'scientific objectivity' depends on observer detachment.  Observer detachment is considered to be crucial to the validity of perception and interpretation. The method used for valid descriptions of the physical world or 'physical reality' is based on the requirement for scientific objectivity - the 'scientific method'. Scientific method involves the postulation of a working 'hypothesis' which is used for making models for further research. The hypothesis is tested by way of well designed experiments and the experimental data are analysed. Analysis of data leads to conclusions which provide sufficient evidence to support the hypothesis or else to provide information which requires the hypothesis to be modified. It is this perception of reductionism which predominates as a worldview - the paradigm of modern 'objective science' or 'scientism'. The methods of scientism are based on the well established assumptions of traditional 'classic science' or 'orthodox science'.

 

Modern reductionism or 'scientism': confusion between the 'science' and the assumptions upon which it is based contributes to alienation from nature... Modern reductionist science is often confused with the assumptions upon which it is based. In the confusion, knowledge systems which do not account for reductionist assumptions are disregarded and often excluded as being 'non-scientific'. Of great significance in Western scientific tradition is the demand for objectivity as detachment in scientific inquiry and observation. The notion of objective observation and observer detachment contributed to the concept of individuality and individual freedom. But the price was high. Misinterpretation of the concept of 'scientific objectivity' results in a sense of alienation from the natural world - both the 'outer world' of nature as environment and the 'inner world' of nature as nature of the human personality i.e. 'human nature'. The reductionist interpretation of observer detachment does not recognise the scientific validity of 'being human' - the 'inner reality' or 'inner life' of human nature. In the reducionist paradigm human nature is defined in terms of objective science and not in terms of the intrinsic nature of the human values for living - the 'operative values' of 'morality' i.e.'human values'. The inner reality of human values is a function of moral awareness or 'consciousness' i.e. the 'conscience'. Development of conscience determines extent of consciousness or 'consciousness state'. Reductionism discredits the consciousness state of human subjectivity in the estimation of the extent of validity of 'knowledge'. It ignores the spiritual dimension of the 'knower' -  that state of connectedness with all life - the 'human spirit'. This has led to a sense of alienation - a loss of the sense of 'oneness', 'wholeness' and 'connectedness' with nature and the universe i.e. 'holistic perspective' or 'holistic perception'. In its extreme form, the sense of alienation leads to the treatment of oneself as an object and the subsequent treatment of others as objects as well.

 

Reductionism which values knowledge in terms of its usefulness is inadequate for resolution of human problems This depends on a definition of cognitive knowledge in terms of its intrinsic value to the development of the human potential and the enrichment of human life and inner life.

The dominant scientific paradigm of reductionism as a worldview is being reexamined and a fundamental shift is taking place. There is a trend away from the assumptions of reductionist science and towards the assumptions of a science of 'wholeness' i.e. 'holistic science'. Wholistic science recognizes the intrinsic nature and value of the whole person and this includes the inner life. Wholistic science validates not only the objectivity of physical sense data but also the inner subjective experience of the human person. It validates human subjectivity as a source of valid evidence and 'knowledge'. This has profound implications for education.

 

 In the paradigm of reductionism the value of knowledge is measured in terms of the usefulness of its objectives. This is reflected in the emphasis on objective knowledge in the traditional paradigm of education. Emphasis is on the 'objective' manifestations of learning - credentials etc. Educational methodologies are devised on the basis of the assumption that knowledge is valid only if it can be tested. The 'objectives' of class work and coursework are described in terms of the acquisition of objective knowledge and...  The paradigm of reductionist science is inadequate for the resolution of human problems which depends on the definition of cognitive knowledge in terms of its intrinsic value to the development of human potential and the enrichment of human life....  inner life.

The paradigm of reductionism is reflected in the subconscious perception of reality in terms of its basic assumptions. The same assumptions provide the framework for the construction of common cultural beliefs and the repercussions pervade all areas of human endeavour including education.

Reductionism shapes traditional paradigm of education: educational methodology Educational methodology is directly influenced by the scientific methodology of reductionist science and its bias toward completely 'objective' knowledge. They are formulated within the framework of the reductionist paradigm. Consistent with reductionist science is the belief that objectivity of observation and inquiry depends on the exclusion of subjective participation. In the context of this scientific paradigm and its worldview, the reality of 'being human' i.e. the 'inner life' is defined in terms of objective science and not in terms of the intrinsic nature and value of what it is to be human.


In the reductionist interpretation of observer detachment, the scientific reality of the inner life is not even recognized. The scientific nature of human subjectivity is discredited as contributing no valid evidence. Policies in education which are formulated within the framework of the reductionist worldview disregard knowledge systems which are believed should be excluded from the realm of 'science.' They consider the individual's 'inner reality' to be invalid as a source of knowledge.
 

This basic assumption is reflected in the educational methodology based on the detachment of the learner in the process of observation and inquiry or 'learning'. According to the concept of learning which is shaped by reductionist science, the learner is expected to be detached from the learning experiences of life. Educational methodologies are devised on that basis. The aims of education are formulated in terms of the acquisition and measurement of cognitive knowledge which is objective. Cognitive knowledge is assumed to be valid only if it can be tested and measured with 'objective' testing methods. The 'objectives' of classwork and coursework are described in terms of the acquisition and measurement in terms of the individual's 'performance' on tests. Emphasis is placed on the 'objective' manifestations of learning - test scores, grades, diplomas, credentials etc and successful performance in education. The value of knowledge is measured in terms of its objectives and its usefulness. This is the legacy of the 'traditional' curriculum conceived for the purposes of training individuals for the factory.
 

The paradigm of reductionism shaped the paradigm of 'traditional education' as education for control of the future or 'banking education'. Traditional education was conceived for purposes of adaptation to work in the factory i.e. 'schooling'. Schooling as education is consistent with reductionism in that it emphasizes cause/effect relationships and involves linear and sequential processes. It is based on the belief that knowledge is valid if it is acquired objectively i.e. 'objective knowledge'. Objective knowledge is presumably acquired through cause and effect learning i.e. conditioned learning or 'conditioning'. Conditioned learning is the result of motivation by extrinsic rewards i.e. 'extrinsic motivation'.  Extrinsically motivated learning produces objective knowledge which can be tested with objective testing methods, measured in terms of 'performance' on objective tests and evaluated in terms of a punishment/reward system of numerical test scores, 'grades', grade averages and credentials such as diplomas, certificates, awards and so on. This educational methodology is a reflection of reductionism in that objectivity of scientific activity involves observer detachment and objective analysis.  

In the context of this scientific paradigm and its worldview, the reality of 'being human' i.e. the 'inner life' is defined in terms of objective science and not in terms of the intrinsic nature and value of what it is to be human. In the reductionist interpretation of observer detachment, the scientific reality of the inner life is not even recognized. The scientific nature of human subjectivity is discredited as contributing no valid evidence. Policies in education which are formulated within the framework of the reductionist worldview disregard knowledge systems which are believed should be excluded from the realm of 'science.' They consider the individual's 'inner reality' to be invalid as a source of knowledge. This basic assumption is reflected in the educational methodology based on the detachment of the learner in the process of observation and inquiry or 'learning'. According to the concept of learning which is shaped by reductionist science, the learner is expected to be detached from the learning experiences of life. Educational methodologies are devised on that basis. The aims of education are formulated in terms of the acquisition and measurement of cognitive knowledge which is objective. Cognitive knowledge is assumed to be valid only if it can be tested and measured with 'objective' testing methods. The 'objectives' of classwork and coursework are described in terms of the acquisition and measurement in terms of the individual's 'performance' on tests. Emphasis is placed on the 'objective' manifestations of learning - test scores, grades, diplomas, credentials etc and successful performance in education. The value of knowledge is measured in terms of its objectives and its usefulness. This is the legacy of the 'traditional' curriculum conceived for the purposes of training individuals for the factory.  The dominant scientific paradigm of reductionism as a worldview is being reexamined and a fundamental shift is taking place.

Shift from mechanistic worldview of reductionism to ecological worldview of science of connectedness or wholeness i.e. 'holistic science'  mechanistic reductionist paradigm emphasises linear sequential processes.

 Policies in education which are formulated within the framework of the reductionist worldview disregard knowledge systems believed to be excluded from the realm of 'science'. The dominant scientific paradigm of  reductionism as a worldview is being re-examined and a fundamental shift is taking place. There is a trend away from the assumptions of reductionist science and towards the assumptions of a science of connectedness or 'wholeness' .. involving relationships between parts and wholes i.e. ‘holistic science’. Holistic science recognizes the intrinsic nature and value of the whole person and this includes the inner life. Holistic science validates not only the objectivity of physical sense data but also the inner subjective experience of the human person. Wholistic science validates not only the objectivity of physical sense data but also the inner subjective experience of the human person. It validates human subjectivity as a source of valid evidence...s a source of knowledge... knowledge depending on the individual's 'consciousness state' which is a function of the level of personality development which they have reached i.e. 'sociocognitive stage'. This has profound implications for education.

The paradigm of reductionism is reflected in the subconscious perception of reality in terms of its basic assumptions. The same assumptions provide the framework for the construction of common cultural beliefs and the repercussions pervade all areas of human endeavour including education. Educational policies and practices are formulated in the context of the values inherent in the belief systems of the culture i.e. 'cultural context'. In the culture of traditional Western culture, educational goals are defined in terms of motivating objectives external to the individual's instinctive drive for meaningful learning i.e. 'intrinsic motivation'. They discredit the value of life experience and 'experiential learning'. Experiential learning is meaningful learning which involves the natural human activity of observation and inquiry or 'scientific activity'. The validity of scientific activity depends on holistic perception which is characteristic of spiritual maturity of the developed personality i.e. 'self-actualisation'. Education for complete personality development is education for whole person health or 'wellness' i.e. 'holistic education'. Holistic education is concerned with human development as the construction of human conscience or 'soul'.

 Implications for education  It is not possibe to have a truly meaningful education without the scientific recognition of the intrinsic nature and value of what it is to be human i.e. 'human nature'. The worldview of holistic science recognizes the intrinsic nature and value of the human inner life. It is possible to have a truly meaningful holistic education of human beings if it is based on the recognition and valorization of the human inner life. A holistic education is scientifically possible within the context of the worldview of wholistic science.

 

Consider the nature of knowledge and the nature of reality within the context of the worldview of reductionist science. The scientific methodology is based on the assumption that in the process of observation, the observer remains detached from the reality being observed. The educational methodology, reflecting the same basic assumption, is based on the detachment of the learner from what is being learned in the process of learning. The society becomes dominated by the same worldview. People subconsciously perceive reality within its framework. Their beliefs are structured according to its basic assumptions. The repercussions pervade all areas of public endeavor including education. With a bias toward completely 'objective' knowledge, scientfic methodology directly influences the educational methodology. The aims of education are formulated in terms of the acquisition and measurement of 'objective' knowledge. Cognitive knowledge is assumed to be present only if it can be tested with objective tests. Classwork and coursework are designed to result in the effective answering of tests. The value of knowledge is measured in terms of its usefulness. In this worldview, the objective scientific reality of 'being human' is defined in terms of objective scientific reality. It is not defined in terms of the intrinsic nature and value of what it is to be human. Cognitive knowledge is not considered in terms of its intrinsic value to the development of the human potential or the enrichment of the inner life. The basic assumptons of this 'scientific' worldview must be reexamined. A new scientific methodology of wholistic science is based on the assumption that the observer participates in the process of observation. Reflecting the same basic assumption, a new educational methodology recognizes and validates the participation of the learner in the learning process. The worldview of holistic science forms the basis for a holistic education.

Educational policies and practices are formulated in the context of the values inherent in the belief systems of the culture i.e. 'cultural context'. In the culture of traditional Western culture, educational goals are defined in terms of motivating objectives external to the individual's instinctive drive for meaningful learning i.e. 'intrinsic motivation'. They discredit the value of life experience and 'experiential learning'. Experiential learning is meaningful learning which involves the natural human activity of observation and inquiry or 'scientific activity'. The validity of scientific activity depends on holistic perception which is characteristic of spiritual maturity of the developed personality i.e. 'self-actualisation'. Education  forcomplete personality development is education for whole person health or 'wellness' i.e. 'holistic education'. Holistic education is concerned with human development as the construction of human conscience or 'soul'.

"The quality of detachment from the surroundings (separation between ourselves and the objective world) is of great significance in the Western tradition" It is in the context of separation from the surroundings that individuals intuit their sense of individuality and freedom. The price is a sense of alienation from the outside world. The extreme form of this sense of alienation leads the individual to treat other human beings as objects without an inner life, eliminating the inner life from scientific reality. Within the worldview of reductionist science, the reality of being human is not scientifically recognized. It is the reductionist paradigm which shaped traditional education

  Reductionist science produces mechanistic worldview – universe is a mechanical system composed of elementary building...

Shift from the mechanistic worldview of reductionism to the ecological worldview of holistic science

 mechanistic reductionist paradigm emphasises linear sequential processes          

 The methods of modern science based on the well established assumptions of objectivism, reductionism, positivism and determinism have become established as an orthodox 'reductionist science'. The goals of education and educational policies of the traditional paradigm of education are formulated on the basis of values inherent in the assumptions of reductionist science.
 

  It is the reductionist paradigm which shaped traditional education... The dominant scientific paradigm of reductionism as a worldview is being reexamined and a fundamental shift is taking place.There is a trend away from the assumptions of reductionist science and towards the assumptions of a science of 'wholeness' i.e. wholistic science. Wholistic science recognizes the intrinsic nature and value of the whole person and this includes the inner life.It validates human subjectivity as a source of valid evidence and 'knowledge'

 In the paradigm of reductionist science, the human mind is considered to be separate from nature and therefore in a position to control it. But modern reductionist science is often confused with the assumptions upon which it is based. In the confusion, knowledge systems which do not account for reductionist assumptions are disregarded. They are excluded from the realm of 'science'. It is this perception of reductionist science which predominates as a worldview. People subconsciously perceive reality within its framework and common beliefs are structured according to its assumptions. The repercussions pervade all areas of public endeavor including education. Educational policies are formulated on the basis of the values inherent in the cultural and scientific belief systems.

  

 THE DELIVERY MODEL FOR TEACHING... school learning or 'schooling'.  In the modern sense, the meaning of 'traditional education' is education in schools.school education  'Traditional' education in the modern sense is best characterized by referring to the use of classrooms, scheduled activities, assymetrical teacher-student ratios etc. 'Non-traditional' would refer to the absence or modification of one of these characteristics. The extent of variation with 'traditional' programs and institutions makes it difficult to define the term 'non-traditional' .

 The twelve-grade classification system of public schools was established by 1890. In the secondary grades, the school curriculum was fragmented and organized around a number of 'subjects' to be studied from textbooks. In the traditional paradigm of education, emphasis is placed on the process of teaching for the mechanics of learning factual knowledge. 

 The concept of 'traditional learning' as school-learning is relatively recent.

SCHOOL AS HIERARCHICAL The first assumption stems from the rise of industrialization and the consequent focus on the economy. Schools have had to provide a work force for the hierarchical and mechanical workplace of the factory, of business and of industry. The assumption has always been that schools could be modelled on the basis of a hierarchical and mechanical school environment...

Traditional education as school education accounts for the modern meaning of the term 'traditional learning' as school learning.

In the modern sense, the meaning of 'traditional education' is education in schools. 'Traditional' education in the modern sense is best characterized by referring to cluster of themes or modes such the use of classrooms, scheduled activities, assymetrical teacher-student ratios etc.   "Non-traditional" would refer to the absence or modification of one of these themes or modes. The extent of variation with "traditional" programs and institutions make it difficult to define the term "non-traditional."

"Innovative education" refers to "innovation" in educational methodology. An "innovation," a new approach or technique, is a variation on a known theme based on one of three principles.  the modern sense, the meaning of 'traditional education' is education in schools. 'Traditional' education in the modern sense is best characterized by referring to the use of classrooms, scheduled activities, assymetrical teacher-student ratios etc. 'Non-traditional' would refer to the absence or modification of one of these characteristics. The extent of variation with 'traditional' programs and institutions makes it difficult to define the term 'non-traditional.' Traditional education as school education accounts for the modern meaning of the term 'traditional learning' as school learning. The concept of 'traditional learning' as school-learning is relatively recent. ("The Learning Tradition" page 7-9 in Peak Learning by Richard Gross)

In the ancient Athens of Plato and Socrates, learning was a part of life, work and leisure. Citizens engaged in discussion of issues in the market, in the baths and in the gym.

"The founding fathers of America believed in self-education. They believed that the success of the republic depended on the intellectual self-reliance of the citizenry and promoted open debate through free speech and a free press. Only recently has schooling been confused with education and peoples' competence been judged by their diplomas. The major qualification of the 'professional' is that he/she can pass a licensing examination. Increasing numbers of people make learning a continuing part of living. These so-called peak learners may represent a chance of survival of the human species and the planet". (from 'Peak Learning page 5-7)

The traditional paradigm for teaching evolved in the context of industrialism and its requirements for discipline, rigidity and authoritarianism. In the traditional paradigm for teaching education is confused with school and learning is confused with 'schooling'.  The confusion between schooling and learning is relatively recent. The teaching model for schooling is the 'delivery model'. 

www.johntaylorgatto.com  Schooling as training in consumerism... bored people are the best consumers: Underground History of American Education

"The function of education in any society is the socialization of youth into the prevailing culture. On the one hand, schooling serves to integrate individuals into society by institutionaliz ing dominant value, norm and belief system. On the other hand, schooling provides the individual competencies necessary for the adequate performance of social roles. These educational systems are fundamental to the stability and functioning of any society." (See Gintis in R.C. Edwards et al(eds) The Capitalist System. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1972 123)

History of American traditional education as education for the economy...

                       vertical fragmentation of the curriculum...

                             horizontal fragmentation of the curriculum...

                             education and scientific reductionism... 

  aims of schooling...

schooling as dependency training...   

mistrust in human nature...

implications for education...  today's dilemma of schooling...

American 'traditional education' as education for the economy An objective account of traditional education as school education depends on an understanding of the issues in a historical context.

Eighteenth century: In the 18th century, the American founding fathers believed in the success of the republic in terms of dependence on the intellectual self-reliance of its citizenry. They believed in self-education and promoted open debate through free speech and a free press.

End of nineteenth century: Education in schools evolved in the context of industrialism. The industrial revolution produced the notion of education for the 'masses'. Education for the 'masses'... 'mass education' for purposes of the economy. .with the rise of industrialism and the demands of industry attention was focused on the economy. A system of public education was devised to provide a work force for the economic infrastructure of the new industrialized society. Educational policies were formulated to prepare children for a future working environment in an industrial world. School education was designed to pre-adapt children to the social requirements of collective discipline, authoritarianism and regimentation. It is in this context that one can understand the issues which pertain to the traditional paradigm for teaching.

 the so-called 'traditional' paradigm of education associated with school education.

The 'traditional' curriculum was designed to produce an assembly line education for the production of the kind of adults which were needed for the new world of business and industry. Schools were structured and organized as an effective means of training the masses for work in the factories. The school environment was modelled after the hierarchical and mechanical environment of industry. A fragmented and assembly line approach to education produced educational curricula and teaching methodologies which were designed for mass education. A twelve-grade classification system of public schools was established in 1890.

The educational curriculum was conceived for purposes of training for the factory workplace and designed for mass education. Within the context of a management hierarchy, the 'classical curriculum' consisted of the basic skills of reading, writing and arithmetic. Students were expected to be punctual, to follow orders and to perform repetitive tasks in preparation for work on the factory floor and in the offices. A regimented education prepared them for a future as mechanical laborers of assembly line technology. Teachers were required to be authoritarian, emphasizing repetitive work and rote learning. At first, the principles of 'traditional' education and the 'classical curriculum' were applied to primary and secondary schools and later they were applied to higher education as well. More recently, they have been applied to the new practice of 'adult education'. 

 A fragmented and assembly line approach to education produced educational curricula designed to produce an assembly line education for the production of the kind of adults which were needed for the new world of business and industry. The aim was to provide a work force for the economic infrastructure of the new industrialized society. The school environment was modelled after the hierarchical and mechanical environment of industry. The educational system was devised in the form of 'public schools' which were structured and organized as an effective means of training the young for work in the factories. A twelve-grade classific ation system of public schools was established by 1890. Teaching methodologies were also designed for mass education.

 SCHOOLING AS MECHANISM OF SOCIAL CONTROL... EDUCATION FOR DOMINATION OR FOR 'FREEDOM' as 'political freedom' (as opposed to 'freedom of conscience' or 'inner freedom') There is no such thing as a neutral educational process. Education functions either as an instrument which is used to facilitate the integration of the younger generation into the logic of the present system and bring about conformity to it, or it becomes the 'practice of freedom,' the means by which men and women deal critically and creatively with reality and discover how to participate in the transformation of their world 

Traditional education as 'schooling' is based on the basic mistrust in human nature

The paradigm of 'traditional American culture' (American Constitution) is characterised by its dichotomous perception of human nature... goodness versus supposed wickedness or 'evil'.   

The paradigm of traditional education as 'schooling' is based on the assumption that the human personality or 'human nature' is basically immoral and antisocial.  The mistrust of human nature accounts for the fallacious notion that the indvidual's interests and those of society are mutually exclusive... leads to the  notion that the purpose of civilisation is to control human impulses or 'antisocial instincts' (Freud).

The supposed dichotomy between individual and society is the basis for confusion about formulation of rational educational theory... Confusion between schooling and learning is relatively recent.  

 "Mass education was the ingenious machine constructed by industrialism to produce the kind of adults it needed. The problem was inordinately complex. How to pre-adapt children for a new world - a world of repetitive indoor toil, smoke, noise, machines, crowded living conditions, collective discipline, a world in which time was to be regulated not by the cycle of the sun and moon but by the factory whistle and the clock.The solution was an educational system that, in its very structure, simulated this new world...The most criticized feature of education today - the regimentation, lack of individualization, the rigid systems of seating, grouping, grading, and marking, the authoritarian role of the teacher - are precisely those that made mass public education so effective an instrument of adaptation for its place and time..." (A Toffler. Future Shock. London, Pan Books. 1976 pp 361-362)

'School' can be defined as an "age-specific, teacher related process requiring full-time attendance at an obligatory curriculum." (Illich Deschooling Society 26)

Schooling as dependency training: 'student-teacher contradiction'

 "Resistant dependent learning may well be a product of culture, upbringing and the public education system. Students do not naturally arrive at high school, college or adult education programs at once dependent upon teachers and resentful of being taught. They become that way as a result of years of dependency training." (Grow, Gerald. "Teaching Learners to be Self- Directed" Adult Educational Quarterly, 41: 3 (Spring 1991) 142)

"The exercise of the role of teacher is a matter of time, place and circumstance. The individual can make no claim to the permament title of 'teacher' since a change of circumstances, an encounter with somenone else, may at any moment reverse the roles." (Goble. The Function of Teaching 53)

 In the institution of the school, the function of the teacher is measured by the difference in knowledge level with the student and in this way is formalized. On the basis of the asumption that knowledge is "finite and unchanging" the student is expected to memorize and 'possess' the knowledge transmitted by the teacher whose function as a 'monopolist' (making a claim to a monopoly of knowledge) is to concentrate on "artificial and arbitrary kinds of scholarship." (Goble. The Function of Teaching 54)

 Traditional teaching methods were justified by principles of behavioural science. Educational methods were formulated on the basis of the assumption that learning is a matter of conditioning

    Aims of schooling Educational policies were designed to pre-adapt children for future rigid working environments of industrial society with its social requirements of collective discipline, authoritarianism and regimentation.

The aim of schooling was to inculcate the values of 'mental discipline' as the performance of meaningless tasks without questioning and 'obedience to authority' as punctuality and the following of orders. This is the 'hidden curriculum' of the traditional paradigm. Educational methods are justified  by principles of behavioural science or 'behaviourism'.  They are based on the assumption that education is a matter of conditioned learning or 'conditioning'.

School education became equated with educational institutions expert authorities, classroom teachers and textbooks, assigned readings and memorization of content for tests and grades, judgment of competence by diplomas, policies of teacher authoritarianism, rigid seating and grouping arrangements, reward and punishment systems of marking and grading and a curriculum without individualization. Traditional teaching methods were justified  by the principles of behavioural science. Educational methods were formulated on the basis of the assumption that learning is a matter of conditioning. Methods of teaching emphasized memorization of facts i.e. 'learning by rote'. In the secondary grades, knowledge areas and skill areas were fragmented and distributed into separate subjects and skills to make up a curriculum of academic 'requirements.' The school curriculum was organized around subjects to be studied from textbooks.

 Teaching methods are based on policies of teacher authoritarianism and classroom teachers are considered as expert authorities. They emphasize assigned readings to be studied and memorized from textbooks and then tested in terms of isolated factual content by 'performance' on objective tests. Evaluation of competence is in the form of a reward/punishment grading system. Recognition of achievement is in the form of diplomas and other 'credentials'. The curriculum is without individualization.

Knowledge areas and skill areas are fragmented and distributed into separate subjects to make up a curriculum of 'academic requirements'.

"The lecture-based passive curriculum is not simply poor pedagogical practice. It is the teaching model most compatible with promoting the dominant authority in society and with disempowering students." (Freire page l0 Politics of Education)

'Vertical fragmentation' of the curriculum  Fragmentation of the curriculum can be traced  back to the publication of two documents committed to the ideals of democracy. The first document, published in 1893, was entitled The Report of the Committee of Ten on Secondary School Studies. The report focused on the ideal of quality education for every American citizen and emphasized the integration of different subject areas of the traditional humanistic curriculum. After l900 as a result of the misinterpretation of Darwin's concept of 'survival of the fittest' in the evolution of biological species, educational goals were set with a view for 'social efficiency'. ThereafterThe aim of schooling was to train young minds to become imitative and exploitative. In 1918 the second document was published entitled 'The Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education'. This report was a response to the effects of the immigration policies between 1893 and 1918 as a result of which the school population was doubling every ten years. Attempts were made to adjust to the new social situation and preserve the democratic ideal of 'education for every American'.

Emphasis was placed on the subjects of the curriculum which were thought to be important for social adjustment in a democratic society - the formal subjects of reading, writing, arithmetic -i.e. 'formalism'.

Horizontal fragmentation of the curriculum During this time, the ideas of philosopher John Dewey and leaders of the 'progressive movement' emphasized individual differences, stressed the importance of a 'humane curriculum' which respected 'experiential learning'.These progressive ideas were combined with the principles of educational 'formalism' and in this way they were  incorporated into the institutionalized system of education. The results were unfortunate.  'Progressive education' was perceived as a kind of 'romantic formalism' and the curriculum was fragmented further - this time 'horizontally'. Children were allocated to different 'groups' or 'tracks' depending on their level of 'intelligence'.  Children of the different groups were given access to information which was considered to be appropriate for their individual 'capacities'. Information was selected for the purpose of preparing children in those subjects and skills which were considered to be necessary not only for work and for leisure  but for good citizenship as well. Each individual was to be educated in terms of their 'usefulness to society'.

In this way progressive education was accommodated to the democratic ideal of 'education for every American'.

2. LEARNING AS CONDITIONING

3. LEARNING IS OBJECTIVE

Educational policy and scientific reductionism Educational policy in the traditional paradigm is based on assumptions inherent in the scientific paradigm of reductionist science or 'reductionism'. In the paradigm of reductionism,Like the 'objective' scientist, the student's role in the learning process is assumed to be as objective... just as the scientist must be 'objective' in the process of observation, in the same way the student must be objective in the process of learning. Emphasis is placed on the 'objective' of 'learning' - test scores, grades, diplomas, credentials and so on...forced learning. The learner’s inner life is ignored and its validity in the learning process is discredited. Teaching in the traditional paradigm ignores the learner's  inner life and discredits its validity in the learning process.                      

It is in this context that one can begin to understand the issues pertaining to the questioning of the traditional paradigm and the paradigm 'shift' of today.

Ritual character of schooling as the initiation into the consumer society

  As long as people are not aware of the ritual character of schooling as the initiation into the consumer society, they cannot begin to conceive of educational reform. Under the power of the ritual of the educational 'machine', they remain under the spell of the economy (capitalism- consumerism). Once that spell is broken and only after it is broken, can they reform the educational system within a new paradigm. (Illich Deschooling Society)

Traditional educaton today: dilemma of schooling

We know that learning is a natural function of the healthy mind and that learning and thinking are valuable assets for citizens of a free and democratic society. Given that schools are faced with the dilemma of how to motivate students to work, the central problem appears to be the following: how can we teach within the framework of a required curriculum while respecting children's natural motivation for learning? the educator, whether in the administrative or instructional capacities of schools or government, has the very great responsibiliuty of leading students to use and develop their own minds - to learn to think.

In the traditional paradigm of education, the aim of education has always been considered in terms of the individual's 'usefulness to society'.

Since their beginning, traditional schools have been institutions of education as compulsory 'education' and forced learning. Today's fragmented and assembly line approach to education continues the tradition of compulsory education. Traditional education continues to promote values derived from the belief systems of American culture. In this 'cultural context' the traditional teaching paradigm continues to be used to promote the ideals of capitalism... to foster adult 'immaturity'.  In the current educational systems, emphasis is placed almost entirely on the acquistion of data. There is little concern for the development of the reasoning mode of learning. Training of the observational and contemplative modes are almost completely lacking. And the affective dimension of learning... the individual's instinctive striving for inner development to maturity or 'self-actualisation' is completely ignored. .

Self-actualisation is the aim of education for the whole person i.e. 'holistic education'.

 'Passive teaching'- teaching as if information must be poured into childrens' heads - is destructive for children. They are judged on the basis of their ability to learn passively. The passive teacher makes a claim to a monopoly of the knowledge he teaches. (Paul Goodman Growing Up Absurd 77)

What would be the implications for education if it were based on trust in the human organism as a social organism with a social brain and without antisocial instincts?

...if human nature is defined in terms of human 'values for living' or 'human needs'?

"Ignorance, poverty and crime in society will not be solved by more of the same 'old education' - forcing children to learn under the systematic repression of adult-controlled instruction. Despite the billions of dollars and lip service efforts at 'reform' this type of traditional education remains as ever a part of the problem - not the solution. Instead, we must create a 'new education' to free the human spirit - true education which is based entirely on fundamental principles of nature." Illich

  "Students who are capable of more individual involvement in learning are often relegated to passive roles in authoritarian classrooms." (Grow, Gerald. "Teaching Learners to be Self-Directed" Adult Educational Quarterly, 41: 3 (Spring 1991) 125-149 the quote is on page 137) 

"Generally speaking, the good student is not one who is restless or intractable, or one who reveals one's doubts or wants to know the reason behind facts, or one who breaks with preestablished models, or one who denounces a mediocre bureaucracy, or one who refuses to be an object. To the contrary, the so-called 'good student' is one who repeats, who renounces critical thinking, who adjusts to models, and who 'thinks it pretty to be a rhinoceros'"  Paulo Freire The Politics of Education South Hadley, MA: Bergin and Garvey Publishers, Inc. 1985 (117)

  "It is characteristic of the permament search for humanistic education that the more you have freedom to criticize, the more necessary is the sacredness of the domesticating social order for its self-preservation. For this reason, all attempts at mystification obviously tend to become totalitarian, that is, they tend to reach all human endeavors. No category or enterprise can escape falsification, because an exception might become a threat to the sacredness of the established sorder. In this sense, schooling at whatever level plays one of the most vital roles, as an efficient mechansim for social control. It is not hard to find educators whose idea of education is 'to adapt the learner to his environment,' and as a rule formal education has not been doing much more than this." (Paulo Freire The Politics of Education South Hadley, MA: Bergin and Garvey Publishers, Inc. 1985 11    Increasing numbers of people make learning a continuing part of living. These so-called peak learners may represent a chance of survival of the human species and the planet

EDUCATION AS EXPRESSSION OF POWER AND POLITICS... EDUCATION FOR DOMINATION AS EDUCATION FOR THE NEEDS OF "SOCIETY" COUNTERACTS MOTIVATION RESULT IS EDUCATIONAL "CRISIS".... Education for the 'needs' of the society becomes task oriented, lacks vision and wisdom, inhibits intellectual and emotional growth. Education for domination counteracts natural learning and intrinsic motivation... traditional policies and programs counteract children's motivation for learning...

The successful schools as communities of learning and places where students were known to have ongoing contact with their teacher.

 

"i never let my schooling interfere with my education" (mark twain)

 

Traditional teaching paradigm as irresponsible education for control and manipulation:  'banking education'.  In the traditional teaching paradigm, education is confused with task-oriented or objective learning i.e. 'schooling'. Teaching methods involve the use of external motivating devices such as punishment/reward systems of evaluation such as 'grades and 'grade averages'.  Students are coerced into patterns of learning for external ... goals... and objective tasks or 'learning outcomes'. Such extrinsically motivated learning or 'extrinsic motivation' inhibits the free use of creative energy and productiveness or meaningful work... inhibits 'free will'...  'freedom'. Denial of freedom inhibits development of personality integration in the realisation of human potential i.e. 'self-realisation' or 'self-actualisation'. Self-actualisation depends on freedom for effective learning and self-initiated meaningful work driven by the need for personal integrity and spiritual independence i.e. 'self-transcendance'Consequently teaching for external purposes is not functional in personal development and moral failure and subsequent irresponsiblility of behaviour

       EDUCATION OR MANIPULATION?: STUDENT/TEACHER CONTRADICTION AND 'BANKING EDUCATION'

    "The opposite of education, manipulation is based on the absence of faith in the growth of potentialities and on the conviction that the child will be right only if the adults put into him what is desirable and cut off what seems to be undesirable. There is no need of faith in the robot since there is no life in it either." (Carl Rogers. Freedom To Learn)

       The term 'banking education' was coined by Paulo Freire to refer to educational pedagogy which is likened to the process of banking. The student's mind is likened to a depository or bank into which bits of knowledge are stored and then withdrawn later whenever needed. Banking education is based on the perception of knowledge as finite and unchanging... a gift to be bestowed by those who have it on those who do not. The teacher is a monopolist of knowledge and their function is to transfer the knowledge which they possess to the student and to concentrate on their scholarship which is artificial and arbitrary. The teacher's function is considered to be justified by the supposed absolute ignorance of the student. Students of banking education are expected to accept a passive role in a learning process which  is understood in terms of transferrals of information from teacher to student. In order to possess the knowledge which the teacher transfers to them, they are expected to memorize or learn by 'rote'.      

 Teaching methods of banking education which  serve the interests of oppression are based on a  mechanistic and static view of consciousness.

     Banking education is the practice of domination which mirrors the oppressiveness of the dominant society… functions as an instrument of social control by manipulating the content of the individual’s imagination through the inhibition of creative and critical thought. The individual is taught to accept without questioning… without thinking… to become credulous  The ideological intent or is to stimulate credulity and to indoctrinate the student to adapt to the reality intended by the oppressor… of the world of oppression i.e. 'hidden curriculum'. The hidden curriculum is not often perceived by educators and this explains their almost instinctive reaction against any educational 'experiments' which might stimulate the  critical faculties and encourage a critical consideration of reality.

     The oppressor attempts to justify the conditions of human existence by mythologizing the social reality through the creation of social myth. The creation of social myth is intended to conceal certain facts and present a fragmented view of the social reality. Adaptation to the fragmented view fosters rrational thinking. With fragmented perception, individuals perceive their own situation as unalterable. They become resigned to a fatalistic outlook which is reinforced with further mythologizing. This leads to the individual's social rank as the 'oppressed.'         

      In the paradigm of banking education, the characteristic practice of the oppressor/oppressed contradiction is reflected n the presentation of the teacher as the necessary opposite to the student. This contradiction is formalized in the school institution as the so-called 'student/teacher contradiction'. According to which the function of the teacher is measured by the difference in knowledge level compared with the student. Students accept their ignorance as justifying the teacher's existence, never discovering that it is in fact they who educate the teachers. Teachers of banking education are afraid to communicate with students. It is for this reason that the student/teacher contradiction is maintained.

      Implicit in the student/teacher contradiction is the assumption that there is a dichotomy between the students and their world or 'social reality'. Students are spectators and not creators. Teachers teach and students are taught. Teachers know everything and students know nothin. Teachers think and students are thought about; Teachers talk and students listen. Teachers discipline and students are disciplined. Teachers choose and enforce their choices and students comply. Teachers act and students act through them. Teachers choose program content and students adapt without consultation. Teachers confuse authority of knowledge with professional authority. They set their authority in opposition to their students. In the learning situation, students are 'objects' and the teacher is 'subject' engaging in the destructive pedagogy of transferring information as if it should be placed in the depository or 'bank' of the student's mind to be stored and then withdrawn and used later.

     Students of banking education are evaluated on the basis of their ability to learn passively. Their passively acquired knowledge is measured in terms of a reward and punishment system of grades. Good grades are given to students who do not refuse to be treated as objects. The 'good student' is the one who repeats and is not restless or intractable, the one who accepts without questioning and does not reveal their doubts, the one who is unable to think critically and does not want to know the reason behind the facts, the one who does not want to break with pre-established models, the one who does not denounce the mediocrity of bureaucracies and adjusts to the status quo.

      The banking approach to education teaches the individual to accept without questioning. The student of banking education is not permitted to ask 'why?' The propaganda of banking education anesthetizes and inhibits the individual's creativity and the creative power of inner freedom. With the annulment of their creative power, individuals are prevented from thinking and it is this which serves the interests of oppression. The prevention of thinking is based on a mechanistic and static view of consciousness. In the mechanistic view, consciousness is isolated from the world of 'reality'. With methods of banking education, attempts are made to keep the consciousness submerged. Individuals are denied the right to raise their consciousness in the naturally ontological process of becoming fully human or 'self-actualised'. The so-called 'educated' student of banking education is the individual who adapts without questioning to the social reality created by the dominant classes. The result is social injustice.

IMPLICATIONS FOR EDUCATION The teacher/student contradiction and the lecture-based passive curriculum is the teaching model which is compatible with the aim of promoting the oppressive cultural forces of the dominant authority in society and with the disempowerment of students. However, the assumption upon which it is based - that the possession of knowledge brings with it the power to control the future - is no longer valid in view of the current explosion of knowledge and its continuous challenge to the validity of orthodox opinion. The notion that a teacher is there to impart facts and demonstrate skills implies a set of social and cultural objectives which were appropriate for so-called ‘traditional education’. Traditional methods are inappropriate for the post-modern age. Consequently the banking concept is seriously questioned today.  Open to serious question is the assumption that  the possession of knowledge brings with it the power to control the future. There is a paradigm shift away from the teacher/student contradiction and towards its resolution in the democratisation of education. Human education can only have meaning through communication i.e. ‘dialogue’.     

 Traditional education and imposition of ideals... The concern is with the idea of what the individual should be... there is no concern for the individual's humanity... no 'love'. Imposition of ideals encourages conformity. Education for conformity is education for personal gain not for the awakening of intelligence. .. based on assumption that learning is conditioned... 'conditioning'...

When the aim of education is to work for an ideal… for the future ... fear of the unknown - the future - leads to the establishment of psychological zones of safety… in the form of systems, techniques, beliefs. The ‘should be’ becomes more important than seeing the individual in the context of the complexities of their own life - the ‘what is’. This brings about confusion …creates in the individual  psychological barriers which separate them and hold them apart from others. This breeds fear and produces inner conflict between what they are and what they are made to think they  should be. The inner conflicts are manifest outwardly and this hinders the understanding of the person as well as the person's  understanding of themselves. 

Ideals have no place in education...because they prevent understanding of  present reality. 

 Concern for the ideal indicates sluggishness of mind which wants to avoid the present. Aim of education is not based on any ideology … not a means of conditioning the individual in some special way. When one is pursuing an ideal pattern of action there can be no integration of personality.  This is not understanding the full significance of life. The idealist , like the specialist, is only concerned with part of life... not the whole of life.

With little concern for the student's active participation, they have emphasized the mechanics of textbook knowledge - facts, procedures, and behaviors.

   So-called 'laziness' is really a question of not caring... lack of motivation..

Educational policies are formulated in the context of the cultural worldview which is inherent in the prevailing cultural belief systems and values. The cultural perception of 'reality' is based on the assumptions underlying the cultural worldview. The cultural paradigm or worldview is the perception of reality as it is perceived by enculturated individuals in the context of their own culture. Cultural beliefs are derived from scientific 'beliefs' and the cultural belief systems are derived from the culture's prevailing 'scientific' paradigm or perception of 'reality'. The cultural paradigm is the product of 'scientific' activity in the cultural context. The prevailing scientific activity uses technology and resources which are available. The cultural assumptions about reality form the basis of the culture's belief systems or cultural 'myths'. Further scientific activity modifies the perception of reality. Modifications in the perception of reality modify the cultural paradigm and the cultural myths. The new cultural perceptions of reality provide the framework for new belief systems and new cultural values. Cultural value systems provide the framework for the formulation of the culture's educational policies. In this way the educational 'institutions' formulate policies which are consistent with the cultural value system. In the American educational system, the basic assumptions of the reductionist scientific paradigm formed the basis for educational policy. According to reductionism, 'scientific' observation and inquiry excludes the observer's subjective participation. The reductionist perception of 'reality' depends on the observer's objective detachment and rejects the individual's 'inner reality' as a source of knowledge. .

Aims of education and American ideals... The aims of education were  formulated on the basis on the ideals of American nationalism and the values of American culture which were  based on the characteristic mistrust of human nature.... forms the basis of the moralistic attitude towards human problems.Educational institutions promote the cultural myths by reproducing the cultural values. According to the Fall -Redemption myth of orthodox Christianity, the individual is born into the world tainted with sin and is naturally 'evil'. The individual's suffering in this life is perceived as a natural consequence of original sin. Inner life is explained away as a natural consequence of the evil inherent in human nature. Each individual is 'responsible' for restraining and controlling his own evil impulses and those of other people as well. An individual who is unable to restrain the evil part of his nature must be 'punished.' Not able to trust human nature, the individual cannot trust his own nature. He cannot trust his own 'humanity' or the humanity of others. In the educational system, the individual is not trusted to develop a personal sense of moral responsibility and is expected to rely on external authorities, strict codes of civil law and codes of 'ethics'.

 Education is considered necessary for the teaching of morals as well as knowledge.

 'Scientific' knowledge of human nature was provided by the mechanistic explanations of behavioral psychology and sociology. As the 'objective' science of the psyche or 'mind', behavioural psychology emphasizes conditioned learning, learning 'outcomes' and student 'performance' on tests. As the 'objective' study of society, sociology emphasizes the controlling nature of 'social factors', social environments and social institutions on the development of the individual.

Assumptions of both the social 'sciences' and Protestantism have been combined with the traditional ideals of 'democracy' to justify the economic theories of capitalism. In the interest of promoting capitalism, emphasis is placed on the necessity to control  human nature and the scientific validity for doing so. According to the worldview of capitalism, the human being is lazy and needs to be disciplined to do work. Individuals must be encouraged to compete with one another in order to weed out those who are lazy and undisciplined. 'Individualism' is promoted to encourage competition. Individuals are expected to demonstrate their efforts and productivity with tangible results. Hard work is rewarded with material gain, economic 'wealth', and 'professional' status. Acquisition of wealth and status is equated with 'success'. Pursuit of success is identified with the individual's inalienable right to the pursuit of 'happiness.' In American 'society', the individual who subscribes to the myths of American culture is rewarded with material success. The values of American culture have become the values of 'consumerism.' In fostering the traditional values of American nationalism, Protestantism, reductionism, capitalism, and materialism, the schools are reproducing the myths of American consumerism. In keeping with 'tradition', the schools teach the values of hierarchy, success, moralism and control. With authoritarian teaching methods, they teach the 'hidden curriculum'. In the cultural context of 'school', the individual is required to conform to the forced imposition of cultural myths and value systems. School authorities make demands on the learner to meet 'expectations'. Instead of fostering self-responsibility, they cultivate the individual's sense of dependence on 'role models' and authorities. Instead of fostering the development of moral responsibility, they cultivate unrealistic ambitions for 'professional' status in the consumer culture. Instead of fostering the individual's sense of integrity and health, they cultivate 'competitive spirit' and stressful living. By cultivating conformity to cultural values, they impose thought and behavior patterns which inhibit the individual's natural capacity for learning, for growth, for independence and for happiness. Instead of trusting the individual's human potential for intellectual and moral development, they impose academic requirements and ethical codes. Instead of fostering the individual's critical consciousness, they cultivate mindlessness. In forcing the individual's 'adaptation' and enculturation, they obscure the real challenges of living and deny the real joys of learning. Their demands for meaningless and passive learning inhibit the individual's capacity for creative and critical thinking. This approach to education is seriously questioned today. With the function of reproducing the cultural values, the educational system neglects to prepare the individual for life in a complex world. It neglects to foster the individual's natural intellectual and moral development into a responsible social human being. It neglects to foster the individual's natural capacities for adaptation to changing social conditions. Incapacitated individuals are the product of an anomalous social situation. Educational 'crisis' is the manifestation of an anomalous human situation. In American culture, social problems are not understood in terms of defects in the cultural institutions. Social reforms are not formulated in terms of institutional changes. Social problems are perceived in terms of the individual's lack of moral responsibility - in keeping with the Protestant moralistic ethic. Social reforms are perceived in terms of 'helping' the individual to initiate the necessary changes. Social problems are discussed in terms of 'scenarios' and solutions. Attempts are made to resolve them through the implementation of 'discipline' and enforcement of the 'law'. Preventing the natural development of moral responsibility, theories of capitalism and consumerism ignore the individual's instinctive striving for self-realization. They misinterpret the life of contemplation and meditation. They do not trust the individual's inner freedom. They do not encourage the individual's self-expression. They devalue natural human needs and metaneeds. They denigrate the intuitive and emotional aspects of intellectual development. With their emphasis on American 'products', they have produced declining academic standards on all levels of thew educational system. The issue of declining standards in education is discussed within the narrow context of the practical aspects of education, particularly those concerned with 'innovation' in curriculum design. Emphasis is placed on the issue of 'traditional' versus 'nontraditional' or 'innovative' education. In the name of 'innovation', faculty power politics supersede consideration for quality education and student needs. Unecessary changes are made with enormous waste of faculty time and financial resources. Educational policies focusing on curriculum content and innovative teaching 'methods' are incompatible with the new 'demands' of a changed social and political environment. Institutionalized education with its emphasis on conditioning and behavioral outcomes is no longer relevant in the times of mass communications and the 'global village'. The educational 'crisis' reflects a general cultural, political and moral crisis. The individual is dehumanized in a culture of capitalism and consumerism. By focusing on the reproduction of values of a consumer society, the schools do not educate for the individual's human development. They do not prepare the learner to meet the challenges of a global community. Paradigm shift to wholistic learning... learning is holistic and holistic learning is brain-based.

So-called traditional 'education' (traditional teaching paradigm) originated with the Industrial Revolution and evolved in the context of industrialism when school education was devised as an effective way to pre-adapt children to the demands of an industrial society and its rigid requirements for discipline and authoritarianism... to teach children the knowledge which they would need to adapt to the demands of an industrial society. The traditional paradigm for teaching evolved in the context of industrialism and its requirements for discipline, rigidity and authoritarianism (1). Emphasis is placed on the mechanics of learning and the methods of teaching (2). Traditional teaching methods are justified by the behavioural sciences and based on the premise that learning is a matter of conditioning (3). In the traditional paradigm, the role of the teacher is to define the outcomes of learning and to decide how students should learn (4). Learning in terms of given outcomes and teachers' expectations requires the memorization of content and a passive learning process (5). Knowledge and understanding are evaluated and measured in terms of a standardized punishment/reward system of grades and grade averages (6). As a result, students' motivation for learning becomes dependent on the avoidance of failure and the rewards of success - they become dependent on 'extrinsic motivation' (7). With the political, economic and social changes of today, in traditional paradigm of teaching is a likely cause for declining educational standards and is being seriously questioned 9). There is a fundamental shift in the philosophical paradigm of education and a new paradigm is emerging. Instead of placing the emphasis on methods of teaching, the new paradigm emphasizes the process of learning (10). New information about the learning process which is based on the natural functioning of the brain is provided by recent findings in the neurosciences (11). The natural function of the brain is to search for meaning in experience (12). Therefore a process of learning which is based on the brain's natural function in the context of experience is experiential learning or meaningful learning (13). Known as 'brain-based' and 'wholistic' learning, meaningful learning is based on the optimal functioning of the whole brain (14). Brain-based wholistic learning involves those brain processes which are both conscious and unconscious (15). The unconscious aspect of learning is involved with the intrinsic motives for learning or 'intrinsic motivation' (16). Emphasis on the learner's intrinsic motivation is key to the new paradigm for teaching in which the teacher's function is to facilitate the learning process. Teaching methods are based on their compatibility with the wholistic functioning of the brain (17). Discourse of traditional educational theory and practice: with the discussion of education within the narrow scope of pragmatism, the theoretical aspects of education have been deemphasized.

Since the end of the 19th century schools were structured and organized in response to the rise of industrialism. With attention focused on the economy, schools were constructed to provide an efficient work force for the economic infrastructure of an industrial society. The educational system of mass public education was devised as an effective means of adaptation to the industrial world. Educational policies were formulated with a view to pre-adapting children for the collective discipline, authoritarianism and regimentation of a rigid society of business and industry...to inculcate mental discipline... The hierarchical and mechanical school environment was modeled after the hierarchical and mechanical environment of industry. Schools were designed to produce an assembly line education...mass education... to prepare them for a future working environment ... to train them for the work force of an industrialized society... the policies of teacher authoritarianism, rigid seating and grouping arrangements, reward and punishment systems of marking and grading and a curriculum without individualization..

 The educational curriculum was conceived for purposes of training for the factory workplace. Students were expected to be punctual, to follow orders and to perform repetitive tasks in preparation for work on the factory floor and in the offices. A regimented education prepared them for a future as mechanical laborers of assembly line technology.

The 'classical curriculum' consisted of the basic skills of reading, writing and arithmetic.

 In the traditional paradigm of education, the goals of education were shaped by the worldview of reductionist science. Consistent with the reductionist worldview and its demand for detachment of the observer in the process of observation... 'scientific objectivity'... educational 'policies' were formulated on the basis of the learner's detachment from the process of learning.... emphasis was placed on the 'objective' indicators of the learner 'performance' - test scores, grades, diplomas, credentials, .

  which gave rise to the notion of individuality and individual 'freedom.' The price for freedom was alienation from nature and the loss of the natural perspective of the whole i.e. 'holistic perception..

 These methods are the legacy of the 'traditional' curriculum

 At first, the principles of 'traditional' education were applied to primary and secondary schools and later they were applied to higher education as well.

Within the context of a management hierarchy, teachers were required to be authoritarian, emphasizing repetitive work and rote learning

 

Mass education was a product of the industrial revolution. With the rise of industrialization and the consequent focus on the economy, schools have had to provide a work force for the hierarchical and the mechanical workplace of the factory, of business and of industry. Hierarchical and mechanical school environments have been modeled on the basis of the schools' function to provide a work force for the economic infrastructure of the society. Justification for the pragmatic function was found in the principles of behavioural psychology and its emphasis on conditioned learning. Dominating the educational system with their limited worldview, the behavioral sciences have ignored the students' inner life. They have imposed severe limitations on both psychology and the educational experience. With the specifiction of learning outcomes in predetermined lesson plans, they have promoted the evaluation of students on the basis of their 'performance' in objective testing. Teachers have been the primary authority and the judge in evaluation and asssessment of learning. In their pursuit of good grades for good learning behaviors, students have been motivated extrinsically.

Educational curricula and teaching methodologies were designed for the masses. Knowledge areas were fragmented and distributed into separate 'skills' and 'subjects', making up a 'curriculum' of academic 'requirements.' The fragmented approach of 'traditional' education emphasized punctuality and obedience. It required students to perform meaningless tasks without questioning. It required them to learn by rote memorization. Schools have become institutions of compulsory 'education'. Continuing in the tradition of forced learning, the function of the schools foster the illusions of 'democracy', 'equal opportunity' and the 'pursuit of happiness'. They continue to promote the values of the belief systems of American culture. Based on the ideals of the 'founding fathers', the belief systems of the American culture represent a unique form of 'nationalism'. By combining the American ideals with values derived from Protestantism, reductionism and capitalism, it has produced the characteristic myths of American culture. The notion of self-responsibility, though upheld by the founding fathers, has been replaced by the notion of responsibility to the 'society.'

 "Mass education was the ingenious machine constructed by industrialism to produce the kind of adults it needed. The problem was inordinately complex. How to pre-adapt children for a new world - a world of repetitive indoor toil, smoke, noise, machinesd, crowded living conditions, collective discipline, a world in which time was to be regulated not by the cycle of the sun and moon but by the factory whistle and the clock. The solution was an educational system that, in its very structure, simulated this new world...The most criticized feature s of education today - the regimentation, lack of individualizatio , the rigid systems of seating, grouping, grading, and marking, the authoritarian role of the teacher - are precisely those that made mass public education so effective an instrument of adaptation for its place and time..." (A Toffler. Future Shock. London, Pan Books. 1976 pp 361-362)

Traditional learning theory emphasizes retention of conditioned learning or 'conditioning' rather than the process of learning as creation of meaning in experience... 'experiential learning'... As creative learning, experiential learning is meaningful learning... is joyful, challenging and absorbing... engages attention and imagination enhances communication... Conditioned learning is non-creative... non-insightful... non-adaptive.  

In the traditional teaching paradigm, the goals of education are shaped by the worldview of reductionist science

"In the educational system, aptitude is substituted for vision... testing, guidance, counselling, career planning etc. This is a tragedy for children in our society. The evidence is in the tragedy of the adults who do not have sufficient creative inititiative to master their own lives. Creativity and imagination are natural to human beings. It is unnatural to limit them the way most people have been trained to do. Traditional education attempts to limit and control imagination". (Robert Fritz Path of Least Resistance)   

 EMPHASIS ON MECHANICS OF LEARNING AND METHODS OF TEACHING  .

  Traditional methods of teaching were justified by the behavioural sciences

  They were and based on the premise that learning is a matter of 'conditioning'.

 The traditional role of the teacher was to define the outcomes of task-oriented learning and then to decide how their students should learn.

  Within this paradigm, learners depend for their direction of learning on expected 'learning outcomes' and are encouraged to engage in a process of passive learning - memorizing objective knowledge with little understanding... imposed learning patterns are essentially meaningless and tend to be resisted.

 7. The resulting superficial knowledge whch results is evaluated and measured in terms of grades and grade averages.

8. The emphasis on the avoidance of failure and achievement of success results in the learner's dependency on external or 'extrinsic motivation'.

 9. Dependency on extrinsic rewards for learning is a likely cause for declining motivation in the modern post industrial age and the traditional paradigm is questioned today.

   The word 'discipline' when used in the context of traditional education is understood to mean obedience to rules ...expectations and codes of behaviour... imposed on the individual by an outside authority ...such as school teachers and administrations. In this context, the concept of freedom in the school is perceived as a lack of respect for authority, hence the commonly held notion that freedom and discipline cannot be worked out together in the same school environment. Educators perceive a real predicament when the real source of confusion arises from a problem in semantics. The words 'freedom' and 'discipline' must be defined in the context of an educational environment in which freedom and discipline prevail together... international cooperation... means the whole-hearted cooperation of all people of goodwill, regardless of race, creed, flag or political affiliation. The aims of education are to foster the individual's inner freedom and development toward the following: self-initiated action and acceptance of responsibility for one's own actions, self-direction and intelligent decision-making, critical learning and evaluation of others, acquisition of knoweledge for resolution of problems, intelligent and flexible adaptation to new situations, creative utilization of experiential learning in adaptation to new situations, effective cooperation with others, self-motivation and a desire to work for one's own purposes. Necessary environmental conditions must be provided for the students in a so-called 'progressive' educational setting. Self-initaited learning occurs when students have direct confrontation with meaningful and relevant problems. Self-direction in the learning process occurs with teachers who have a basic trust in the capacity of the student for developing his own potentiality; self-moitivation and desire to work occurs with teachers who are sincere, sensitive, and sympathetic. The effective teacher is a mature person with integrity as well as knowledge. He concentrates on creating a climate which facilitates learning and fosters responsible freedom. Without imposing himself of his knowledge, he is a resource and a provider of resources. He values each individual student as a developing human being with many feelings and many potentialities

 There is a fundamental shift in the philosophical paradigm of education and a new paradigm is emerging. Recent findings in brain research... 'neuroscience'... are shifting the attention of educators towards the biological basis of the human potential for learning and thinking.

  There is new information about the learning process which is based on the natural functioning of the brain.

The traditional teaching methods are in conflict with the natural functioning of the brain are described as'brain-antagonistic'.

  Emphasis on the learner's intrinsic motivation is key to the new paradigm for teaching.

 . Instead of placing the emphasis on methods of teaching, the new paradigm emphasizes the learning process. Teaching methods are based on natural principles of brain functioning.

TEACHER AS FACILITATOR OF LEARNING The teacher as facilitator encourages intrinsic motivation and self-directed learning. In order to facilitate the learning process, the facilitative teacher enhances learners' confidence with the intelligent use of error. Self- evaluation is a natural process which involves the correction of one's own errors.

 Teaching methods for the facilitation of learning are based on the natural principles of brain functioning.

The concept of 'traditional learning' as school-learning is relatively recent.

 In the ancient Athens of Plato and Socrates, learning was a part of life, work and leisure. Citizens engaged in discussion of issues in the market, in the baths and in the gym.

 The founding fathers of the America  believed in self-education. They believed that the success of the republic depended on the intellectual self-reliance of the citizenry and promoted open debate through free speech and a free press.

Only recently has schooling been confused with education and peoples' competence been judged by their diplomas. The 'professional' major qualification of the 'professional' is that he/she can pass a licensing examination. Increasing numbers of people make learning a continuing part of living. These so-called peak learners may represent a chance of survival of the human species and the planet.

 "Nontraditional education": The characterization of "traditional" education is best done by referring to a cluster of themes or modes such as l. use of classrooms 2. scheduled activities 3. assymetrical teacherstudent relationships etc. "Non-traditional" would refer to the absence or modification of one of these themes or modes. The extent of variation with "traditional" programs and institutions make it difficult to define the term "non-traditional." "Innovative education" refers to "innovation" in educational methodology.

INNOVATION An "innovation," a new approach or technique, is a variation on a known theme based on one of three principles. An innovation can be LOGICAL if it seems reasonable, ANALAGOUS if it is similar to something that has worked in a different cultural setting or geographic location or EMPIRICAL if it has been shown to work in a trial or experimental situation. The terms "nontraditional education" and "innovative education" are difficult to define. What is considered to be "nontraditional" and "innovative" in education is a matter of definition and opinion and of little intellectual interest.

References:

Goodman, Paul. Growing Up Absurd: Problems of Youth in the Organized System. New York: Random House, 1961.

See "The Learning Tradition" page 7-9 in the book "Peak Learning" by Richard Gross 

 Teaching strategies or 'techniques'...

 "...It is in fact nothing short of a miracle that the modern methods of instruction have not yet entirely strangled the holy curiostiy of inquiry; for this delicate little plant, aside from stimulation, stands mainly in need of freedom; without this it goes to rack and ruin without fail." (Einstein cited by Carl Rogers Freedom to Learn Charles Merrill Publishing Company, Columbus Ohio l969)

theme: 'Traditional' education, concerned with the transfer of knowledge, is irresponsible education if it ignores the child's inner development of personality... 'inner life'.  The adult's responsibility to the child is to recognise and respect the inner life and those inner needs which lead to complete development into a mature human being.

 Traditional teaching methods focus on 'surface knowledge' which does not necessarily make sense to the learner. Most teaching is done with a view to predetermined outcomes and the learner's successful 'performance' on tests. Most learning is by memorization of facts and procedures. The learner is rewarded with scores, grades and grade averages.

 "The old model of the teacher (based on the assumption that the teacher knows more than the student and must transfer knowledge to the student), and the whole complex set of attitudes and expectations that relates to that model, are extremely persistent." (Norman Goble)

 "The present teaching of 'teaching techniques' too often consists of strategies for maintenance of the teacher's status, in which a passive, non-developing role is assigned to the student." In this way the 'monopolist' teacher unwittingly becomes a protector of the status of the institution, antagonizing the student who refuses to cooperate in defense of his own status and self respect. A power struggle is set up between teachers and administration on the one hand and students on the other. Real knowledge is not "static, unchanging and quantitatively measureable." On the contrary, it is "dynamic and in constant flux." Treated as a status symbol and perceived quantitatively, knowledge becomes meaningless. Like money, the worth of knowledge is measured according to what it is used for and the beneficial changes which it is used to bring about. Emphasis on the teacher's possession of knowledge obscures the important fact that "the only purpose of teaching is to bring about successful learning."(66)

The teacher's responsibility: "teaching how knowledge can be sought, validated, assimilated and used as a basis for further learning, for forming and modifying goals and ideas, and for rational decision making. He is not so much a source or a purveyor as a guide to sources, an organizer of opportunities and an instructor in the techniques of inquiry and thought. His knowledge is not an ingredient in the student's education, to be consumed and used up, but a catalyst promoting the reactions of learning and growth as a result of the encounter between human capabilities and increasing knowledge." (58) "The old model of the teacher (based on the assumption that the teacher knows more than the student and must transfer knowledge to the student), and the whole complex set of attitudes and expectations that relates to that model, are extremely persistent." 

THE FACTOR OF STATUS: "One of the most serious obstacles to the kind of change that we are advocating is the persistent idea that status is gained or preserved by knowing more than somebody else." When this concept is institutionalized in a school system, children are subjected to the worst features of adult society- authoritarianism and "resistance to anything perceived as a threat to authority or status." "If the function of teacher is seen as the transmission of successive quanta of knowledge" and the knowledge itself is used as a criterion for status, then the teacher of an upper school grade has more status than a teacher of a lower grade, and the absurd equation results: "the younger the child, the lower the status of the teacher (since everyone 'knows' that younger children have had less time to ingest knowledge than the older ones, and so need less knowledgeable teachers.)" ref l. In order to prevent his own loss of status, the 'monopolist' teacher in such an institution, might devise ways to prevent the acknowledgement of a deserving student's competence, by striving to possess more knowledge and by making competence testing more difficult.In order to be able to respond to the needs of the student, "the teacher has to have a deep understanding of the nature of perceptions and of the learning process at various ages and stages of personal development (not just theoretical knowledge, but a shrewd practical awareness), comprehension of the idiom of speech and thought of the student, and a considerable degree of empathic understanding of the student's outlook and state of feeling."

 

 "Education, by serving the ruling interests in a class society, and by doing this in a disguised way, actually gives people a distorted view of the world, and offers a misrepresentation of reality. Through its process, its content and its political power in bestowing social rewards, it presents a conceptual scheme and methodologies- ways of perceiving the world - that largely ensure that people will take their place in the existing world as well-fitting members of the status quo, without questioning the status quo or perceiving the real relations on which it is built ...Education promotes a distorted and illusory view of reality in the name of enquiring into truth. And since it does this in a deliberate and systematic way, its offerings and products can properly be characterised as a structured misrepresentation of reality." ( Kevin Harris. Education and Knowledge: The Structured Misrepresentation of Reality. London, Boston and Henley: Routledge & Kegan Paul. 1979 chapter 5, On Education 164)

           TRADITIONAL SCHOOLING AS A MECHANISM OF SOCIAL CONTROL AS 'SOCIALIsATION': THE 'HIDDEN CURRICULUM'

theme: Discussion of educational policy must consider not only the content factor of education - the kind of knowledge acquired - but also the process factor - how the knowledge is acquired. Content is the overt curriculum. Process is the 'hidden curriculum'. Decisions about both content and process in education are based on value premises of both ethics and politics.

"Schools don't really teach anything but how to obey orders. Although teachers do care, and do work very, very hard, the institution is psychopathic; it has no conscience." (John Gatto)

Production of knowledge: Curriculum of content (overt curriculum) and curriculum of process (covert or hidden curriculum)  Education is concerned with the transmission and production of knowledge. The production of knowledge involves two aspects of educational practice or 'curricula'. One involves the knowledge itself or  'content'. The other involves the way in which the content is transmitted and produced i.e. 'process' . The process is concerned with the methodology of teaching and learning or 'pedagogy'. Pedagogy is concerned with how one learns the content, how one makes decisions about who learns the content and to what extent they learn it. The curriculum of content is the 'overt curriculum'. The curriculum of 'process' is the 'unstudied curriculum ' or 'hidden curriculum'.  In the process of learning the content, one learns how to learn the content, one learns who decides which aspects of the content are to be learned, one learns whom one must obey and respect, one learns how to addresss and react to different members of one's class, one learns whose favor one must curry, whose opinions to respect and so on.  Ethics and politics determine what is to be studied, by whom and to what extent.

Traditional schooling as a mechanism of social control: function of socialisation through the 'hidden curriculum'  

 In the American culture of capitalism and consumerism, educational policy focuses on the reproduction of so-called 'American values' which are reproduced in that aspect of the curriculum which deals with the process of transferring content from teacher to student i.e. the covert or 'hidden curriculum'.

 In the traditional paradigm education is provided by the state to serve the ruling interests of the society. 

Traditional education is based on the premise that education depends on obligatory attendance in school. Children belong in school, they learn in school and they can only be taught in school. This type of schooling and teaching as skill instruction confuses 'schooling' with education and learning.

Progressive learning is confused with grade advancement and competence is confused with school certificates and diplomas or 'credentials'.

Education as a matter of politics Education is a matter of politics. The system of education depends on the promotion of those teaching philosophies and methodologies which are compatible with the cultural values of the society in which the education is occurring. Education is concerned with the transmission of knowledge within the constraints of the material conditions and social relations determined by the values which are held by particular social groups and interests.

As a political act, education is concerned with determining which knowledge is transmitted and how it is transmitted if it is to serve these interests... 'unstudied curriculum or' 'hidden curriculum'

American education and capitalism The educational system of the American culture is designed to serve the interests of capitalism and consumerism. The cultural values which foster conformity to belief systems which are based on historical traditions and ideals are the ones which are sustained with American educational practice.   

 The basic structure of the culture is reproduced in the 'hidden curriculum' of the educational system. Decisions about process as well as content are derived from value premises which underlie the political and social philosophies. The hidden curriculum of obligatory instruction is justified by the constitutional principle of 'equal educational opportunity'. The function of the hidden curriculum is to foster conformity to the cultural values. The hidden curriculum serves to initiate the student into the culture of capitalism and consumerism by reproducing those cultural values which are compatible with it. The hidden curriculum transforms the non-material needs of the 'consumer' into demands for commodities. Students are taught how to be consumers of the services of 'teaching'. They are taught how to accept its inherent cultural values and expectations. They are taught how to blend in with the cultural belief systems. Once they have learned this lesson, they lose their incentive to grow in independence, to recognize relatedness and connection, and they disconnect themselves from opportunities which life has to offer... decline in motivation... 'problem of motivation'.

theme:  Discussion of educational policy must consider not only the content factor of education - the kind of knowledge acquired - but also the process factor - how the knowledge is acquired. Content is the overt curriculum. Process is the 'hidden curriculum'. Decisions about both content and process in education are based on value premises of both ethics and politics.

"Schools don't really teach anything but how to obey orders. Although teachers do care, and do work very, very hard, the institution is psychopathic; it has no conscience." (John Gatto)

                                                                                                                                   

Production of knowledge: Curriculum of content (overt curriculum) and curriculum of process (covert or hidden curriculum)  Education is concerned with the transmission and production of knowledge. The production of knowledge involves two aspects of educational practice or 'curricula'. One involves the knowledge itself or  'content'. The other involves the way in which the content is transmitted and produced i.e. 'process' . The process is concerned with the methodology of teaching and learning or 'pedagogy'. Pedagogy is concerned with how one learns the content, how one makes decisions about who learns the content and to what extent they learn it. The curriculum of content is the 'overt curriculum'. The curriculum of 'process' is the 'unstudied curriculum ' or 'hidden curriculum'.  In the process of learning the content, one learns how to learn the content, one learns who decides which aspects of the content are to be learned, one learns whom one must obey and respect, one learns how to addresss and react to different members of one's class, one learns whose favor one must curry, whose opinions to respect and so on.  Ethics and politics determine what is to be studied, by whom and to what extent.

 

School's function of socialisation: the term 'hidden curriculum' was invented by Philip Jackson.  Jackson's perspectives derive from educational psychology founded by Emile Durkheim in France at the end of the nineteenth century. His is "the most philosophically and scientifically comprehensive, clear, and workable approach to moral education..." (Kohlberg, L. "The Moral Atmosphere of the School" 200)

Phillip Jackson (Life in Classrooms 1968) was influenced by the educational psychology of French philosopher Emile Durkheim who had "the most philosophically and scientifically comprehensive, clear, and workable approach to moral education..."   Jackson invented the term 'hidden' or 'unstudied curriculum' to refer to ninety percent of what goes on in classrooms... the curriculum of obligatory instruction...  The hidden curriculum of the educational system reproduces the basic structure of the culture.  The school's function of socialisation is represented by three central characteristics of school life which teach the student to fit into a society of the same three characteristics - the crowds, the praise, the power.  In school the student learns to be treated as a member of a crowd of same-age, same-status others and thus to fit into a world of impersonal authority in which a relative stranger gives orders and wields power. This is the hidden curriculum of the educational system which reproduces the basic structure of the culture. 

 reference: Lawrence Kohlberg 'The Moral Atmosphere of the School' Chapter 13 Moral Education: It Comes With the Territory (Ed) David Purpel and Kevin Ryan, Berkeley,CA: McCutchen Publishing Co. 1976,196-220.

"In order to commit ourselves to collective end, we must have above all a feeling and affection for the collectivity. We have seen that such feelings cannot arise in the family where solidarity is based on blood and intimate relationship since the bonds uniting the citizens of a country have nothing to do with such relationships. The only way to instill the inclination to collective life is to get hold of the child when he leaves his family and enters school. We will succed the more  easily because in certain respects, he is more amenable to this joining of minds in a common consciousness than is the adult. To achieve this tonic effect on the child, the class must really share a common collective life. .... The most powerful means to instill in children the feeling of solidarity is to feel that the value of each is a function of the worth of all... there is a great distance between the state in which the child finds himself as he leaves the family and the one toward which he must strive. Intermediaries are necessary, the school environment the most desirable. It is more extensive than the family or the group of friends,. It results neither from blood nor free choice but from a meeting among subjects of similar age and condition. In that sense it resembles political society. On the other hand it is limited enough so that personal relations can crystallize. It is groups of young persons more or less like those of the social system of the school which have enabled the formation of societies larger than the family. Even in simple societies without schools, the elders would assemble the group at a given age and initiate them collectively into the moral and intellectual patrimony of the group. Induction into the moral patrimony of the group has never been conducted entirely within the family." (Emile Durkheim Moral Education. New York: Free Press, 1961 page 231)

Traditional schooling as a mechanism of social control: function of socialisation through the 'hidden curriculum'  

 In the American culture of capitalism and consumerism, educational policy focuses on the reproduction of so-called 'American values' which are reproduced in that aspect of the curriculum which deals with the process of transferring content from teacher to student i.e. the covert or 'hidden curriculum'.

 In the traditional paradigm education is provided by the state to serve the ruling interests of the society. 

Traditional education is based on the premise that education depends on obligatory attendance in school. Children belong in school, they learn in school and they can only be taught in school. This type of schooling and teaching as skill instruction confuses 'schooling' with education and learning.

Progressive learning is confused with grade advancement and competence is confused with school certificates and diplomas or 'credentials'.

The hidden curriculum as obligatory instruction or 'education' becomes obligatory attendance or 'schooling'. Obligatory schooling revolves around teacher authority and student passivity. Life as obligatory schooling is based on student classification according to age and performance on standardized tests. In the sorting process, students are expected to be obedient and passive, to work at meaningless tasks without complaint, to value competition and to respect their teachers as authority figures even though are forced to remain weak and demoralized. In this way, the schools can pursue their objectives in the successful reproduction of cultural values which form the basis for the hidden curriculum.

In this way the hidden curriculum prepares the student for a future of alienation and the institutionalization of life in a capitalist consumer culture.

Characteristics of school life: people, praise and power This is done through the three main characteristics of school life - the people, the praise, the power. In the life of 'school' the student learns to adapt to being treated as a same-age same-status member of a group, to obey the impersonal authority of strangers who give orders and wield power, to respond to the praise which is part of the rituals of schooling i.e school credentials and ceremonies such as diplomas, certificates, licenses, grades, honors lists, graduations and so on and to subscribe to the philosophy of 'accumulation'. As the philosophy of acculmulation the hidden curriculum of school and schooling is for the promotion of consumerism. As a promotor of consumerism, the schooling system performs the same three functions as powerful churches throughout human history. Like the church, the school is the repository of 'social myth'.

It serves to institutionalize the contradictions of that myth and it is the site of the ritual which hides and reproduces the discrepancies, disparities and conflicts existing between social principles and the practical applications of those principles.

Schools are responsible for children's learning and growth Schools create dependent personalities who are unable to draw on their own resources in order to give substance and pleasure to their existence. The absurdity... the growing child becomes unable to create meaningfulness for their own lives. In this 'education game', uncritical students focus on the content of the overt curriculum and become unaware of the other curriculum which is hidden in the process of teaching and learning that content. It is for this reason that the schooling system can be considered as a form of political manipulation (banking education.) As obligatory instruction for institutionalized living, education of the hidden curriculum becomes an industry for the production of knowledge. The knowledge industry is a fast-growing labor market which directly or indirectly employs a growing proportion of the population. In the labor market, education is defined in terms of 'services' and institutions which are created for the services required for educating people. Many people are kept in school for life, or they are guaranteed to fit into some other form of institution.

As obligatory instruction, the hidden curriculum is an educational process which lacks authenticity and depends for success on expectations.

 

Genuine educational reform Both the overt curriculum and the hidden curriculum must be considered in any discussion of educational 'reform'. Educational reform requires a fundamental change in the way children are educated i.e in the 'process of education'. Teachers and schools, no matter how good, can't do it alone. Parents can make the critical difference by taking an active role in children's education. Any reform in schooling has to deal with the absurdities of the system and expose the hidden curriculum. It is the hidden curriculum which combines consumer expectations with producers' beliefs in its claims and its ritual. If people remain hypnotized by the power of ritual, it is only by breaking the spell that one can create changes which lead to reform.

Hence educational reform is possible if it is based not only on changes in the overt curriculum,  but on changes in the hidden curriculum as well...  based on philosophy

 The hidden curriculum is an educational process which lacks authenticity and depends for success on expectations. Reform depends on an educational process which is meaningful and depends for success on self-reliance and hope.

Any discussion of educational 'reform' must consider not only the overt curriculum of content but also the hidden curriculum of process.  Genuine educational reform depends on a fundamental change in the way children are educated in the 'process of education'.  Teachers and schools can't do it alone. They must work with parents who can make the critical difference by taking an active role in their children's education. Any reform in schooling has to deal with the absurdities of the system and expose the hidden curriculum.

  Reform depends on  recognition of ritual of schooling as initiation into consumer culture It is the hidden curriculum which combines consumer expectations with producers' beliefs in its claims and its ritual. If people remain hypnotized by the power of ritual, it is only by breaking the spell that one can create changes which lead to reform. (Illich)

 

 ...an educational process which is meaningful and depends for success on self-reliance and hope.

Education is concerned with the transmission and production of knowledge.

Reform depends on educational philosophy What is needed is an educational philosophy that works. One philosophy which has been at the core of the education of the European ruling classes for years is based on the belief that the only basis of true knowledge is 'self-knowledge'. In this system the family is the main arena for education. At every age the child finds himself alone with a problem to solve. Children are trusted with independent study from a very early age. Their privacy and solitude is respected. Curricula are developed which enable children to cultivate self-knowledge and self-reliance. Their sense of responsibility is enhanced by making community service a part of their schooling. The understanding teacher is respected and children are not deprived of the time which they need to develop self-knowledge. Children who develop self-knowledge are capable of rational thought. They are able to apply the natural principles of social life to their own lives and they are able to mature and develop their own humanity (conscience) and the humanity of others.

Education is concerned with the transmission and production of knowledge.

 "The educational use of the 'hidden curriculum'...is to bring the dialogue of justice into the classroom." (Kohlberg, L., and Turiel, E. "Moral Development and Moral Education." Psychology and Educational Practice, edited by Lesser. G. Chicago IL: Scott Foresman, 1971. 214)

Implications for education Both the overt curriculum and the hidden curriculum in any discussion of educational 'reform'. Educational reform requires a fundamental change in the way children are educated i.e in the 'process' of education. Teachers and schools, no matter how good, can't do it alone. Parents can make the critical difference by taking an active role in children's education. Any reform in schooling has to deal with the absurdities of the system and expose the hidden curriculum. It is the hidden curriculum which combines consumer expectations with producers' beliefs in its claims and its ritual. If people remain hypnotized by the power of ritual, it is only by breaking the spell that one can create changes which lead to reform. Hence educational reform is possible if it is based not only on changes in the overt curriculum, but on changes in the hidden curriculum as well. The hidden curriculum is an educational process which lacks authenticity and depends for success on expectations. Reform depends on an educational process which is meaningful and depends for success on self-reliance and hope. What is needed is an educational philosophy that works. One philosophy which has been at the core of the education of the European ruling classes for years is based on the belief that the only basis of true knowledge is self-knowledge. In this system the family is the main arena for education. At every age the child finds himself alone with a problem to solve. Children are trusted with independent study from a very early age. Their privacy and solitude is respected. Curricula are developed which enable children to cultivate self-knowledge and self-reliance. Their sense of responsibility is enhanced by making community service a part of their schooling. The understanding teacher is respected and children are not deprived of the time which they need to develop self-knowledge. Children who develop self-knowledge are capable of rational thought. They are able to apply the natural principles of social life to their own lives and they are able to mature and develop their own humanity (conscience) and the humanity of others.

references:

Kevin Harris. Education and Knowledge: The Structured Misrepresentation of Reality. London, Boston and Henley: Routledge & Kegan Paul. 1979 chapter 5 education.

Lawrence Kohlberg The Moral Atmosphere of the School Chapter 13 Moral Education: It Comes With the Territory (Ed) David Purpel and Kevin Ryan, Berkeley,CA: McCutchen Publishing Co. 1976,

________________________________________________________________________________________

The system of education depends on the promotion of those teaching philosophies and methodologies which are compatible with the cultural values of the society in which the education is occurring. Education is concerned with the transmission of knowledge within the constraints of the material conditions and social relations determined by the values which are held by particular social groups and interests. As a political act, education is concerned with determining which knowledge is transmitted and how it is transmitted if it is to serve these interests.

Education is concerned with the transmission and production of knowledge. The production of knowledge involves two aspects of educational practice or 'curricula'. One involves the knowledge 'content'. The other involves the way or 'process' in which the content is transmitted and produced. The process involves the methodology of teaching and learning or 'pedagogy'. Pedagogy is concerned with how one learns the content, how one makes decisions about who learns the content and to what extent they learn it. The curriculum of content is the 'overt curriculum'. The curriculum of 'process' is the 'hidden curriculum'. Both the overt curriculum and the hidden curriculum in any discussion of educational 'reform'.

Decisions about process as well as content are derived from value premises which underlie the political and social philosophies. The hidden curriculum of obligatory instruction is justified by the constitutional principle of 'equal educational opportunity'. The function of the hidden curriculum is to foster conformity to the cultural values. The hidden curriculum as obligatory instruction or 'education' becomes obligatory attendance of obligatory schooling. Obligatory schooling revolves around teacher authority and student passivity. Life as obligatory schooling is based on student classification according to age and performance on standardized tests. In the sorting process, students are expected to be obedient and passive, to work at meaningless tasks without complaint, to value competition and to respect their teachers as authority figures even though are forced to remain weak and demoralized. In this way, the schools can pursue their objectives in the successful reproduction of cultural values which form the basis for the hidden curriculum. The hidden curriculum serves to initiate the student into the culture of capitalism and consumerism by reproducing those cultural values which are compatible with it. The hidden curriculum transforms the nonmaterial needs into demands for commodities. Students are taught how to be consumers of the services of 'teaching'. They are taught how to accept its inherent cultural values and expectations. They are taught how to blend in with the cultural belief systems.

Once they have learned this lesson, they lose their incentive to grow in independence, to recognize relatedness and connection, and they disconnect themselves from opportunities which life has to offer. In this way the hidden curriculum prepares the student for a future of alienation and the institutionalization of life in a capitalist consumer culture. This is done through the three main characteristics of school life - the people, the praise, the power. In the life of 'school' the student learns to adapt to being treated as a same-age same-status member of a group, to obey the impersonal authority of strangers who give orders and wield power, to respond to the praise which is part of the rituals of schooling i.e school credentials and ceremonies such as diplomas, certificates, licenses, grades, honors lists, graduations and so on and to subscribe to the philosophy of 'accumulation'. As the philosophy of acculmulation the hidden curriculum of school and schooling is for the promotion of consumerism. As a promotor of consumerism, the schooling system performs the same three functions as powerful churches throughout human history. Like the church, the school is the repository of social myth, it serves to institutionalize the contradictions of that myth and it is the site of the ritual which hides and reproduces the discrepancies, disparities and conflicts existing between social principles and the practical applications of those principles. At the same time they are responsible for children's learning and growth. Schools create dependent personalities who are unable to draw on their own resources in order to give substance and pleasure to their existence. Unable to create meaningfulness for their own lives, children grow up absurd. In this education 'game', uncritical students focus on the content of the overt curriculum and become unaware of the other curriculum which is hidden in the process of teaching and learning that content. It is for this reason that the schooling system can be considered as a form of political manipulation (banking education.) As obligatory instruction for institutionalized living, education of the hidden curriculum becomes an industry for the production of knowledge. The knowledge industry is a fast-growing labor market which directly or indirectly employs a growing proportion of the population. In the labor market, education is defined in terms of 'services' and institutions which are created for the services required for educating people. Many people are kept in school for life, or they are guaranteed to fit into some other form of institution.

 Education is concerned with the transmission and production of knowledge.

It is for this reason that the schooling system can be considered as a form of political manipulation

EDUCATION INDUSTRY AND THE HIDDEN CURRICULUM

Myths of schools: School combines the expectations of the consumer, expressed in its claims, with the beliefs of the producer, expressed in its ritual

An analysis of the 'hidden curriculum' of school and the 'educational machine' of obligatory instruction:

When the aims of education serve political ideology - education for citizens of a democracy - they do not concur with the natural aims of education for human development.

  Reform depends on  recognition of ritual of schooling as initiation into consumer culture ( Illich)...

      

________________________________________________________________________________________

The system of education depends on the promotion of those teaching philosophies and methodologies which are compatible with the cultural values of the society in which the education is occurring. Education is concerned with the transmission of knowledge within the constraints of the material conditions and social relations determined by the values which are held by particular social groups and interests. As a political act, education is concerned with determining which knowledge is transmitted and how it is transmitted if it is to serve these interests.

Education is concerned with the transmission and production of knowledge. The production of knowledge involves two aspects of educational practice or 'curricula'. One involves the knowledge 'content'. The other involves the way or 'process' in which the content is transmitted and produced. The process involves the methodology of teaching and learning or 'pedagogy'. Pedagogy is concerned with how one learns the content, how one makes decisions about who learns the content and to what extent they learn it. The curriculum of content is the 'overt curriculum'. The curriculum of 'process' is the 'hidden curriculum'. Both the overt curriculum and the hidden curriculum in any discussion of educational 'reform'.

Decisions about process as well as content are derived from value premises which underlie the political and social philosophies. The hidden curriculum of obligatory instruction is justified by the constitutional principle of 'equal educational opportunity'. The function of the hidden curriculum is to foster conformity to the cultural values. The hidden curriculum as obligatory instruction or 'education' becomes obligatory attendance of obligatory schooling. Obligatory schooling revolves around teacher authority and student passivity. Life as obligatory schooling is based on student classification according to age and performance on standardized tests. In the sorting process, students are expected to be obedient and passive, to work at meaningless tasks without complaint, to value competition and to respect their teachers as authority figures even though are forced to remain weak and demoralized. In this way, the schools can pursue their objectives in the successful reproduction of cultural values which form the basis for the hidden curriculum. The hidden curriculum serves to initiate the student into the culture of capitalism and consumerism by reproducing those cultural values which are compatible with it. The hidden curriculum transforms the nonmaterial needs into demands for commodities. Students are taught how to be consumers of the services of 'teaching'. They are taught how to accept its inherent cultural values and expectations. They are taught how to blend in with the cultural belief systems.

Once they have learned this lesson, they lose their incentive to grow in independence, to recognize relatedness and connection, and they disconnect themselves from opportunities which life has to offer. In this way the hidden curriculum prepares the student for a future of alienation and the institutionalization of life in a capitalist consumer culture. This is done through the three main characteristics of school life - the people, the praise, the power. In the life of 'school' the student learns to adapt to being treated as a same-age same-status member of a group, to obey the impersonal authority of strangers who give orders and wield power, to respond to the praise which is part of the rituals of schooling i.e school credentials and ceremonies such as diplomas, certificates, licenses, grades, honors lists, graduations and so on and to subscribe to the philosophy of 'accumulation'. As the philosophy of acculmulation the hidden curriculum of school and schooling is for the promotion of consumerism. As a promotor of consumerism, the schooling system performs the same three functions as powerful churches throughout human history. Like the church, the school is the repository of social myth, it serves to institutionalize the contradictions of that myth and it is the site of the ritual which hides and reproduces the discrepancies, disparities and conflicts existing between social principles and the practical applications of those principles. At the same time they are responsible for children's learning and growth. Schools create dependent personalities who are unable to draw on their own resources in order to give substance and pleasure to their existence. Unable to create meaningfulness for their own lives, children grow up absurd. In this education 'game', uncritical students focus on the content of the overt curriculum and become unaware of the other curriculum which is hidden in the process of teaching and learning that content. It is for this reason that the schooling system can be considered as a form of political manipulation (banking education.) As obligatory instruction for institutionalized living, education of the hidden curriculum becomes an industry for the production of knowledge. The knowledge industry is a fast-growing labor market which directly or indirectly employs a growing proportion of the population. In the labor market, education is defined in terms of 'services' and institutions which are created for the services required for educating people. Many people are kept in school for life, or they are guaranteed to fit into some other form of institution.

 Education is concerned with the transmission and production of knowledge.

It is for this reason that the schooling system can be considered as a form of political manipulation

Most teaching is done with a view to predetermined outcomes and the learner's successful 'performance' on tests. It places the emphasis almost entirely on acquiring data through memorization or 'rote learning'.

According to the modern meaning of 'traditional' education i.e. the fragmented and assembly line approach to education, most learning is by memorization of isolated information. The emphasis is placed almost entirely on acquiring data which on its own, does not necessarily make sense i.e. 'inert knowledge' or 'surface knowledge'. Surface knowledge refers to the mechanics of knowledge i.e. the facts and procedures. Knowledge of the fact as knowledge that something is the case is 'declarative knowledge'. Knowledge of the procedure is 'procedural knowledge'. Teaching practice is based on the notion that declarative knowledge and procedural knowledge are learned in a process of conditioning which involves the separate functioning of the 'emotions' and the 'intellect'.

In the traditional teaching paradigm teachers are considered to be authorities who decide what and how their students should learn. Most teaching is done with lesson plans which include specified learning outcomes. Students learn through the lecture and textbook. Evaluation of learning is based on the successful 'performance' on objective tests even though much of what is 'learned' is forgotten after testing. Performance is evaluated in terms of a reward/punishment system of scores, grades and grade averages (grade).

The inner life is the basis of social life.

Naturally protective ethical barriers are spontaneously set up between learner and teacher, preventing the learner from engaging in a learning process which is a natural product of brain functioning. The emphasis on the conventional reward/ punishment system of grading deprives the learner of experiencing the real joys of learning... inhibits the learner's natural capacity for personal creativity and intellectual growth... emphasis on predetermined outcomes deprives the learner of the opportunity to develop a personal capacity for decision making. They deprive the brain ...learner of the opportunity for its own natural development. By ignoring the brain's natural function as a pattern detector, 'brain-antagonistic learning'...

Brain-antagonistic learning intrudes on the brain's natural development, interfering with natural intellectual and moral development. Interference with personal development prevents from the learner from seeing the links between their learning and their life experience... makes of the learner a prisoner of his own mind.

 Emphasis on memorization leaves the learner impoverished, does not facilitate transfer of learning, and probably interferes with the development of understanding.

A fragmented and assembly line education ...a hierarchical and mechanical school environment inhibits the brain's capacity for making connections... actually inhibits the grasp of a link between subjects and life that is essential for complex learning. Those teaching and learning methods which are brain-antagonistic inhibit learning because they inhibit the formation of synaptic connections between nerve cells (synapse).

 In contrast to the brain-antagonistic pedagogies are the pedagogies for complex learning which are based on the principles of brain functioning. These are known 'brain-compatible' pedagogies. Pedagogies which are compatible with the functioning of the brain are effective because they involve the efficient use of its potential. They enhance learning because they are based on the natural functioning of the brain... the nerve cell or neuron... nerve impulse... the synapse. They strengthen the synaptic connections between neurons and they enhance the formation of new synaptic connections.

The process of learning is neither enjoyable nor stimulating unless it is part of a larger pattern which is intrinsically motivating i.e. based on the learner's 'intrinsic motivation'.

 Performance is evaluated in terms of a reward/punishment system of scores, grades and grade averages (grade).

Teaching practice is based on the notion that declarative knowledge and procedural knowledge are learned in a process of conditioning which involves the separate functioning of the 'emotions' and the 'intellect'.

  'Brain-antagonistic' pedagogies contrast with the so-called 'brain-compatible' pedagogies of learning by the brain's rules.

Teaching and learning methods which are brain-compatible enhance learning because they are based on the natural functioning of the brain.

They strengthen the connections which exist between nerve cells or 'neurons' and they enhance the formation of new connections or 'synapses'.

The practice of American education has been profoundly influenced by the American worldview, and its characteristically hostile attitude toward nature and human nature. Derived from orthodox Protestantism and its emphasis on religious texts and creeds, the American moralistic worldview has stressed the importance of authorities in dealing with educational practices. Traditional' education' was molded by the Industrial Revolution. The educational curriculum was conceived for purposes of training for the factory workplace and designed for mass education. Within the context of a management hierarchy, the 'classical curriculum,' consisted of the basic skills of reading, writing and arithmetic. Students were expected to be punctual, to follow orders and to perform repetitive tasks in preparation for work on the factory floor and in the offices. A regimented education prepared them for a future as mechanical laborers of assembly line technology. Teachers were required to be authoritarian, emphasizing repetitive work and rote learning. At first, the principles of 'traditional' education and the 'classical curriculum' were applied to primary and secondary schools and later they were applied to higher education as well. More recently, they have been applied to the new practice of 'adult education.'

SCHOOLS PERPETUATE MYTHS OF CAPITALISM

In fostering the traditional values of American nationalism, Protestantism, reductionism, capitalism, and materialism, the schools reproduce the myths of American consumerism.

In keeping with 'tradition', the schools teach the values of hierarchy, success, moralism and control... obligatory instruction of the cultural values - 'hidden curriculum' - promoted with authoritarian teaching methodologies and 'philosophies'. In the cultural context of 'school' and 'schooling', the individual' is expected...required... to conform to forced imposition of cultural myths and cultural values.

School authorities want the individual to meet their 'expectations' instead of fostering the individual's self-reliance and self-responsibility ...hope for his own future and his own expectations.

By cultivating conformity to cultural values, they impose thought and behavior patterns which repress... inhibit the individual's natural capacity ...desire for learning, for growth, for independence and for happiness... they cultivate a sense of dependence on 'role models' authorities and experts...

they cultivate unrealistic ambitions for 'professional' status 'competitive spirit' and stressful living.

in the consumer culture. Instead of fostering the individual's sense of integrity... the positive aspects of moral responsibility to themselves... health

Instead of trusting the individual's human potential for intellectual and moral development, the school imposes requirements in the form of grades and 'performance' scores.

Instead of fostering the individual's critical consciousness, they cultivate mindlessness.

With its demands for meaningless and passive learning, the school discourages creative and critical thinking.

In forcing ... imposing requirements for their ...'adaptation' and enculturation, the use of traditional methods obscure the real llenges of living... deny the real joys of learning.

the demands of complex learning in a complex environment... the real challenges involved in realizing their personal hopes and dreams... deprived of the experience of the real joys of learning.

Instead of trusting the individual's human potential for intellectual and moral development, they impose academic requirements and ethical codes.

The demands for meaningless and passive learning inhibit the individual's capacity for creative and critical thinking.

With the function of reproducing the cultural values, the educational system neglects to prepare each individual for life in a complex world. It neglects to foster the individual's natural intellectual and moral development into a responsible social human being. It neglects to foster the individual's natural capacities for adaptation to changing social conditions. The resulting anomalous social situation produces incapacitated and incompetent individuals manifest as the so-called educational 'crisis'.

 

 Brain antagonistic teaching  methods: rote memorization or 'rote' learning'     

Theme: In the framework of the traditional teaching paradigm, most teaching is done with a view to predetermined outcomes such as successful 'performance' on tests which emphasize the acquisition of data through memorization of factual material and isolated information i.e. 'rote learning'. Rote learning is conditioned learning... programmed learning... not necessarily with understanding.  Rote learning develops dependent personalities...

"Much of the problem in leading a child to effective cognitive activity is to free him from the immediate control of environmental rewards and punishments. Learning that starts in response to the rewards of parental or teacher approval or to the avoidance of failure can too readily develop a pattern in which the child is seeking cues as to how to conform to what is expected of him. We know from studies of children who tend to be early overachievers in school that they are likely to be seekers after the 'right way to do it' and that their capacity for transforming learning into viable thought structures tends to be lower than that of children achieving at levels predicted by intelligence tests ...They develop rote abilities and depend on being able to 'give back' what is expected rather than to make it into something that relates to the rest of their cognitive life. Their learning is not their own." (Jerome Bruner. On Knowing: Essays for the Left Hand, Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1962, 88)

Rote learning is 'route' or 'taxon' learning   Rote learning is 'route' learning or 'taxon' learning (from 'taxonomies' meaning lists, prototypes and categories which refer to generic terms such as 'dog', 'school' etc.) As taxon learning, rote learning is based on the brain's 'taxon memory systems'. Retention of taxon memories depends on repeated rehearsals. Lack of rehearsal results in loss of memoryor 'forgetting. Rote learning is inefficient because it activates only part of the brain's potential. Route learning is the traditional textbook learning for test-taking and grades. It involves specified 'routes' for acquisiton of knowledge

  When the brain is activated largely for the purposes of rote learning, a relatively small number of neurons are fired repeatedly resulting in rapid brain fatigue and inhibiting the formation of synaptic connections.

Traditional paradigm  Pedagogies based on methods of rote learning have been evident for centuries. In the relatively recent 'traditional' or 'behavioural paradigm' of education the fragmented and assembly line approach is based on the confusion of learning with school and 'schooling'. Learning as schooling places the emphasis almost entirely on the mechanics of knowledge - the knowledge that something is the case as in a 'fact' i.e. 'declarative knowledge', and knowledge of how something is done as in a 'procedure' i.e. 'procedural knowledge'. Declarative and procedural knowledge or 'data' which on its own does not  necessarily make sense is 'inert knowledge' or 'surface knowledge'. Surface knowledge which is unrelated to life experience is meaningless.

In the traditional paradigm of education emphasis is placed on  surface knowledge which is often  for the learners concerned.

  Traditional teaching methods are detrimental to brain function... 'brain- antagonistic' methods of learning  Teaching methods which impose meaningless patterns on the brain are met with its resistance to learning... are known as 'brain-antagonistic' pedagogies. Brain-antagonistic methods involve the processing of meaningless stimuli which are forced ]and meet with its natural resistance. The brain naturally resists the imposition of meaningless patterns and isolated facts which become meaningless when unrelated to meaningful experience. Brain-antagonistic pedagogies antagonize the learning process. The brain naturally resists rote learning of fragmented information which has no meaning in experience. Rote learning is a form of learning which is very tiring and taxing. With rote learning the brain is rapidly fatigued. When the brain is activated largely for the purposes of memorization, a relatively small number of neurons fire repeatedly and this is what leads to rapid brain fatigue. When the brain is used largely for the purposes of rote learning, only part of its potential is activated.

Pedagogies based on methods of rote learning have been evident for centuries... evident in the sixteenth century at the time of Montaigne. "'Tis the custom of pedagogues to be eternally thundering in their pupils' ears, as they were pouring into a funnel, whilst the business of the pupil is only to repeat what the others have said: now I would have a tutor to correct this error, and that at the very first he should, according to the capacity he has to deal with, put it to the test, permitting his pupil himself to taste things, and of himself to discern and choose them, sometimes opening the way to him, and sometimes leaving him to open it for himself. ... Cubs of bears and puppies readily discover their natural inclination; but men, so soon as ever they are grown up, applying themselves to certain habits, engaging themselves in certain opinions, and conforming themselves to particular laws and customs, easily alter, or at least disguise, their true and real disposition; and yet it is hard to force the propension of nature. Whence it comes to pass, that for not having chosen the right course, we often take very great pains, and consume a good part of our time in training up children to things for which, by their natural constitution, they are totally unfit." (Michel Eyquem de Montaigne (1533-1592) "Of the Education of Children", The Essays, The Great Books of the Western World, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1952 volume 25:64)

Teacher's role in the traditional paradigm  In the traditional paradigm of 'banking education', the teacher is an authority who decides what and how their students should learn through lecture and textbook. Lessons are designed with a view to specific 'learning outcomes' which are outlined in structured 'lesson plans'. Evaluation of learning is based on student 'performance' on 'objective tests'. And even though much is forgotten after testing, performance is measured in terms of a reward/punishment system of 'scores', 'grades' and 'grade averages'. These methods are characteristic of the 'student/teacher contradiction'  in which naturally protective ethical barriers are spontaneously set up between learner and teacher and the learner is prevented from engaging in natural learning. Teaching practice is based on the assumption that learning is a mental process which substitutes one stimulus for another in conditioned responses i.e. 'conditioned learning' or 'conditioning'. Conditioning is 'programming. Programming without understanding involves the separate functioning of 'emotions' and 'intellect' and its retention depends on the repetition of rote learning.

 Emphasis on conditioning and rote learning involves the unnatural imposition of meaningless stimuli on the brain.

Brain-antagonistic methods of teaching (teaching for 'rote learning' or 'conditioned learning' actually inhibit 'real learning' as experiential learning because they inhibit the formation of new synaptic connections in the cortex of the brain.

Traditional teaching methods are 'brain-antagonistic'  The traditional teaching methods which emphasize facts and outcomes are ineffective in the development of the human potential for intelligence required for social adaptability - rational, spiritual, emotional, aesthetic, creative i.e.  'social intelligence'. Development of social intelligence depends on a learning environment characterised by respect for the individual's 'freedom' and their instinctive capacity for 'self-evaluation'. Since authoritarian methods teach to behavioural objectives, they can actually prevent real understanding of meaningful learning and are described as 'brain-antagonistic'. Brain-antagonistic teaching  ignores the role of the unconscious or 'emotion' in the process of learning. Meaningful learning engages personal initiative based on instinctive motivations or 'emotional drives' i.e. 'intrinsic motivation'. The various types of intrinsic motivation - 'motivational types' - are determined by a range of human motives for learning or 'human needs'. Human needs include the so-called 'higher needs' or 'spiritual needs' i.e. 'metaneeds' for 'ego-transcendance' as well as the basic psychological 'ego needs' for security and self-esteem. The motivational type depends on the individual's level of psychological development or 'sociocognitive stage'. Hence the importance of intrinsic motivated learning which engages personality development to maturity or 'self-actualisation'.

 "Route learning is the traditional textbook learning for test-taking and grades. It involves specified 'routes' for acquisiton of knowledge. Map learning involves the whole brain.... "Maps allow for the whole brain - feelings included... The brain is designed to deal with complex stimuli." (Nummela, R., and T. Rosengren. "The Brain's Routes and Maps: Vital Connections in Learning." NAASP National Association American Society of Principals Bulletin 72: 507 83-86 April 1988)

Emphasis on rote learning inhibits the development of 'conscience' and 'social intelligence'  The brain's  natural function is to detect patterns, find relationships and make connections as quickly as possible in order to adapt to the complexities of changing conditions i.e. 'adaptability'. Adaptability depends on the brain's ability to make meaning of experience or 'learn'. Natural learning involves the brain's ability to integrate isolated facts with experience and to resist fragmentation of information. Teaching methods which depend on rote learning of fragmented knowledge naturally meet with the brain's resistance and antagonize the learning process. So-called 'brain-antagonistic' methods inhibit the brain's natural capacity for making connections and reduce its capacities for understanding relationships. This leads to brain deficiencies such as inability to process complex stimuli and connect with the emotional or 'inner life' which is the basis for social life. Brain-antagonistic methods interfere with the brain's natural development - intellectual or 'cognitive' development, emotional or 'psychological' development, and spiritual or 'ethical' development i.e. 'moral development'. Moral development is a function of development of 'moral consciousness' or 'conscience'. Alienation from conscience leads to imprisonment of mind and lack of 'freedom'. Development of conscience is a function of development of 'morality' and occurs in a series of age related stages i.e. 'socio-cognitive stages'.

Overemphasis on the rote learning capacity of the brain is an inefficient use of its potential. Learning by rote inhibits the brain's natural capacities for making connections and reduces its capacities for understanding relationships. As a result, the brain can become deficient in carrying out the natural functions which are essential to complex learning ...in the natural processing of complex stimuli. With deficiencies in the brain's capacity to process complex stimuli, there is little connectedness with other knowledge, or with the learner's emotional or 'inner life'.

Developed conscience is the source of human values for living or 'social intelligence'.

'Brain-compatible' pedagogies  Social intelligence which depends on the brain's ability to see links between learning and life is fostered by educational methods based on the brain's rules for complex learning i.e. 'brain-based learning'. So-called brain-compatible pedagogies enhance learning because they stimulate the brain's natural capacity for making connections between nerve cells or 'neurons'. They strengthen existing connections or 'synapses' and stimulate the formation of new ones. Brain-compatible pedagogies are based on recognition and respect for the learner's intrinsic motives for learning i.e. 'intrinsic motivation'.

Intrinsic motivation determines the extent to which rote learning is meaningful.

Implications for education  Overemphasis on predetermined outcomes, taxon memory and rote learning is an inefficient use of brain potential unless it is part of a larger pattern which is intrinsically motivating... a product of 'intrinsic motivation'.The inefficiency of rote learning deprives the learner of experiencing the real joys of learning and inhibits development of their natural capacity for personal creativity and intellectual growth and effective decision making i.e. 'adaptability'. It prevents the full functioning of the brain i.e. 'optimal learning' or 'optimalearning'. Optimalearning is effective because it involves the efficient use of brain potential...  involves understanding through expression and dialogue i.e. 'dialogical knowledge' - an outcome of teaching methods which are based on the resolution of the traditional 'teacher/student contradiction' i.e. 'humanisation' of education. Humane education is education of the whole person or 'holistic education'. Holistic education is education for the freedom to develop human potentialities... education for 'freedom' or 'libratory pedagogy'.

BRAIN-COMPATIBLE METHODOLOGIES Teaching methodologies are based on the integration of subject matter with life experience... respect for children's innate intelligence. Teaching for brain-based learning acknowledges the brain's ability to relate vast amounts of information to what has already been learned... allows for the learner's unique contribution. Learning takes place in different contexts. Brain-compatible methodologies encourage holistic thinking and a global perspective or 'wholistic perception'. Good pedagogical method is based on sound theoretical foundations. Teaching for the enhancement of learning... Brain-compatible pedagogies... They teach for learning which is meaningful in contextual frameworks. They provide for the individual's needs as well as for cultural differences and commonalities.

  TRADITIONAL EDUCATION as education for domination: STUDENT/TEACHER  ONTRADICTION  AND 'BANKING EDUCATION'

theme: Traditional education or 'banking education' is based on the assumption that the possession of knowledge  brings with it the power to control the future.  

 "Banking education mythisizes reality and therefore fosters irrational thinking which creates further mythisizing." (Paulo Freire. Pedagogy of the Oppressed Herder and Herder, 1971 (original Portuguese manuscript 1968, translated by Myra Bergman Ramos) (15)

                                                                                                                                  

politics of banking education...    banking education and learning theory...   control of imagination...

student evaluation...   mechanistic view of consciousness...

implications for education...

quotations...

 Politics of banking education: 'student-teacher contradiction' The term 'banking education' was coined by Paulo Freire to refer to educational pedagogy which is likened to the process of banking. The passive student becomes a depository for storing bits of knowledge which might be withdrawn and used later in life. The 'banking concept' of education is based on the perception of knowledge as an unchanging finite entity which like a gift can be bestowed to those don't have it by those who do. The politics of banking education is justified on the basis of the assumption that the student's ignorance is absolute. The teacher is considered to be a 'monopolist' of knowledge and their function is to concentrate on artificial and arbitrary scholarship. The function of the teacher is measured by the difference in knowledge level compared with the student.The teaching role is defined in terms of the transferrence of knowledge from the knowlegeable 'teacher' to the ignorant 'student'. (Immature) teachers confuse their authority of knowledge with professional authority. They set their authority in opposition to their students and present themselves as the necessary opposite in the so-called 'student-teacher contradiction'.  

Implicit in the student-teacher contradiction is the assumption that there is a dichotomy between the students and their world... the 'social reality'. In the learning situation, students are 'objects' and the teacher is the 'subject' which engages in the destructive pedagogy of transferring information as if it should be placed in a depository or 'bank' to be stored and then withdrawn and used later. Teachers teach and students are taught; teachers know everything and students know nothing; students accept their ignorance as justifying the teacher's existence... they never discover that it is in fact they who educate the teacher. Teachers think and students are thought about; teachers talk and students listen; teachers discipline and students are disciplined; teachers choose and enforce their choices and students comply; teachers choose program content and students adapt without consultation; teachers act and students act through the teacher; students are spectators and not creators. As a result teachers become afraid of communicating  with the students and the student/teacher contradiction is maintanied.

If the contradiction is formalized in the school institution then it is a reflection of the oppressor-oppressed contradiction of the mythical reality... the 'social realty'.  

"The opposite of education, manipulation is based on the absence of faith in the growth of potentialities and on the conviction that the child will be right only if the adults put into him what is desirable and cut off what seems to be undesirable. There is no need of faith in the robot since there is no life in it either." (Carl Rogers. Freeedom To Learn)

Banking education and learning theory...learning is considered to be passive 'behavioural paradigm'  ...The learning process is understood in terms of tranferrals of information from the teacher to the student...  Students of banking education are expected to accept a passive role. The student of banking education is taught to accept a passive role and not to challenge or question. In this way banking education attempts to control thinking and to transform the student into an individual who will adjust to the reality intended by the oppressor.

In order to possess the knowledge which the teacher transfers to them, they are expected to memorize or learn by 'rote'.

 Banking education is the practice of domination and mirrors the oppressiveness of the dominant society. The ideological intent or aim is to stimulate credulity and to indoctrinate the student to adapt to the world of oppression. This is the 'hidden curriculum' not often perceived by educators.

Banking education is an instrument of social control... controls by manipulating the content of the imagination. This explains the almost instinctive reaction against educational 'experiments' which would stimulate the student's critical faculties and encourage a critical consideration of reality. The banking approach to education teaches the individual to accept without questioning. The student of banking education is not permitted to ask 'why?'

    The propaganda of banking education anesthetizes and inhibits the individual's creativity and the creative power of inner freedom. With the annullment of their creative power, individuals are prevented from thinking and it is this which serves the interests of oppression

Control of the imagination occurs through the inhibition of creative and critical thinking.  The oppressor attempts to justify the conditions of human existence by mythologizing the social reality through the creation of 'social myth'. The creation of social myth is intended to conceal certain facts and present a fragmented view of the social reality. Adaptation to the fragmented view fosters irrational thinking. With fragmented perception, individuals perceive their own situation as unalterable. They become resigned to a fatalistic outlook which is reinforced with further mythologizing resulting in the individual's social rank as the 'oppressed.'

 "Education, by serving the ruling interests in a class society, and by doing this in a disguised way, actually gives people a distorted view of the world, and offers a misrepresentation of reality. Through its process, its content and its political power in bestowing social rewards, it presents a conceptual scheme and methodologies- ways of perceiving the world - that largely ensure that people will take their place in the existing world as well-fitting members of the status quo, without questioning the status quo or perceiving the real relations on which it is built ...Education promotes a distorted and illusory view of reality in the name of enquiring into truth. And since it does this in a deliberate and systematic way, its offerings and products can properly be characterised as a structured misrepresentation of reality." ( Kevin Harris. Education and Knowledge: The Structured Misrepresentation of Reality. London, Boston and Henley: Routledge & Kegan Paul. 1979 chapter 5, On Education 164)

Evaluation Students of banking education are evaluated on the basis of their ability to learn passively. Their passively acquired knowledge is measured in terms of a reward and punishment system of grading or 'grades'. Good grades are given to students who do not refuse to be treated as objects. The 'good student' is the one who repeats and is not restless or intractable, the one who accepts without questioning and does not reveal their doubts, the one who is unable to think critically and does not want to know the reason behind the facts, the one who does not want to break with pre-established models, the one who does not denounce the mediocrity of bureaucracies and adjusts to the status quo. .

Mechanistic view of consciousness  Teaching methods of banking education are based on a mechanistic and static view of consciousness a view which serves the interests of oppression. The so-called 'educated' student of banking education is the individual who adapts without questioning  the social reality created by the dominant classes. The prevention of thinking is based on a mechanistic and static view of consciousness. In the mechanistic view, consciousness is isolated from the world of 'reality'. With methods of banking education, attempts are made to keep the consciousness submerged. Individuals are denied the right to raise their consciousness in the naturally ontological process of becoming fully human i.e. 'self-actualisation'. The result is disempowerment of the student and 'social injustice'.

"The lecture-based passive curriculum is not simply poor pedagogical practice. It is the teaching model most compatible with promoting the dominant authority in society and with disempowering students." (Freire Politics of Education p.10)

Implications for education The teaching model of banking education is based on student/teacher contradiction and the lecture-based curriculum. This model is compatible with the aim of promoting the oppressive cultural forces of the dominant authority in society and with the disempowerment of students. However, in view of the current explosion of knowledge and its continuous challenge to the validity of orthodox opinion, the assumption upon which it is based - that the possession of knowledge brings with it the power to control the future - is no longer valid.

     The notion that a teacher is there to impart facts and demonstrate skills implies a set of social and cultural objectives which are inappropriate for the post-modern age. Consequently the banking concept of so-called 'traditional' education is seriously questioned today. There is a paradigm shift away from the teacher/student contradiction and towards its resolution in the democritization of education. It is only through communiction and dialogue that human life and human education can have meaning through authentic communication or 'dialogue'. 

'holistic education'. 

'Holistic perception' of reality required for congruence of thought and action necessary for survival in a changing environment. To have a rational and critical perception of one's reality means that one can perceive the various parts as constituent elements of a whole. Wholistic perception of reality means having a total vision of the context of the constituent fragments and thereby gaining a clearer perception of the reality in its totality.

 "Problem-posing education de-mythisizes reality, transforming reality by unveiling its 'true' nature and thereby fostering rational thinking". (Paulo Freire)

References:Pedagogy of Oppress

"Education in cultural action for domination is reduced to a situation in which the educator as 'the one who knows' transfers existing knowledge to the learner as 'the one who does not know.' (Paulo Freire The Politics of Education South Hadley, MA: Bergin and Garvey Publishers, Inc. 1985 p. 114)

 "In the 'banking' concept of education, knowledge is a gift bestowed by those who consider themselves knowledgeable upon those whom they consider to know nothing." (Pedagogy of Oppressed 58)

Banking education as education for domination:

"Banking education is education as the practice of domination." (Paulo Freire. Pedagogy of the Oppressed. p. 69) The 'banking' concept of education mirrors the oppressiveness of society as a whole. (59)

Student-teacher contradiction...  Students accept a passive role - they are the 'oppressed.' Their creative power is annulled." Serving the interest of oppression, the banking concept of education is based on a mechanistic and static view of consciousness. In attempting to control thinking and action, it inhibits creative thinking and transforms the student into a receiving object who is capable of adjusting to the reality created by the oppressors. Banking education "mythologizes reality." It "attempts to conceal certain facts which explain the way men exist in the world."(71)

 The practices of 'banking' education: ..."the teacher teaches and the students are taught; the teacher knows everything and the students know nothing; the teacher thinks and the students are thought about; the teacher talks and the students meekly listen; the teacher disciplines and the students are desciplined; the teacher chooses and enforces his choice and the students comply; the teacher acts and the students have the illusion of acting through the teacher,; the teacher chooses the program content, and without being consulted, the students adapt to it; the teacher confuses the authority of knowledge with his own professional authority, which he sets in opposition to the freedom of his students; the teacher is the Subject of the learning process and the students are the objects." (59)

 With banking education, the students accept the passive role imposed on them and adapt to the fragmented view of reality which is presented to them. (60)

 Banking education "anesthetizes and inhibits creative power." It "attempts to maintain the submersion of consciousness." (68)

 "Implicit in the banking concept of education is the assumption of a dichotomy between man and the world.  man is merely in the world, not with the world or with others; man is spectator, not re-creator." (62) The 'educated man' is the adapted man, (63) adapted to the world created by the oppressors; adapted without questioning it.

The teacher of banking education fears communication with the student. And yet it is only through communiction that human life can have meaning (63)

 The banking approach to education teaches the individual to accept without questioning. It prevents the individual from thinking. In the interests of the oppressors, banking education is the exercise of domination which stimulates the credulity of students.

OFTEN NOT PERCEIVED BY EDUCATORS, THE IDEOLOGICAL INTENT IS TO INDOCTRINATE THE STUDENTS TO ADAPT TO THE WORLD OF OPPRESSION (65) This explains the almost instinctive reaction against educational 'experiments' which would stimulate the student's critical faculties and encourage a critical consideration of reality. By mythologizing, the banking method of education reinforces the individual's fatalistic perception of reality. He becomes resigned to his situation and perceives it as unalterable. c. Authoritarianism and licence versus freedom and authority theme: freedom and authority conflict in situations of either licence or authoritarianism. d. Education for domination: student-teacher 'contradiction' "Education in cultural action for domination is reduced to a situation in which the educator as "the one who knows" transfers existing knowledge to the learner as "the one who does not know." (Paulo Freire The Politics of Education South Hadley, MA: Bergin and Garvey Publishers, Inc. 1985 114)

Generally speaking, the good student is not one who is restless or intractable, or one who reveals one's doubts or wants to know the reason behind facts, or one who breaks with preestablished models, or one who denounces a mediocre bureaucracy, or one who refuses to be an object. To the contrary, the so-called good student is one who repeats, who renounces critical thinking, who adjusts to models, and who 'thinks it pretty to be a rhinoceros'" (Ionesco Rhinoceros) (117)

JUSTIFICATION FOR TRADITIONAL TEACHING METHODS BY THE    PRINCIPLES OF BEHAVIOURAL PSYCHOLOGY OR 'BEHAVIOURISM'

 theme: 'Behavioural psychology' or 'behaviourism' , less than a hundred years old and a product of European and American cultures, is a science of mind and behaviour which claims that learning is a matter of conditioning... that the 'mind' is virtually a equipotent response machine. For this reason behavioural theory was used to justify the behavioural or 'traditional' paradigm of education... behavioral psychology is an example of atomism

paradigm of classical science...   scientific rationalism...   German Nazi rationalism...

founder John Watson...   Skinner...

 

Watson's views discredited...

 

Scientific paradigm and the mistrust of human nature... The Enlightenment of the eighteenth century produced a scientific worldview or 'paradigm' emphasizing cause and effect relationships i.e. reductionist science or 'reductionism'. The reductionist view is based on the conceptual dichotomy between the material and spiritual realms of human existence - the 'mind-body problem' of Descartes. The matter/spirit dichotomy was based on the assumption that the human individual - the 'natural' - and God - the 'supernatural' - are separate. The notion of the separation between natural and supernatural is the basis for the mistrust of the nature of the 'human personality' i.e. 'human nature'.  

The behavioural paradigm views human nature in terms of human instincts and emotions which are assumed to be corrupt and have to be controlled in order to prevent the wickedness of human behaviour i.e. 'evil'.  

Thinking and feeling are believed to be separate functions: 'scientific rationalism' In the reductionist paradigm, the mistrust of human nature leads to the notion that the intellectual capacity for objective reasoning or 'thinking' must be disconnected from emotion or 'feeling'. The relationship between thinking and feeling is not recognised. It was assumed that the intellectual capacity of acquiring knowledge through 'logical deduction' did not involve feeling and subjective experience and was sufficient for the objective processing of information or 'reason'. The process of reasoning alone without subjective interpretation was known as 'scientific reasoning' or 'scientific rationalism'. Scientific rationalism is an approach that ignores the role of consciousness in the discovery of the nature of 'reality' or 'truth'.  

German Nazi rationalism The dichotomous perception of human nature is the basis for the fallacious notion that scientific rationalism depends on the repression of natural instincts and emotions or 'drives'. The notion was opposed by the German Nazis who argued for the debasement of human reason and the exaltation of nature with regression to the earlier so-called 'natural' stages of human development. In their attempts to alleviate the social problems of their time they promoted their own version of 'rationalism'.  Hitler harnessed power by appealing to peoples' repressed naturesand forcing them to adapt to the needs of Nazi rationalism thereby demonstrating that the debasement of human reason results in the most barbaric forms of social domination.

 The American reaction against German Nazi rationalism was expressed by its spokesman John B. Watson.

 

Behavioral psychology: founder John Broadus Watson (1878-1958) 

In the early 1930s the brain sciences or 'neurosciences' were young and scientists were largely ignorant of the architecture of the nervous system and the mechanisms of brain functioning. At that time the accepted view of biological research was that the brain is infinitely 'plastic'. It was generally believed that 'function precedes form' i.e. for example the neurons innervating the arm become specified for innervation to the arm only after the arm has been used as an arm.  

As spokesman for the American reaction against German Rationalism, Watson founded and popularized the new psychology known as behavioral psychology... In the 1920's he made the radical suggestion that the origins of human behaviour cannot be explained in terms of the workings of the brain but in terms of observable responses to stimuli which he believed to be the causes of the behaviour. The notion of the stimulus-response mechanism ('conditioned reflex') as the basis for behaviour became the premise on which he built and popularised his new psychology known as 'behavioral psychology'. Behavioural psychology claims that behavior is a matter of conditioned reflexes and that human behaviors are learned through conditioning. He defined as 'a purely objective experimental branch of natural science'... an objective 'science' of the psyche or 'mind'. As a purely objective science of human behaviour, the new behavioral psychology was known as 'behavioural science'.  

Watson was the founder of the new psychology and science of the human psyche and human behaviour or 'behavioural science'. According to behavioural science human behaviours are learned through the mental process in which one stimulus is substituted  for another in a process of conditioned response... conditioned reflex (stimulus substitution or 'classical conditioning') i.e. 'conditioned learning' or 'conditioning'. The notion of conditioning became the basic premise for behavioral science - also known as 'behavioural psychology'.  Watson promoted the new behavioural psychology as the most objective science of human behaviour not involving subjective interpretation... "... a purely objective science of the mind which is an experimental branch of natural science. Its theoretical goal is the prediction and control of behaviour. Introspection forms no part of its methods." (Psychological Review 20:158) Watson transformed the psychology into a philosophy and a national movement with a mission i.e. 'behaviourism'.

Objective of behaviourism was to predict and control human behaviour The goal of behaviourism was to describe the individual or group in terms of behaviour patterns considered suitable for social and political purposes. Behavioral science was meant to emphasize overt behaviour and the objective was to predict and control human behaviour... which was believed to result from conditioned learning.  The belief in conditioning as the basis for human learning and behaviour was supported by the information available at the time.  

Watson's claim that function precedes form: Watson was the founder and popularizer of behavioral psychology the aim of which was to predict and control human behaviour.

  John Watson..."recognized spokesman for an American reaction against German Rationalism and the fragility of introspective evidence when taken as scientific evidence." (Gazzaniga The Social Brain)

Objective science of human behaviour: behavioural psychology or 'behavioural science'  With behaviourism  the so-called 'mind-body problem' vanished.

The behaviourists believed that there was no interaction between mind and body and so there was no need to explain it.

Behavioral psychologists attempted to formulate a science of the mind which was as objective as the physical sciences. They rejected the idea of a mind with its own intentions and purposes. In their efforts to formulate a purely objective science of human behaviour, behavioral psychologists discredited 'introspection' as too fragile to be used for scientific evidence. They claimed that since the idea of an internal mind with intentions and purposes was impossible to test with experimentation then so-called 'introspective evidence' did not belong to 'hard science' and should therefore be ignored. ( John Watson, Behaviorism New York: Norton, 1925)

Watson turned the study of psychology into a philosophy and the philosophy into a 'national movement with a mission' i.e. 'behaviorism'

 'Behaviorism' was extolled as an explanation for the learning process. Behavioral psychologists were intent on formulating an objective science of the mind. They emphasized the individual's overt behavior and reactions to environmental conditions. They had no use for introspection and ignored the study of subjective experience During the twentieth century, the field of educational psychology has been influenced primarily by behavioural psychology. When psychologists were trying to formulate a science of mind which was objective like the physical sciences, the founder of 'behaviorism' John B. Watson claimed that psychology was a purely objective science having no use for introspecton.

 The American reaction against German Nazi rationalism was expressed by its spokesman John B. Watson. 

This biological view was equivalent to the psychological view of the brain of the newborn as a clean slate or 'tabula rasa'.

 Radical behavourist view: Skinner (1904-1990) Thorndike was a behaviourist who believed that problem solving was a natter of random fumbling. His successor was the influential behavioural scientist of Harvard University Burrhus F. Skinner. ... theory of 'operant conditioning'.

Skinner author About Behaviorism made it a rule that the study of psychology should be limited to testable theories which examined the individual's behaviour in terms of their reactions to environmental conditions.  He described human behaviour in terms of stimulus-response mechanisms of conditioned learning. He developed highly controlled learning environments to insure that the learners developed the desired behavior. Skinner developed Watson's ideas into an elaborate system which made it possible for them to catalogue the 'laws' which determine the causal relations between stimuli and response. According to behaviorism the nature of the human personality or 'human nature' is the product of one's environment. It is not human nature but defective environments which are responsible for the harmful things that people do to themselves and each other

Since the concept of an internal mind with intentions and purposes was impossible to test with scientific experimentation then it did not belong to 'hard science'. There is no scientific proof of free will or psychological autonomy so these were considered to be mythical concepts.    

Skinner  developed highly controlled learning environments to insure that the learners developed the desired behavior...  made it a rule that the study of psychology be limited to testable theories which examined the person's reactions to the environmental conditions. The idea of an internal mind with intentions and purposes was impossible to test with experimentation and did not belong to 'hard science.'

B.F. Skinner of Harvard University developed Watson's ideas into an elaborate system which made it possible for them to catalogue the 'laws' which determine the causal relations between stimuli and response.

 The early behavioral psychologists defined their psychology in terms of 'mental and behavioural characteristics which result from past experience'... so from 'conditioning'They believed that conditioned behaviour must be controlled.

Watson's views have been discredited  Watson's views have been largely discredited on two major counts. The first is that the manipulation of reward and punishment for learning behaviours are not the predominant determinants of human behaviour. The second is that the structure of the nervous system depends on its interaction with the environment.

references:

Winfred Hill, Learning: A Survey of Psychological Interpretations, New York: Harper and Row, 1990, 31-38

Behaviourism ignores the inner life  Behavioural psychology recognizes a limited number of normal 'consciousness states': the ordinary 'waking state' and two 'sleeping states' - the 'dreaming state' and the 'non-dreaming state'. The waking state is believed to be the most desirable dimension of consciousness and the most satisfactory for the individual's perception of reality. Having no use for introspection or subjective experience behaviourism is an approach to psychology which ignores the individual's consciousness state or 'inner life'. For this reason its description of human behaviour is oversimplified  and it provides a  very limited perspective of human nature which is defined in terms of the values for living i.e. 'human values'.       

Behaviourists focus on overt behaviour  The early 'behaviourists' defined behavioural psychology in terms of the individual's mental and behavioural characteristics resulting from conditioned learning. They argued that since behavioural psychology was a purely objective science, emphasis should be on the individual's reactions to environmental conditions and therefore on behaviour which was overt. Their methods of inquiry were not to include any form of introspective evidence. Since it is impossible to test with experiment an internal 'mind' with its own intentions and purposes, they discredited introspection as too fragile to be used as a source of scientific evidence. They believed that essentially all psychological functioning and phenomena can be codified and communicated through language and that it is only through intellectual analysis that psychological phenomena can be understood. 

Behaviouists argued that since an individual's behaviour is the result of conditioning and a product of past experience then the behaviour has to be controlled. Acceptable behaviour is suitable for social and political purposes.

Effect of behaviourism on pedagogical methods The explanation of human behaviour in terms of stimulus-response mechanisms of overt conditioning, behavioural psychology was extolled as the explanation for the learning process. It was used to justify the 'traditional' teaching paradigm in which natural learning is confused with conditioned learning or 'schooling'. As a result of the emphasis on overt conditioning, it is generally believed that human learning behaviours can be shaped through the use of a punishment reward system of negative and positive reinforcement and that the individual is motivated by external motivating devices such as desire for 'success' and fear of 'failure' i.e. 'extrinsic motivation' 

In the 'behavioural paradigm', conditioned learning behaviours are evaluated objectively in terms of extent of success in meeting  'learning outcomes' and measured objectively in terms of  'student performance' on 'objective tests' with the results expressed as numerical scores and 'grades'.  

Implications for education: Behavioural paradigm... teaching as instruction... is inadequate as a teaching paradigm

  With their views of conditioned learning and the control of human behaviour, the behaviourists and their behavioral psychology have greatly influenced the field of educational psychology throughout the twentieth century. 'Traditional' educational theories have been based on the mechanistic and objective approach to educational research. The early behaviorists emphasized overt human behavior and conditioning. Education has been considered in the framework, paradigm, worldview of the behavioral sciences. It has been perceived in terms of establishing behavior patterns suitable for social and political purposes. The process of education has been perceived in terms of such behavioral concepts as conditioning, reward and punishment as well as behavioral outcomes. The learning process has been considered in terms of conditioning and conditioned behavior. Educational aims have been formulated in terms of conditioning human beings for desired purposes and behavioral outcomes. Teaching methods have been devised with a view to rewarding desirable learning behavior. Education has been institutionalized within this framework of behaviorism and  as institutionalized learning, education has become little more than a process of 'human engineering.'

The behavioural paradigm provides an oversimplified interpretation of human learning behaviour which is inadequate for the formulation of educational policies and teaching practices. It is inadequate because it ignores the 'role of the unconscious'. It ignores the natural emotional drives or 'deep meanings' of the inner life,  the individual's own goals and intrinsic motives for meaningful learning i.e. 'intrinsic motivation'. Intrinsically motivated learning is the basis for creative or 'adaptive' behaviour i.e. 'adaptability'.

  As a result of progress in the science of the brain or 'neuroscience', there is a fundamental shift from the behavioural paradigm to the paradigm of 'connectedness' or 'wholeness' i.e. 'holistic science'. Scientists of the various psychologies are investigating a wide range of human thought behaviour - 'cognitive behaviour modification', 'humanistic psychotherapy', 'existential psychotherapy' and 'transpersonal psychotherapy'. The recognition of the spiritual or 'transpersonal' dimension of human behaviour has significant implications for education. The new teaching paradigm is concerned with the nature of the learning process and ways to facilitate it. The 'facilitation of learning' is the function of the teacher as 'facilitator'. The function of  the facilitative teacher is to provide the right conditions for development of the whole personality i.e. the human motives for behaviour or 'human needs'. Human needs include the 'unconscious' or 'basic' psychological needs for self-esteem i.e. 'ego needs' and the growth needs for personality development and 'self-actualisation' - the spiritual needs or 'metaneeds'. Human needs must be met for development of moral consciousness or 'conscience'. The extent to which the needs are met determine the individual's consciousness state or 'motivational type'. There are different motivational types depending on the extent to which human needs have been met in the course of personality development or 'moral development'. Motivation by deficiency of ego-needs is deficiency or 'deficit motivation'. Motivation by sufficiency of ego-needs is motivation by growth needs or 'metamotivation'. Metamotivation engages the optimal functioning of the brain i.e. 'optimalearning'. Optimalearning in the result of needs-based education or 'holistic education'. Holistic education is concerned with both the conscious and the unconscious aspects of the learning process. This is critical for accurate evaluation and interpretation of social reality the prerequisite to intelligent decision-making and creative problem-solving which is required for appropriate adaptation to changing social conditions i.e. 'social intelligence'. 

'Cognitive Revolution' started with invention of the computer see Noam Chomsky... Chomsky observed that all children learn language at about the same age throughthe same developmental stages and suggested that the brain is programmed for language ... evolution and natural selection.

Watson, John. (1925)  Behaviorism New York: Norton   

Watson, John. (1913)  'Psychology as a Behaviourist Views it'. Psychological Review volume 20, 158-177

 Roger Sperry In the late 1950s Dr. Roger Sperry at the California Institute of Technology was interested in understanding whether or not the growth of nerves in the brain did depend on their interaction with the environment. He explored how nerve circuits grow in the brain and showed how intricate neural networks which manage and control the appendages are establised during development. He showed that the neural networks are carefully formed and built under the control of genetic mechanisms. They grow to their destination points in prespecified ways. How brains adopt psychological character depends not only on accidents of environmental events but also on their innate architecture. Sperry's experiments established the fact that the brain is structured by the genetic code. Sperry demonstrated that in the process of nerve growth, specific neuronal connections are made under the direction of the genome and not of the environment. In so doing he demonstrated that 'form precedes function' contrary to Watson's claim  that function precedes form. (Roger Sperry, "Chemoaffinity in the Orderly Growth of Nerve Fiber Patterns of Connections" Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 50, 1963: 703-710. Roger Sperry, "The Growth of Nerve Circuits," Scientific American 201, 1959: 68-75)

In the l960s and l970s Sperry utilised the new experimental system known as the 'split-brain system' in his left brain/right brain research experiments... 'cerebral hemispheres'


BEHAVIOURISM AND THEORY OF LEARNING  Behavioural science as behavioural 'psychology' or behaviourism has dominated educational theory and the educationalsystem.

In the traditional paradigm of behavioural psychology, education has been institutionalized within the framework - worldview or 'paradigm' - of behavioral science or 'behaviorism'.As the science of human behaviour, behaviourism has had a profound influence on the field of educational theory because it has been regarded as the most reliable source for a valid explanation of the learning process. In the behavioural paradigm,the learning process is perceived in terms of behavioural concepts such as conditioning and conditioned behaviour, reward and punishment evaluation, behavioural learning outcomes and
so on. Principles of behavioural psychology are based on the perception of the learning process as a matter of conditioning. Educational principles are formulated in terms of conditioned learning behaviour. Educational theory is based on the belief that learning is a result of conditioned behaviour and that successful learning is a result of successful conditioning - a belief which stems from behaviourism as the
source of the explanation for the learning process. The resulting pedagogical methods are based on the belief that learning must take place through techniques of conditioned learning such as rote memorization. In the behavioural paradigm of education, educational methodology has been directly influenced by the scientific methodology ...scientific process ...of logical empiricism with its bias towards completely 'objective' knowledge.The value of knowledge is measured in terms of its objectives and its usefulness. The explanation for the learning process is shaped by the assumption that the learner is detached in the learning process. Pedagogocal principles are formulated on the basis of the notion that cognitive knowledge can only be measured with 'objective' testing methods. They place the emphasis almost entirely on predetermined outcomes and on the learner's acquisition of factual data. The 'objectives' of classwork and coursework are described in terms of the acquisition and measurement of 'objective' cognitive knowledge which can only be measured with the use of test-taking skills and test performance. Principles of educational methodology which are formulated within the context of the behavioural paradigm - the paradigm of behavioural psychology - fail to recognize the scientific reality of the human inner life. They understand the concept of 'change' as the addition of new habits like external possessions. Consequently they deprive the learner of opportunities to develop their personal capacity for decision making. For these reasons they impose severe limitations on the individual's educational experience as well as on the field of psychology. The behavioural explanation of the learning process or 'psychology of learning' is a limited body of knowledge which is based on the concern for the acquisition from the outside world of satisfactions of motivational deficiencies i.e. learning the best way to satisfy a need. Motivation for learning is based on goal objects which are external to the organism - extrinsic motivation. Known as 'deficit-motivation', extrinsic motivation is the concern with the pervection of techniques for the repeated satisfaction of the deficiency needs. The limited view of learning as a matter of conditioning forms the basis of the belief that human nature and human behaviour can be shaped to any desired form. On the basis of this belief, educational aims are expressed in terms of
establishing those behaviour patterns and outcomes which are considered suitable for desired social and political purposes.Pedagogical methods formulated in this context focus on surface knowledge which does not necessarily make sense to the learner. The perception of human learning as human conditioningis based on the belief that learning involves only the conscious part of the brain. Teaching methods of the traditional behavioural paradigm ignore the unconscious aspect of learning. They ignore the individual's need to bring to their own awareness ...to raise their own consciousness .... those motivating emotional forces of the unconscious which are the source of their intrinsic motivation for learning. They fail to acknowledge the brain's rules for learning... they ignore its natural functioning and its natural function of learning... of searching for meaning in experience... of detecting patterns in its search for meaning... they reduce the brain's capacity to understand relationships... they deprive the brain of the opportunity for its own natural development. They impose meaningless patterns on the brain and as a result they are met with its resistance to learning. Teaching methods in the behavioural paradigm ignore
the learner's inner life... they inhibit the learner's natural capacity for personal creativity... for complete psychological, emotional intellectual and spiritual growth.

 

       

:EVALUATION AND 'GRADES'.

 theme: The traditional teaching paradigm is based on the assumption that education is a matter of conditioned learning and depends on the non-developing passive role of the student. The passive student is motivated by motivating devices which are external to the learning process such as the punishment/reward system of 'grades'. Emphasis on grades contributes to declining motivation because it ignores human instinctive motives for learning behaviour i.e. 'human needs'.

Behavioural paradigm: learning is a matter of conditioned learning or 'conditioning' The traditional paradigm of education originated with the idea of preparation for the 'needs of society'. The assembly line model of the school was conceived for the purposes of training the masses for work in the factory i.e. 'schooling'. The forced learning of  schooling is task oriented and replaces the meaningful learning of life experience. Traditional methods of teaching are based on the assumption that the driving force or 'motivation' for learning depends on motivating devices and forces of material gain which are extrinsic to the learner - rewards such as diplomas, prizes, awards, scores and 'grades'. Motivation based on extrinsic conditions is  'extrinsic motivation'.  Learning based on extrinsic motivation is conditioned learning or 'conditioning'. Emphasis on extrinsically motivated conditioning is a reflection of the materialist values of capitalism as 'commercialism' and 'consumerism'. In the interests of consumerism, the traditional teaching paradigm succeeds in the promotion of fear which restricts growth and fosters 'adult immaturity'.

The grading system as a device for motivation in cultural context Grades are useful not only in the process of finding employment with industry but with the 'industries' of society such as the 'medical industry' and the 'industry of education'. The function of the grading system is to prepare students for the cultural emphasis on material values i.e. 'hidden curriculum'. Students really learn that good grades mean good jobs, good jobs mean good business, good business means a comfortable life and social 'success'. Achievement of success and avoidance of 'failure'  have particular meaning in the context of capitalist culture as commercialism and consumerism i.e. 'cultural context'. The competitive grading system is used to coerce students to adapt to the system.

 GRADES IN THE CULTURE OF CAPITALISM In school, good grades are the means to college. College education is for a 'good job'. Good job means good money and comfortable materialistic life. The danger of the grading system - children evaluate their whole person on the basis of their grade. Grades are not perceived solely as an academic evaluation. Children naturally evaluate themselves. Adult evaluation influences their innate process of self-evaluation. Grades are used to coerce children to 'perform' to their liking. They are used for the manipulation of children's thought and behavior patterns. Children's capacity for inquiry and learniong is hindered by teacher's focus on grades. Inspire children with love for learning, not love for grades. Materialist values are conveyed by focusing on grades. 'Good grades mean a good job and good money'. Educate for maturity and the 'value-life'. High grades foster false confidence. Low grades foster feelings of inferiority. Power of example is greater than the power of direction. Teacher sets an example - meaning of 'role model'. How increase children's self-esteem? Children have natural desire to learn and express themselves. Real learning and hard work result in genuine satisfaction with one's own efforts and elevated self-esteem. Pressures of a grading system inhibit the learning process. Lessons important for both knowledge and maturity are cognitive and affective. Valuable personal qualities which go beyond sound academic knowledge are the human qualities which enhance life, and which inspire and develop in others a respect for human talent and accomplishments and wisdom and which inspire the process of learning itself...

Disadvantages of conditioned learning as 'passive learning' The process of conditioned learning involves the imposition on the brain of set patterns of facts and procedures which are repeated and memorized i.e. 'rote learning'. Rote learning is evaluated on the basis of performance on objective tests and measured in terms of the conventional punishment/reward system of grades and 'grade averages'. The disadvantage of the learner's dependence on grades is that it can alienate the learner from their own personal sense of achievement. This results in a decline of motivation and 'passive learning'. Under these conditions thinking becomes increasingly rigid until the indidual becomes prisoner of their own mind. Subsequent learning which might be perceived as a threat to their sense of identity and self-organization will tend to be resisted.

Passive learning results is a function of authoritarian teaching as 'passive teaching' Learner passivity is a natural result of the authoritarian teaching model or 'passive teaching'. Passive teaching is characteristic of traditional education which is based on the assumption that knowledge is finite and unchanging. Education for the possession of such knowledge brings the power to control the future i.e. 'banking education'. In the context of banking education knowledge is perceived as a gift which can be bestowed on those who don't have it by those who do. The teacher is considered as a primary authority who makes claims to a monopoly of knowledge and whose function it is to transfer their knowledge to the learner whose ignorance justifies the teacher's authoritarian role.  

Passive teaching ignores human motives for learning or 'human needs' The aim of passive teaching is to maintain the teacher's position and status and so requires an authoritarian approach to learner evaluation in terms of a punishment/reward system of grades. Strategies or 'teaching techniques' are devised in order to manipulate imagination and thinking... to coerce students to perform successfully on tests. Specific predetermined 'learning outcomes' such as successful performance on tests form the basis for the design of lessons i.e. 'lesson plans'. Under these conditions, teachers become concerned with student performance as a reflection of their own and in this way they unwittingly defend their positions and protect their institutions. The use of grades makes it possible to monitor teacher in terms of student performance. When teachers are under pressure to perform then the grades can be used as advantage points. If teacher's concerns  are deflected away from student concerns then the result is declining motivation and so-called 'educational crisis'. Educational crisis is a result of teachers' dependence on the non-developing passive rol.e of students and the lack of respect for their own motives for behaviour i.e. 'human needs'. Human needs include the basic psychological needs for self-esteem - the 'ego-needs' - and also the needs for spiritual growth i.e. spiritual needs or 'metaneeds'. Fulfillment of metaneeds is a function of development of moral consciosness or 'conscience'. The conscience or  'soul' is the source of 'human values'.

 The teacher's dependence on the non-developing passive role of the student is counterproductive because it does nothing for personal growth and development. When teachers emphasize conditioning and predetermined learning outcomes, their energies are deflected away from students' needs. Needs for personal development require learners to evaluate their own achievement i.e. 'self-evaluation'. The grading system ignores the psychological value of work. The simplistic evaluation and assessment system of grading can be destructive and demotivating if children cannot differentiate between evaluation of the self and evaluation of their achievement. Without appropriate differentiation, high grades foster false confidence and low grades foster inferiority feelings. Appropriate self-evaluation can only proceed in a climate in which it does not threaten the perception of self. The method of learner evaluation must account for the need for self-respect, for realistic self-confidence, for recognition of genuine achievement, and for the development of a positive concept of self or 'self-image'. In the process of evaluating themselves, children are naturally influenced by the evaluation of significant adults. Natural learning involves self-correction. In the absence of threat, the natural process of learning involves the correction of one's own errors. When threat to the self is low, then experience is perceived and assimilated objectively, error is differentiated from the concept of self and correction of error is appropriately assimilated. The correction of error plays an important role in personal growth and development. Learning which involves a change to the perception of self and self-organization is threatening and tends to be resisted.

Passive teaching alienates learning from personal growth and the construction of conscience or 'soul'  The passive teaching model is counter-productive because it emphasizes predetermined learning outcomes, grades and conditioned learning and  ignores human needs and human values. It does not contribute to personal growth and development of conscience. Emphasis on the learning of objective or 'symbolic knowledge'  prevents the development of subjective understanding through inner knowledge or 'intimate knowledge' which contributes to the construction of conscience i.e. 'intuition'. Intuition is immediate apprehension without reasoning i.e. perceptiveness or 'insight'.  Degree of insight depends on extent of awareness or consciousness i.e. 'consciousness state'. Consciousness state is a function of the moral stage of development which the individual has reached i.e. 'socio-cognitive stage'. Sociocognitive stages are natural stages of personality development which depend on the individual's capacity to evaluate their own creativity, productiveness and achievement i.e. 'work'. 

Natural learning in non-threatening environment involves self-evaluation The method of learner evaluation must account for the need for self-respect, for realistic self-confidence, for recognition of genuine achievement, and for the development of a positive self-image. The process of 'self-evaluation' is of extreme importance in the individual's construction of conscience. Even while evaluating themselves during growth and development, the young are naturally influenced by significant adults whose evaluation might be detrimental or beneficial depending on their own level of maturity. Appropriate self-evaluation can only proceed in a climate in which it does not threaten the individual's  concept of self or 'self-image'. When threat to the self is low or   absent the natural learning involves the correction of one's own errors or 'self-correction'. Self-correction is a involves the natural process of perceiving the experience of error objectively. When  error is differentiated from the concept of self then the correction of error is assimilated appropriately. In this way the correction of error has an important function in personal growth and development. If the individual is unable to differentiate between evaluation of their achievement and evaluation of their self-image, then the simplistic evaluation and assessment system of grading can be destructive and demotivating. Without appropriate differentiation, high grades foster false confidence and feelings of 'superiority' which result in motivation of deficiency i.e. 'deficit motivation'; low grades foster lack of confidence and feelings of 'inferiority' which result in demotivation.

Declining motivation and the 'educational crisis'  When learners become dependent on forces external to themselves - desire for success and high grades, fear of failure and low grades - they are alienated from their own sense of achievement. It is the alienation of the learning process from the sense of self or 'identity' which is the likely cause for declining motivation and declining 'standards' of the current educational crisis. Objective evaluation in the form of grades can be counterproductive if it does not correlate with self-evaluation. Subjective evaluation is appropriate for work which is based on the natural capacity for observation and inquiry or 'curiosity'.  

Curiosity as natural driving force of 'intrinsic motivation'  Curiosity is the natural driving force for the human capacity for initiative and sustained attention i.e. 'intrinsic motivation'. Hindrance to the development of natural powers of intrinsic motivation prevents the development of the powers of rational thought or 'reason'. Prevention of the development of reasoning power interferes with the natural development of the capacity for critical thinking and understanding of concepts... 'conceptual understanding'. Critical thought is a precondition for the capacity for discerning and appropriate understanding of one's nature ... the nature of the human personality i.e. 'human nature'. Knowledge of human nature is 'self-knowledge'. Self-knowledge is possible with growth through learning in a non-authoritarian learning environment i.e. 'freedom'.

Implications for education In the context of culturally based requirements and standards of traditional educational institutions, grades are used for purposes of coercion in the preparation of the individual for industrial civilisation. However the grading system becomes increasingly irrelevant to the needs of the individual for adaptation to the demands of modern 'post-industrialism' of the 'information age. Adaptation to the social conditions of  the 'new age'  depends on an education for maturity and self-realisation or 'self-actualisation'. Self-actualisation is the result of human growth and development which increases the person's autonomy and independence of the environment i.e. 'adaptability'. Adaptability depends on education of the whole person i.e. 'holistic education'. Holistic education is education for responsible freedom. In the holistic paradigm of education the teacher's function can be described in terms of the facilitation of learning, encouragement of initiative and intrinsic motivation and promotion of learner self-evaluation i.e. 'facilitator'. The facilitative teacher inspires the love for learning with the a power of which far greater than the powerof 'authority as direction' (power of 'authoritarianism')  and that is the power of 'authority as example' (power of 'authoritativeness'

 THE GRADING SYSTEM AS A DEVICE FOR MOTIVATION In the traditional paradigm, methods of teaching are based on the assumption that effective learning is a matter of conditioning. Conditioned learning is based on external conditions and rewards - diplomas, prizes, awards - which reflect the materialist values of capitalist culture. Motivation for learning which is based on external forces and extrinsic rewards is 'extrinsic motivation'. Extrinsic motivation is the driving force for learning when used for purposes of coercion within the context of culturally based requirements and standards of traditional educational institutions. They are useful in the process of finding employment with industry and the 'industries' of society such as the 'industry of education'. Good grades mean good jobs, good jobs mean business and social 'success' and a comfortable life. In this way, grades are

GRADES AND PASSIVE LEARNING Emphasis is placed on the 'objective' aspects of learning or 'symbolic' knowledge and there is little concern for subjective or 'intimate' knowledge of understanding. Most learning is by a process of conditioning in which set patterns of facts and procedures are imposed on the brain by repetition and memorization i.e. 'rote learning'. Rote learning is evaluated on the basis of performance on objective tests and measured in terms of a conventional punishment/reward system of scores, grades and grade averages. Dependence on grades alienates the learner from their own sense of achievement. Their learning becomes 'passive' and they become prisoners of their own minds.

AUTHORITARIAN TEACHING Passive learning is a natural result of authoritarian teaching. In the traditional paradigm, the teacher is a primary authority who makes claims to a monopoly of the knowledge which is taught. The teacher's function is to transmit the knowledge to others who don't have it. Strategies or 'teaching techniques' are devised in order to manipulate imagination and thinking. Lesson plans are designed around specific predetermined 'learning outcomes' which include successful performance on tests. Student performance is used to monitor teacher performance and student grades are used as advantage points. Teachers become concerned with student performance as a reflection of their own. In this way they unwittingly become defendants of their positions and protectors of their institutions. They depend on student passivity to maintain their status.

DECLINING MOTIVATION AND THE EDUCATIONAL 'CRISIS'. Dependency on extrinsic rewards for learning is the likely cause for declining 'standards' and declining motivation of the current 'crisis' in education. Objective evaluation in the form of grades is counterproductive as a method of evaluation of learning. Dependence on extrinsic motivation contributes to declining motivation because it hinders the capacity for observation and inquiry or 'curiosity'. Curiosity is the natural driving force for intrinsic motivation. Hindrance to the development of natural powers of intrinsic motivation prevents the development of the human powers of reason. Prevention of the development of reasoning power interferes with the natural development of the human capacity for conceptual understanding and critical thinking. The inability to think critically interferes with understanding of concepts. Critical thought is a precondition for the capacity for self-evaluation which is discerning and appropriate. IMPLICATIONS FOR EDUCATION The punishment/reward system of grading becomes increasingly irrelevant to the needs of the individual in the modern post-industrial age. Adaptation to the requirements of the social conditions of post-modernism depends on an education for maturity and human values.. for self-actualization or 'self-realization' i.e. an education for initiative and intrinsic motivation... self-evaluation... 'adaptability'.

Education for intellectal and moral development becomes increasingly relevant. The teacher becomes a facilitator whose role is to facilitate learning, encourage initiative, intrinsic motivation and learner self-evaluation. The facilitative teacher inspires the love for learning with a power which is greater than the power of direction - the power of example. Return to top of page/ Return to Introduction/ Return to Homepage Text for printout links: traditional education, traditional paradigm, extrinsic motivation, knowledge, rote learning, intrinsic motivation, work, self-evaluation, facilitator traditional education... Traditional education was conceived for purposes of training for the factory. traditional paradigm... In the traditional paradigm, education for the 'needs of the society' is necessarily task oriented and depends on the non-developing passive role of the student. Passive learning is evaluated using a punishment/reward system of 'grades'. extrinsic motivation... Motivation based on external or 'extrinsic' rewards is 'extrinsic motivation'. knowledge... In the traditional paradigm of education, emphasis is placed on the 'objective' aspects of learning or 'symbolic' knowledge and there is little concern for the subjective or 'intimate' knowledge of understanding. rote learning... Most learning is by a process of conditioning in which set patterns of facts and procedures are imposed on the brain by repetition and memorization i.e. rote learning. work... Personal development requires that learners evaluate their own achievement, their own 'work'. intrinsic motivation... Curiosity is the natural driving force for intrinsic motivation. self-evaluation... Needs for personal development require learners to evaluate their own achievement i.e. 'self-evaluation'. facilitator... The teacher becomes a facilitator who inspires the love for learning with the power of example respects the learner's intrinsic motivation, encourages initiative and self-evaluation.

EDUCATION FOR ADAPTABILITYAdaptation to the requirements of the new social structure depends on the individual's initiative and intrinsic motivation. Education for intellectal and moral development becomes increasingly relevant. Educate for maturity and the 'value-life'.

In the traditional behavioural teaching paradigm, evaluation of learning, knowledge and understanding is in the form of a conventional grading system ... knowledge and understanding are assessed and evaluated in terms of numerical scores, grades and grade averages.


...when grades are not a necessary aspect of their growth and development... (compare with natural learning as correction or error ...important aspect of growth and development)


 the grading system evaluates passive learning


Traditional methods of evaluation are the legacy of the 'traditional' curriculum conceived for the purposes of training individuals for the factory.

encourage the use of external motivating devices - tests, job opportunities etc...

Motivation is treated as if it depended on sources extrinsic to the individual action of study... 'extrinsic motivation'

emphasis is placed on the 'objective' aspects of learning - test scores, grades, diplomas, credentials, indicators of the learner's 'performance'. Grades are used to coerce children to 'perform' to their liking. They are used for the manipulation of children's thought and behavior patterns.

Grades provide a source for extrinsic motivation grades measure students 'performance' on tests of learners' superficial or 'symbolic' objective knowledge without subjective knowledge and understanding... symbolic knowledge of the conscious mind without subjective knowledge or understanding of the subconscious mind. Students depend on grades as an external source of motivation. Working for grades, students do not utilize all their powers of intrinsic motivation.
Learners are asked to cooperate with a competitive grading system which has little to do with their growth and development. They are deprived of the opportunity to learn how to evaluate their own work.

In school, good grades are the means to college. College education is for a 'good job'. Good job means good money and comfortable materialistic life.

The danger of the grading system - children evaluate their whole person on the basis of teachers' evaluations in terms of numerical grades. Grades are not perceived solely as an academic evaluation - children evaluate their whole person on the basis of their grade. Children naturally evaluate themselves. Adult evaluation influences their innate process of self-evaluation.
Children's capacity for inquiry and learning is hindered by teacher's focus on grades. Inspire children with love for learning, not love for grades. Materialist values are conveyed by focusing on grades. High grades foster false confidence. Low grades foster feelings of inferiority.

Power of example is greater than the power of direction. Teacher sets an example - meaning of 'role model'.

The emphasis on grades ....creates a stumbling block to effective learning and contributes to a decline in learner motivation.
Teachers' learner evaluations in terms of grades and grade averages... are only necessary... useful within the context of culturally based requirements and standards... industrialized cultures... The student depends on the teacher's evaluation in order to fulfill requirements of other educational institutions and eventually to find employment with industry, including the industry of education

becomes increasingly irrelevant ..to the needs of the individual in the modern post industrial age.

With emphasis on predetermined learning behaviour outcomes... conditioning in the reward and punishment system of 'grading' and evaluation with grades the inner life is ignored..

makes learners into prisoners of their own minds. ..The traditional paradigm of teaching... dependency on extrinsic rewards for learning is a likely cause for declining educational 'standards' ...is a likely cause for declining motivation
It is important to consider the effect of evaluation on the learner's self-concept. Simplistic evaluation and assessment (grades) can be destructive and demotivating. Dependence on extrinsic motivation the traditional paradigm of teaching... the traditional approach to education .....

The emphasis on a standardized grading system becomes counterproductive.

The reward and punishment system of grades and grade averages 'grading' and evaluation


Learners become dependent for their motivation on extrinsic rewards in the form of grades and grade averages... dependent on extrinsic motivation. Students depend on grades as an external source of motivation. Working for grades, the student does not utilize all their powers of... Learners who work for grades and grade averages as extrinsic rewards learn for expected learning outcomes. Depending on extrinsic motivation, the deprive themselves of the opportunity to utilize their own powers of intrinsic motivation.

They do not need a grading system to evaluate their own work.
They need a system of evaluation for their own work.

The student depends on the teacher's evaluation in order to fulfill requirements of other educational institutions and eventually to find employment with industry, including the industry of education.

Grades and grade averages are necessary in the context of the needs of other educational institutions and the demands for employment with industry and the 'industries' of the society, including the 'industry of education

In the traditional teaching paradigm, education for the 'needs of the society' is necessarily task oriented and depends on the non-developing passive role of the student.
Teachers are perceived as authorities who transmit information and attempt to motivate students to work. Teachers defend their status and unwittingly become the protectors of their institutions. They devise strategies or 'teaching techniques' such as the authoritarian approach of the lecture method. In the formal setting of the traditional classroom students are unable to benefit effectively and unable to think critically or gain an understanding of concepts. The teacher's evaluation of learning, knowledge and extent of their understanding is in the form of a reward and punishment system of grades and grade averages. With the use of the conventional grading system, learners rely for their motivation on the extrinsic motives for learning and become dependent on extrinsic motivation.

learners are evaluated on the basis of their ability to learn passively....passive learning is learning as if informatIon must be poured into the mind ... passive memorization of set patterns .. objective knowledge with little understanding - evaluated and measured in terms of a conventional standardized punishment/reward grading system.. numerical scores, grades and grade averages -Their learning becomes 'passive' and is assessed ... They are judged on the basis of their ability for passive learning...to learn passively. 'Passive teaching'- teaching as if information must be poured into childrens' heads - is destructive for children. The passive teacher makes a claim to a monopoly of the knowledge he teaches... emphasis on knowledge of factual data, students are not trained or encouraged to develop their innate reasoning powers - to learn how to think. ..Dependent on the expected outcomes In American educational institutions, teachers' performance is monitored. Student results are used to monitor the teacher's 'performance', so he gets to keep his job. Teachers are pressured by the demands of examination results, test scores etc. Teachers become concerned with the students 'performance' as a reflection on themselves rather than as a reflection of the student's own development. Their energies are deflected towards maintaining their own status. Under pressure to preserve their own positions, they become less concerned with their responsibility
towards the students themselves. Students' grades become advantage points for the teachers on the maintenance of their social positions.

method of evaluation in traditional paradigm - objective evaluation of performance on tests etc. helps to explain the 'mediocrity instead of greatness'.

Grades provide a source for extrinsic motivation. Learners become dependent for their motivation on extrinsic rewards for learning in the form of grades and grade averages... Working for grades they learn to depend on grades as an external source of motivation. ... dependent on extrinsic motivation, they are deprived of the opportunity...they fail to utilize their own powers of intrinsic motivation.

. Learners who work for grades and grade averages as extrinsic rewards learn for expected learning outcomes. Depending on extrinsic motivation, the deprive themselves of the opportunity to utilize their own powers of intrinsic motivation. Learners are asked to cooperate with a competitive grading system which has little to do with their growth and development. They are deprived of the opportunity to learn how to evaluate their own work. Teachers' learner evaluations in terms of grades and grade averages are only useful within the context of culturally based requirements and standards.

Teachers' learner evaluations in terms of grades and grade averages...

'Good grades mean a good job and good money'. In school, good grades are the means to college. College education is for a 'good job'. Good job means good money and comfortable life.

The danger of the grading system - children evaluate their whole person on the basis of their grade. Grades are not perceived solely as an academic evaluation. Children naturally evaluate themselves. Adult evaluation influences their innate process of self-evaluation. Grades are used to coerce children to 'perform' to their liking. They are used for the manipulation of children's thought and behavior patterns. Children's capacity for inquiry and learning is hindered by teacher's focus on grades. Inspire children with love for learning, not love for grades. Materialist values are conveyed by focusing on grades. Learning which involves a change in the perception of oneself - one's 'self-organization' - is threatening and tends to be resisted. When correction of errors and evaluation methods are threatening to the self, learning tends to be resisted.
Meaningful learning can only proceed in a climate in which it does not threaten one's perception of 'self' and one's 'self-organization'. When threat to the self is low, then experience is perceived and assimilated objectively, and correction is differentiated. Consequently the method of learner evaluation must account for the need for self-respect, for realistic self-confidence, for recognition of genuine achievement, and for the development of a positive self-image.
High grades foster false confidence. Low grades foster feelings of inferiority. Power of example is greater than the power of direction. Teacher sets an example - meaning of 'role model'

A grading system is not necessary for evaluation of one's own achievement. They do not need a grading system to evaluate their own work. They are deprived of the opportunity to learn how to evaluate their own work.
 

 

                             THE TRADITIONAL PARADIGM IS QUESTIONED TODAY

    Dependency on extrinsic rewards for learning is a likely cause for declining motivation i.e. ‘problem of motivation’. Consequently the pedagogical methods of the traditional paradigm are being questioned today.

 

link:  questioned

 

      THE INAPPROPRIACY OF THE TRADITIONAL PARADIGM IN THE POST INDUSTRIAL AGE

 

     "Surely an education designed for the nineteenth century industrial society does not address the needs of our time. Our schools do not speak to the confused, fearful condition of the young generation who must inherit this troubled culture and this threatened planet. Consequently, American education has entered a period of upheaval and conflict from which it cannot emerge unchanged. Corporate leaders call for 'excellence' and accountability, while mainstream politicians seek to educate for a globally competitive economic system; teachers demand greater professional autonomy, and minority communities and progressives work to make education responsive to a diverse multicultural society. Religious conservatives desert the public schools for more disciplined Christian academies and home-schooling, while more child-centred parents and educators seek greater freedom and meaningful learning for young people, sometimes through home-schooling as well. Some factions advocate greater choice, through vouchers or magnet schools, while others warn against abandoning the vision of common schooling. This last group will ultimately be the most disappointed, for the conflicts over education today result from the bare fact that there is no longer a societal consensus supporting the nineteenth century model of common schooling. A radically different paradigm, not yet clearly defined, is emerging." (Ron Miller, 1993. Renewal of Meaning in Education: Responses to the Cultural and Ecological Crisis of Our Times. Brandon, VT: Holistic Education Press.)

Theme: The traditional paradigm of education is inappropriate for the post-industrial age. What is needed is an education for adaptability to changing social conditions i.e. an education for responsible freedom i.e. ‘self-empowerment’.  Education for self-empowerment  based on learner interest. Emphasis is on the learning process and on the provision of appropriate learning environments which stimulate intrinsic motivation.

ORIGIN OF THE TRADITIONAL PARADIGM In the nineteenth century, a paradigm of education was conceived and institutionalized within the framework of industrialism i.e. ‘traditional paradigm’. Schools were designed for the needs of industry. The implicit goal of hierarchical and assembly line education was student understanding of textbook knowledge. A fragmented curriculum was designed to transfer knowledge, impose academic requirements and inculcate ethical codes which would be appropriate for the 'needs of society'. Traditional methods of pedagogy were justified by the principles of 'behavioural science'.

TEACHER'S FUNCTION IN THE TRADITIONAL PARADIGM In the traditional paradigm, pedagogical aims are perceived in terms of training young people for work in an industrial society. Procedures and strategies are formulated on the basis of authoritarian concepts of teaching. Teachers are perceived as authorities who have the power to transmit the knowledge which they have to those who don't. The teacher's function is to devise the right 'teaching techniques' in the formal setting of the classroom in order to motivate students to work.  The authoritarian approach of the lecture method places the emphasis on factual data and textbook knowledge. Teachers as authorities  unwittingly end up defending their status and protecting their institutions.      

NON-DEVELOPING ROLE OF THE STUDENT The traditional paradigm of education for the 'needs of society' is necessarily task oriented. Task oriented learning is evaluated in terms of predetermined outcomes of 'learning behaviour'. Knowledge and understanding are measured in terms of a reward and punishment system of teacher evaluation i.e. ’grades’. Task-oriented education implies a submissive approach to learning and depends on the non-developing passive role of the student. The passive role of the student is the cause for declining motivation which is at the root of the educational crisis i.e. the 'problem of motivation'. It is the problem of motivation which puts into question the hierarchical and mechanical methodology of the traditional paradigm of education.

IRRESPONSIBILITY OF TRADITIONAL EDUCATION IN TODAY'S WORLD In the traditional paradigm, there is little connection between curriculum material and problem solving life experience. Emphasis on the authoritarian approach ignores the human capacity for reflection and the natural development of inductive reasoning or 'thinking'. Students learn to rely for their motivation on the extrinsic rewards for learning   they become dependent on ‘extrinsic motivation’.

Their dependence on extrinsic motivation is a likely cause for declining educational standards and so-called 'student mediocrity'. Mediocrity in education is a result of student incapacity for critical thinking and conceptual understanding.      Pedagogical methods of traditional education neglect to cultivate the individual's natural capacities for adaptation to changing social conditions. They are no longer relevant for the demands of social adaptation to the age of information and mass communication. They fail to meet the challenges of complex learning for meaningful living in a complex environment. They are irresponsible because they ignore the child's inner life and inner experiencing. They deny those learning experiences which are meaningful and joyful because they encourage motivation  while learning i.e. 'intrinsic motivation’.

It is the passive role of the student  which is the cause for declining motivation i.e.  the 'problem of motivation'.The problem of motivation is at the root  of the 'educational crisis'.

    The traditional paradigm of education has become too limited because it is lacking in vision and wisdom. Based on the mistrust of human potentialities for responsible socialization, it ignores the human potential for moral growth and development. It inhibits intellectual growth and the development of personality. It prevents the individual from developing a personal capacity for decision making and creativity. It discourages the development of the human capacity to benefit effectively from learning experience, to see the connections between learning and life and to understand the positive aspects of responsibility. This creates the gap between so-called 'knowledge' and growth which is intellectual, emotional, psychological and moral as well. As a result of this anomalous social condition, the individual becomes incompetent and incapacitated. 

     Traditional teaching methods are irresponsible because they are not based on the human potential for intellectual and moral development. They continue to promote the myths of capitalismand foster the values of consumerism and the illusions of material 'happiness'. In this way they fail to prepare the young to meet the challenges of complex learning for meaningful living in a complex world. They obscure the real challenges of learning for meaningful living and the realities of what it takes to realize one's hopes and dreams. They ignore the inner experiencing of the human inner life. They deny those learning experiences  which are meaningful and joyful because they encourage motivation while learning i.e.  'intrinsic motivation'.

     The traditional teaching paradigm for the 'needs of society' is no longer responsible. As the result of political, social and economic changes, there is a general demand for the democratisation of education. Every individual has the right to an education which provides the opportunity to develop the powers of intrinsic motivation. Education based on intrinsic motivation fosters growth through learning or 'self-empowerment' . Education for self-empowerment fosters the individual's ability to adapt to changing social conditions i.e. social adaptation or 'adaptability'. Adaptability depends on the ability to learn, to relearn and to grow through learning. Growth through learning enables the individual to adapt to changing social conditions. emphasizes the learning process. Education for adaptability is education for self-empowerment a function of... responsible freedom or 'libratory education'..

                                                  

 

 Theme:  Dependency on extrinsic rewards for learning or 'extrinsic motivation' is a likely cause for declining motivation ... for declining educational 'standards' and the so-called 'educational crisis'. Consequently the pedagogical methods of the traditional paradigm are seriously questioned today. What is needed is an education for social adaptation or 'adaptability' as the ability to adapt to changing social conditions i.e an education for self-empowerment or 'freedom'. A self-empowering education emphasizes the learning process and motivation for learning which is based on learner interest. Only with growth through learning and the ability to learn and relearn can the individual adapt to changing social conditions.

 "Surely an education designed for the nineteenth century industrial society does not address the needs of our time. Our schools do not speak to the confused, fearful condition of the young generation who must inherit this troubled culture and this threatened planet. Consequently, American education has entered a period of upheaval and conflict from which it cannot emerge unchanged. Corporate leaders call for 'excellence' and accountability, while mainstream politicians seek to educate for a gobally competitive economic system; teachers demand greater professional autonomy, and minority communities and progressives work to make education responsive to a diverse multicultural society. Religious conservatives desert the public schools for more disciplined Christian academies and homeschooling, while more child-centered parents and educators seek greater freedom and meaningful learning for young people, sometimes through homeschooling as well. Some factions advocte greater choice, through vouchers or magnet schools, while others warn against abandoning the vision of common schooling. This last group will ultimately be the most disappointed, for the conflicts over education today result from the bare fact that there is no longer a societal consensus supporting the nineteenth century model of common schooling. A radically different paradigm, not yet clearly defined, is emerging." ( Ron Miller, 1993. Renewal of Meaning in Education: Responses to the Cultural and Ecological Crisis of Our Times. Brandon, VT: Holistic Education Press.)                             

                                                                                 

 

traditional education and behavioural paradigm...        teacher's function and 'teaching techniques'...  

problem of motivation explained away as 'student mediocrity'...   

  mistrust of human potential impedes development of responsible socialisation... 

 traditional paradigm is inappropriate for today's world...  

 what is needed today is new educational theory of holistic paradigm...

 

Traditional paradigm of education: 'behavioural paradigm' In the nineteenth century, the 'traditional' paradigm of education was conceived and institutionalized within the framework of industrialism. The implicit understanding of the aim of education was the acquisition of objective 'knowledge' of textbook material through conditioned learning or 'conditioning'. Conditioning involves memorization or 'rote learning'. Rote learning is considered to be valid when the aim of education is to train for work in the factory. The hierarchical and assembly line approach to education is based on the assumption that acquisition of knowledge or 'learning' only takes place in 'school' and that education is the same as 'training' or 'schooling'. The aim of schooling is to impose academic requirements and inculcate those ethical codes which are considered important for the 'needs of society'. Justification for traditional pedagogical methods by the principles of 'behavioural science' or 'behaviourism' is the basis for the 'behavioural paradigm' of education. The behavioural paradigm promotes task-oriented education with a view to meeting requirements  of predetermined outcomes of 'learning behaviour' or 'learning outcomes'. The degree of success in learning is evaluated and measured in terms of a reward and punishment system of points and 'grades'.

Teacher's function is to devise 'teaching techniques' In the behavioural paradigm of education the teacher's function is to devise the right 'teaching techniques' for motivating students to work towards completion of given tasks and achievement of good grades. Task-oriented learning is defined in terms of the acquisition and 'possession' of knowledge considered to be static and 'finite'. The curriculum is fragmented and emphasis is placed on factual data and isolated information of textbook knowledge. There is little connection between curriculum material and problem solving life experience. Procedures and strategies are formulated in terms of 'passive learning' and 'authoritarian teaching'. The teacher' is perceived as an authority who has the power to transmit the knowledge which they possess to the 'student' who does not possess is the same knowledge i.e. the 'student/teacher contradiction' of 'banking education'. Authoritarian teaching makes use of the lecture method in the formal setting of the classroom. Since teachers are  authorities by virtue of their power of the transmission of knowledge, they unwittingly end up defending their status and protecting their institutions. They neglect student concerns for their own development - intellectual, emotional, psychological i.e. 'moral development'. Lack of concern for personal development is the probable cause for the so-called 'educational crisis'.

The educational crisis is ultimately due to the mistrust of human potential i.e. the 'human personality' or 'human nature'.

Open to serious question is the asssumption that the possession of knowledge brings with it the power to control the future. ( Norman Goble. The Function of Teaching 55)

Problem of motivation is explained away as so called 'student mediocrity'  Task-oriented education implies a submissive approach to learning and depends on the non-developing passive role of the student. Student passivity leads to declining motivation and the 'problem of motivation'. It is the problem of motivation which puts into question the hierarchical and mechanical methodologies of the behavioural paradigm of education. Emphasis on the authoritarian approach ignores the human capacity for reflection and the natural development of 'conceptual understanding' and inductive reasoning or 'critical thinking'. Students learn to rely for their motivation on the external or 'exrinsic rewards' for learning i.e. ‘extrinsic motivation’.

 

Their dependence on extrinsic motivation is a likely cause for the declining educational standards which are attributed to so-called 'student mediocrity'.

 

Mistrust of human potential impedes development of responsible socialisation or 'social intelligence' Pedagogical methods of traditional education neglect to cultivate the individual's natural capacities for adaptation to the complexities of rapidly changing social conditions i.e. 'social intelligence'. Social intelligence is a function of responsible socialization which depends on development of the human potential for moral and intellectual growth to maturity i.e. 'self-actualisation'. Self-actualisation engages the individual's personal capacity for decision-making, creativity and productiveness or 'work'. Work which is meaningful enhances the development of the capacity to see the connections between learning and life i.e.learning from experience or 'experiential learning'. Experiential learning is a function of the integration of learning with growth or 'growth through learning'.

 

Failure to integrate learning with growth results in a the individuals's sense of alienation and ultimately to a sense of incompetence and incapacitation i.e. 'adult immaturity'.

 

   Traditional education is no longer appropriate for today's world

 Institutionalized education with its emphasis on conditioning and behavioral outcomes is no longer relevant in the times of mass communications and the 'global village'....etc. As well as the sequential printed word, information is derived from multisensory sources of various forms and intensities. The complexity of information requires the brain to process simultaneously multitudinous stimuli - sights, sounds, images, ideas and others. For the purpose of survival, the brain must be able to derive meaning from a complex environment. The educational paradigm of industrialsism and behaviorism has become too limited. The educational experience for growing children is no longer a matter of simple preparation for a future working life. The educational experience must enable them to adapt to a changing environment and changing circumstances. It must prepare them for personal fulfillment and a life of change. It must engage their full capacity for learning, and for learning to learn. For a future of change and a global perspective in the global village, their subjective life must become of paramount concern in education. It is no longer possible to ignore their inner experience.

The behavioural paradigm of traditional education lacks vision and wisdom and is therefore limited and so inappropriate for the social needs of post-industrial society. It is no longer relevant for adaptability to the social demands of the age of mass communications or 'information age'. It fails to meet the challenges of complex learning for meaningful living in the complex world of the 'global village'. It continues to promote the myths of capitalism, to teach the values of materialism and consumerism and to foster the illusions of so-called material 'happiness'. It obscures the real challenges of complex learning. It fails to prepare the young for the realities of what it takes to realize their hopes and dreams. It is irresponsible because it does not respect or even recognize the human potential for intellectual and moral development. It ignores the inner life and the inner experiencing of the developing individual and denies those learning experiences which are meaningful and joyful because they encourage motivation which is intrinsic to natural learning i.e. intrinsic motivation'. Intrinsic motivation,  a function of the 'prefrontal lobes', is characteristic of the human organism as a social organism which depends on responsible education for development of social intelligence in order to adapt to changing social conditions i.e. social adaptation or 'adaptability'. Adaptability depends on the ability to learn, to relearn and to grow through learning. Education for social adaptability engages development of the powers of intrinsic motivation or 'self-empowerment'.

 

Self-empowerment depends on experiential learning which leads to understanding of the positive aspects of the responsibilities of 'freedom'.

 What is needed today is a new paradigm based on new educational theory... 'holistic education': teacher as 'facilitator of learning' Development of responsibility of freedom is the aim of education today. As a result of political, social and economic changes there is a general demand for the democratisation of education. There is a demand for respect for the right of every human being to be offered an education which provides for the development of self-empowerment required for adaptability in the context of any culture... 'cultural context'.  Education for self-empowerment is education of the whole person i.e. 'holistic education' or 'libratory pedagogy'. Libratory pedagogy emphasizes the learning process and is based on learner interest. Appropriate teaching techniques are concerned with the provision of learning environments which stimulate intrinsic motivation and engage development of the personality i.e. 'character'. An individual's character is defined by the degree of moral consciousness i.e. 'conscience' or 'soul'. 

In the paradigm of holistic education the teacher's role is defined as 'facilitator of learning'.                  

"What is needed is a framework for a more complex form of learning that makes it possible for us to organize and make sense of what we already know about educational theory and methods... Such a framework has to have a 'bottom line' integrity; for us that means it must integrate human behaviour and perception, emotions and physiology. To make our point, we borrow heavily from cognitive psychology, education, philosophy, sociology, science and technology, the new physics, and physiological responses to stress, as well as the neurosciences." (Caine, Renate Nummela and Geoffrey Caine. Making Connections: Teaching and the Human Brain. page viii)

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Traditional' methods in schools have not prepared students for the impact of electronic technology and the resulting complexity of life. Instead of preparing students for complex learning and a complex life, schools have fostered their illusions and obscured the real challenges of living. Students have not been motivated to think and talk about their own intellectual, emotional and moral development. They have been inhibited from developing their own natural capacities for to personal creativity and intellectual growth. The emphasis on predetermined outcomes has deprived students of the opportunity to develop a personal capacity for decision making. The emphasis on reward and punishment has deprived them of experiencing the real joys of learning. The schools have failed in their responsibility to teach students the positive aspects of responsibility to themselves. They have failed to teach them the real challenges involved in the realization of their own hopes and dreams. They have failed to prepare them for the demands of complex learning in a complex environment. Based on the assumptions of industrialism and behaviorism, they have failed as institutions of learning. They have institutionalized 'education' so that it has become little more than a process of 'human engineering.' Based on the assumptions of industrialism and behaviorism, the traditional teaching methods have been used in the institutionalization of education. As institutions of learning, schools have become little more than institutions of 'human engineering'. (Illich Deschooling Society)

With continued implementation of the 'traditional' methods in schools, students have not been prepared for the impact of the complexity of the information technology. Schools have not prepared students for complex learning in a complex environment. Instead, schools have fostered their illusions and obscured the real challenges of living in a complex world. Students have not been encouraged to think and talk about their own intellectual, emotional and moral development. The 'traditional' teaching methods inhibit the brain's natural capacities for creative intelligence and personal growth and development - intellectual, emotional and moral. Emphasis on predetermined outcomes and prescriptive learning inhibits the brain's natural capacity for decision making based on experiential learning. Emphasis on reward and punishment system of 'grading' and evaluation discourages the learner's ability to experience the real joys of learning. With the imposition of external authority, traditional methods discourage the individual learner from understanding the positive aspects of self-responsibility. They inhibit the individual's natural striving for self-preservation and self-realization. In fostering social myths and illusions of material 'happiness', the traditional methods obscure the real challenges of living. They prevent the individual from developing the critical consciousness necessary for self-preservation and self-realization. They fail to prepare the individual for meaningful living in a complex environment.

It was based on a set of assumptions such as 'knowledge implies the power to control the future', 'knowledge confers status' and so on.

 Notions such as these are prevalent in educational systems which are based on authoritarianism and resistance to the freedom of expression which is perceived as threatening to the dominant order.

The implicit goal of the hierarchical and assembly line education was to prepare for the 'needs of society' and schools were designed to provide for the needs of an industrial society.

A fragmented curriculum was designed in order to transfer the knowledge, impose the academic requirements and inculcate the ethical codes which were appropriate to the needs of the society.

Pedagogical aims were conceived in terms of teaching and learning strategies using an authoritarian approach to teaching and a submissive approach to learning.

The function of the teacher was to use the various 'teaching techniques' for motivating students to do work.

 In the traditional teaching paradigm, emphasis is on factual data and textbook knowledge.

 In the traditional paradigm of education, the goals of education have been shaped by the worldview of reductionist science.

Learning is task oriented and evaluated in terms of predetermined learning outcomes in the formal setting of the classroom.

Methods of evaluation of learning, knowledge and understanding are in the form of a conventional reward and punishment system of grades and grade averages.

Teachers in their role as authorities, unwittingly defend their status and protect their institutions.

Students learn to rely for their motivation on the extrinsic rewards for learning and they become dependent on extrinsic motivation.

The non-developing passive role of the student is a likely cause for declining educational 'standards' characteristic of the so-called 'crisis' in education.

Consequently, the mechanical methodology of the traditional paradigm is seriously questioned today.

 Traditional teaching methods are irresponsible because they do not encourge the development of the human capacity for understanding the connections between learning and life... is little connection between curriculum material and life experience... an inability to benefit effectively from learning experience.

They prevent the development of the positive aspects of responsibility.

They continue to promote the myths of capitalism, to reproduce the values of consumerism and to foster the illusions of material 'happiness'.

They obscure the real challenges of learning for meaningful living ...the realities of what it takes to realize one's own hopes and dreams.

 Based on the mistrust of human potentialities for responsible socialization, they ignore the human potential for moral growth and development and they inhibit intellectual growth.

They obstruct the human capacity for reflection and reason or 'thinking' and the development of personality with its personal capacity for decision making and creativity.

They deny learning experiences which are meaningful and joyful. They discourage the learner's motivation while learning or 'intrinsic motivation'.

They ignore the inner experiencing of the human inner life. Thought and discussion about issues affecting intellectual, emotional and moral growth necessary... the development of inductive reasoning, critical thinking and critical consciousness are required for the development of the human capacity for solving human problems of self-preservation and self-realization i.e. 'social adaptation'.

Methods of the traditional paradigm obstruct the natural capacity for social adaptation.

They neglect the learner's natural capacities for adaptation to changing social conditions.

Denial of the opportunity to develop personal creativity prevents the development of self-confidence and self-discipline necessary for a life of self-fulfillment and achievement.

The mind becomes a prisoner of itself. A gap is created between superficial knowledge and growth which is intellectual, emotional, psychological and moral as well.

The resulting incompetence and incapacitation for meeting the challenges of complex learning in a complex world leads to nonadaptive and destructive behaviour.

In view of the current explosion of knowledge and the continuous challenge to the validity of orthodox opinion, the education which was designed for the nineteenth century industrial society has become too limited.

It is no longer relevant for life in the post-industrial age of mass communications.

Lacking in both vision and wisdom, The traditional teaching paradigm does not address children's needs.

 The educational experience for growing children is a matter of preparation for a working life but life has changed.

Social adaptation depends on an education which goes beyond the strictly task-oriented schooling.

Children need to be prepared for a life of change.

Adaptation to changing environments and changing social conditions depends on the development of the human capacity for intelligent decision-making and personal creativity... on the capacity for learning in the context of experience.

Learning is a natural process in the individual's adaptation to changing social conditions.

Education which is responsible educates for adaptability to the complexities of life and to changing social conditions i.e. for social intelligence.

Essential for complex learning is the ability to grasp the links and make connections between learning and life experience.

Responsible education is based on the recognition and respect for the inner life and the inner needs which lead to the child's complete psychological, emotional and intellectual development.

For a future of change from a global perspective, it is no longer possible to ignore the individual's inner experience.

The newly emerging paradigm of wholistic education is based on the paramount concern for the learner's inner life ...the necessary conditions for intellectual, emotional, psychological and moral development.

In the new paradigm of teaching, the notion that a teacher's function is to impart facts has become invalid... the teacher's function is regarded as authoritative and facilitative rather than authoritarian and controlling.

The teacher's function is to facilitate meaningful learning providing a growth-promoting climate with opportunities for growth through learning... intrinsic motivation and self-evaluation.

 

Education for self-empowerment is 'liberatory education'

There is a general demand for the democritization of education and the recognition of the right to an education which provides the opportunity to develop the powers of intrinsic motivation for self-empowerment.

What is needed today is a new educational theory. What is needed is an education which fosters the individual's ability to adapt to changing social conditions i.e. social adaptation or 'adaptability'. Adaptability depends on the ablity to learn and relearn.

Education for adaptability is education which emphasizes the learning process.

Educational theory and practice is based on motivation for learning which involves learner interest or 'intrinsic motivation'.

Education based on intrinsic motivation is education for 'self - empowerment'. Education for self-empowerment is 'liberatory education'.

Liberatory education fosters growth through learning.

Students learn to rely for their motivation on the extrinsic rewards for learning and they become dependent on extrinsic motivation. Methods of the traditional paradigm obstruct the development of the natural capacity for social adaptation.

 

 

  Dependency on extrinsic rewards for learning is a likely cause for declining educational 'standards' in the modern post industrial age and the traditional paradigm is questioned today.

 During the twentieth century, the traditional paradigm of education was conceived and institutionalized within the framework of industrialism and behaviourism. Schools were designed to provide an education for the needs of an industrial society. Pedagogical aims were perceived in terms of teaching and learning methods, procedures and strategies which were oriented towards the training of young people for work in the an industrial society. The implicit goal of traditional education was education for the 'needs of the society' and is concerned with the transfer of knowledge, the imposition of academic requirements and the inculcation of ethical codes. Using the authoritarian approach of the lecture method, the teacher's function is to emphasize textbook knowledge and devise strategies and 'teaching techniques' for motivating students to work. Methods of evaluation of learning, knowledge and understanding are in the form of a conventional reward and punishment system of grades and grade averages. In their role as authorities, teachers unwittingly defend their status and protect their institutions. Students learn to rely for their motivation on the extrinsic rewards for learning, depending on extrinsic motivation - a likely cause for declining educational 'standards'. The hierarchical and mechanical school environment of traditional education is seriously questioned today. The traditional teaching paradigm is irresponsible education because it continues to promote the myths of capitalism, to foster the illusions of material 'happiness', to reproduce the values of a consumer culture and in this way to obscure the real challenges of living and the realities of what it takes to realize one's hopes and dreams. It fails to meet the challenges of complex learning for meaningful living in a complex environment. It is irresponsible because it ignores the child's inner life and inner experiencing. It denies learning experiences which are meaningful and joyful because they encourage motivation while learning i.e intrinsic motivation. It mistrusts the human potential for moral development. It obstructs intellectual growth and the development of personality with its personal capacity for decision making and creativity. It neglects to foster the individual's natural capacities for adaptation to changing social conditions. It prevents the experiencing and the development of the positive aspects of responsibility to oneself as well as to others. This leads to the inability to benefit effectively from learning experiences and to grasp the link between learning and life. The traditional paradigm is based on a set of assumptions which should be identified and questioned. Is it true that knowledge implies the power to control the future? Does knowledge really confer status? This notion is predominant in those educational systems in which authoritarianism results in the resistance to any expression which is perceived as a threat to authority. The fragmented and assembly line education of the traditional paradigm places emphasis on knowledge of factual data, predetermined learning and behaviour outcomes, reward and punishment evaluation with little connection between curriculum material and problem solving life experiences. In the formal setting of the classroom, learning is task oriented and depends on the non-developing passive role of the student. This inhibits thought and discussion about issues which affect one's intellectual, emotional and moral growth necessary for self-realization and self-preservation. It actually prevents the development of the learner's natural capacity for understanding the connections between their learning and their life experience and their problems. It obstructs the development of the human capacity for reason i.e. the capacity to 'think'. Reasoning and thought are required for intellectual and moral growth of responsible social beings. The development of inductive reasoning, critical thinking and critical consciousness forms the basis of a conceptual understanding of human problems. Denial of the opportunity to develop personal creativity prevents the development of self-confidence and self-discipline necessary for a life of self-fulfillment and achievement. The mind becomes a prisoner of itself. A gap is created between superficial knowledge and growth which is intellectual, emotional, psychological and moral as well. The resulting incompetence and incapacitation for meeting the challenges of complex learning in a complex world leads to nonadaptive and destructive behaviour. Today, the fragmented and assembly line approach to education has become too limited. In view of the current explosion of knowledge and the continuous challenge to the validity of orthodox opinion, the education which was designed for the nineteenth century industrial society lacks both vision and wisdom. The traditional teaching paradigm is no longer relevant for living in the modern post-industrial age of mass communications in a global village. Children's needs are not addressed. Social adaptation depends on an education which goes beyond the strictly task-oriented schooling. The educational experience for growing children is a matter of preparation for a working life but life has changed. Children need to be prepared for a life of change. Adaptation to changing environments and changing social conditions depends on the development of the human capacity for intelligent decision-making and personal creativity... on the capacity for learning in the context of experience. Learning is a natural process with the function's in the individual's adaptation to changing social conditions. Education which is responsible educates for adaptability to the complexities of life and to changing social conditions i.e. for social intelligence. Essential for complex learning is the ability to grasp the links and make connections between learning and life experience. Responsible education is based on the recognition and respect for the inner life and the inner needs which lead to the child's complete psychological, emotional and intellectual development. For a future of change from a global perspective, it is no longer possible to ignore the individual's inner experience. The newly emerging paradigm of wholistic education is based on a paramount concern which is the learner's inner life and the necessary conditions for the learner's intellectual, emotional, psychological and moral development. In the new paradigm of teaching, the notion that a teacher's function is to impart facts has become invalid... the teacher's function is regarded as authoritative and facilitative rather than authoritarian and controlling. The teacher's function is to facilitate meaningful learning providing a growth-promoting climate with opportunities for growth through learning... intrinsic motivation and self-evaluation. There is a general demand for the democritization of education and the recognition of the right to an education for self-empowerment.

 student/teacher contradiction: In the institution of the school, the function of the teacher is measured by the difference in knowledge level with the student and in this way is formalized. On the basis of the assumption that knowledge is "finite and unchanging the student is expected to memorize and 'possess' the knowledge transmitted by the teacher whose function as a 'monopolist' (making a claim to a monopoly of knowledge) is to concentrate on "artificial and arbitrary kinds of scholarship." Open to serious question is the assumption that the possession of knowledge brings with it the power to control the future. The notion that a teacher is there to impart facts or demonstrate skills implies a set of social and cultural objectives that are inappropriate in face of the current explosion of knowledge and its continuous challenge to the validity of orthodox opinion, and in face of the general demand for the democritization of education. Institutionalized within the framework of industrialism and behaviorism, the traditional paradigm has become too limited. Instead of preparing students for life, traditional methods of education obscure the real challenges of living, deny their inner experience, and foster the illusions of material 'happiness' and the myths of capitalism .

Education for the 'needs of the society' becomes task oriented and lacks vision and wisdom. It is no longer relevant for living in the these times of mass communications in the global village. It does not prepare the leaaner for the impact of electronic technology and the resulting complexity of life. The educational experience for growing children is no longer a matter of simple preparation for a working life. Instead as children grow up, they must learn to be prepared for a life of complex learning, a life of change, and a life of personal fulfillment. They must be able to adapt a changing environment and changing circumstances. They must be able to engage their full capacity for learning and leanning how to learn.

 For a future of change and a global perspective in the global village, it is no longer possible to ignore the learner's inner experience. The new paradigm of education has one paramount concern - the learner's inner life. The hierarchical and mechanical school environment of traditional education is viewed differently from the perspective of this new framework. With the traditional methods of teaching, learners are deprived of the opportunity to develop their natural capacity to grasp the relationship between learning and life experience. With a fragmented and assembly line education, learners are deprived of learning experiences which are meaningful and joyful. With emphasis on conditioning in the reward and punishme

          

                              FUNDAMENTAL SHIFT FROM 'REDUCTIONISM' TO 'HOLISTIC SCIENCE': IMPLICATIONS FOR EDUCATION

            (Failed education is ultimately due to the basic mistrust of human potential and the 'human personality' i.e. 'human nature')

 

theme:  

There is a fundamental shift in the conceptualization of 'teaching' and 'learning'.

The traditional approach to education is seriously questioned today and there is a fundamental shift in the philosophical paradigm of education.The institutionalized form of education with its emphasis on conditioning and behavioral outcomes is no longer relevant in the times of mass communications and the 'global village'. A new paradigm is emerging which emphasizes the  process of learning or 'cognition'. The 'cognitive' or 'holistic' paradigm emphasizes the interrelationships between parts and wholes as in the science of 'wholeness' or 'connectedness' i.e. 'holistic science'.

  "The transformation we are experiencing now may well be more dramatic than any of the preceding ones, because the rate of change in our age is faster than ever before, because the changes are more extensive, involving the entire globe, and because several major transitions are coinciding. The rhythmic recurrences and patterns of rise and decline that seem to dominate human cultural evolution have somehow conspired to reach their points of reversal at the same time. The decline of patriarchy, the end of the fossil-fuel age, and the paradigm shift occuriring in the twilight of the sensate culture are all contributing to the same global process. The current crisis, therefore, is not just a crisis of individuals, governments, or social institutions; it is a transition of planetary dimensions. As individuals, as a society, as a civilization, and as a planetary ecosystem, we are reaching the turning point." ( Fritjof Capra. 1982. The Turning Point: Science, Society and the Rising Culture. New York: Simon and Schuster, page 33)

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traditional paradigm:   mechanical paradigm and mechanistic theories of learning...

                          traditional  paradigm as 'behavioural paradigm...   teacher's function and 'teaching techniques'...  student/teacher contradiction...

                                      loss of sense of wholeness or 'holistic perception'....

 shift:  institutionalized education with its emphasis on conditioning and behavioral outcomes is no longer relevant in the times of mass communications and the 'global village'...

           there is a fundamental shift in the philosophical paradigm of education as a result of recent findings in brain research...

The attention of educators is being shifted towards the biological basis of the human potential for learning and thinking.

human organism: the human organism is ultimately interdependent with the rest of the biota.

                             human ability to adapt to changing social conditions... 'adaptability'... depends on social intelligence

                             

holistic paradigm: successful teaching methodologies are those which recognize and encourage the learning process as a natural phenomenon...

                              systems approach...

 

     "The fact that we are shifting from a Cartesian view of the universe, in which the accent has been on parts and elements, to a configuration view, with emphasis on wholes and patterns, challenges every single dividing line between areas of study and knowledge." (Peter Drucker. The Age of Discontinuity. New York: Harper and Row 1969)

Mechanical paradigm and mechanistic theories of learning... fragmentation, competition, separateness, regularity, order, precision, and predicatability... need to control
The root metaphors of modern Western culture have been produced by scientific worldviews or 'paradigms'. For the past four hundred years, Western culture has evolved within the Cartesian paradigm (Descartes) which emphasizes parts and elements. The Newtonian paradigm is based on the assumption that reality is reducable to discrete parts. Its basic metaphor is the machine. The goals of science have been directed to the control of nature including human nature. Overemphasis on the Newtonian metaphors - man-centered mechanistic or mechanical universe, dualistic reality, neutral technology and individualism - has produced today's multifacted global crisis. The traditional mechanistic theories of learning have been formulated in the Newtonian paradigm which sees the world in a mechanical way... the paradigm of the behavioral sciences or 'behaviourism'. According to behaviourism, According to the mechanical paradigm, learning is regarded as the outcome of neurological stimulus and response.... learning is governed by the reward and punishment system of grades and scores... the model learner is regarded as passive and reactive. . Subject matter is taught and learned by techniques of fragmentation and memorization. The teacher is a monopolist of knowledge. traditional teaching methods have been based on the assumption that reality is reducable to discrete parts.Human knowledge is fragmented into separate unrelated subjects which rarely relate to the realities of experience. Curricula are designed so that there is little connection to other knowledge. With little connection to other knowledge, subject matter has been taught and learned by fragmentation and memorization. In the traditional paradigm, the major purpose of schooling is to preserve the hegemony of the established culture by inducting each new generation into the dominant worldview... Human values are viewed as subjective evaluations... emotions and feelings are not trusted. Values and emotions are thought to distort the world of objective fact and are not taken into account in descriptions of the way things are i.e. 'reality.' They are taught to have faith in the external authority of 'scientific experts' and orthodox science which denies the validity of feelings of humility, reverence, mystery, wonder, and awe. Orthodox science is desacralized because it is cut off from the most real aspect of reality which is awareness or 'consciousness'.

Traditional or 'behavioural paradigm' and pragmatic function of education: emphasis on the acquisition of 'objective knowledge'

 Justification for the traditional pragmatic function of education was found in the principles of behavioral psychology and its emphasis on conditioned learning.

The traditional teaching paradigm equates education with task-oriented education or 'schooling'. The goals of education are shaped by the worldview of 'reductionist science' or 'reductionism'. According to the reductionist paradigm, perception of reality without participation of the observer results in 'objectivity'. Objectivity as the product of observer detachment is assumed to be a valid basis for the methodology of scientific activity i.e. 'scientific method'. The subjectivity or 'inner life' of the observer is not recognized as contributing valid evidence of a scientific nature. Even the reality of being human is defined in terms of 'classical science' or 'scientism'. With its bias towards completely objective knowledge, scientism has had a direct impact on educational philosophy and the science of teaching or 'pedagogy'. The traditional perception of pedagogy is shaped by scientific empiricism and its application to the science of human behaviour i.e. 'behavioural science' or 'behaviourism'. According to behaviourism learning is a matter of 'conditioned behaviour' or 'conditioning'. The notion of learning as conditioning has had a direct influence on educational policy. Goals of learning are formulated in terms of shaping overt human behaviour in the form of specific 'learning outcomes'.

 Learning outcomes are defined in terms of so-called 'objective knowledge' assumed to be finite and unchanging and valued in terms of its usefulness.

 The teacher's function is to devise 'teaching techniques' In the behavioural paradigm the teacher's function is formalized in terms of a monopoly of objective knowledge and justified by learner ignorance. Procedures and strategies are formulated in terms of learning which does not engage personality development i.e. 'passive learning' and the authority of the teacher by virtue of their power to transmit knowledge i.e. 'authoritarian teaching'. According to the 'student-teacher contradiction' of 'banking education' the 'teacher' has the power to transmit  knowledge which they 'possess' to the 'student' who is ignorant of the same knowledge and is conditioned to memorise or 'learn by rote'. Rote learning implies that learning is detached from subjective experience. Emphasis is on factual data and isolated information of a fragmented curriculum which has little connection with problem solving life experience. The function of the teacher is to devise the right 'teaching techniques' for motivating students to work towards completion of tasks and achievement of good scores or 'grades'. The authoritarian teacher unwittingly ends up defending their status, protecting their institution and neglecting student concerns for personal development  - intellectual, emotional, psychological i.e. 'moral development'.

 Lack of interest in student concerns results in declining motivation.  

 

 "Schools don't really teach anything but how to obey orders... Although teachers do care, and do work very, very hard, the institution is psychopathic; it has no conscience." (John Gatto An Award-Winning Teacher Speaks Out. Utne Reader March 1992 page 73)
 

Loss of sense of wholeness or 'holistic perception' The scientific tradition of the traditional paradigm is based on the notion of observer detachment and objectivity which led to  concepts of individual freedom or 'individuality'. True individuality does not exclude a sense of 'oneness' or 'wholeness' with the the natural world... universe... i.e. global or  'holistic perception'. Individuality as alienation in its extreme form is a matter of relating to others in terms of their usefulness... treating them like objects. Under these conditions so-called 'education' is little more than a process of human engineering for specifically desired purposes.

Alienation of education from human nature deprives the learner of the psychological value of creativity and productiveness i.e. 'work'.   

The 'problem of motivation' as the root cause of the so-called 'educational crisis' is the reason that the traditional paradigm is seriously questioned today.

 "There is a new 'paradigm' - a change in consciousness from seeing the world in a mechanical way (Newtonian paradigm of regularity, order, precisipon, and predicatability). The new dialectic between 'phenomenon and perception' - puts more emphasis on human response and subjectivity. In this new paradigm, our understanding of the world - reality - is mediated by language, beliefs, values, and ways of being... Our perception and images of the world affect our experience of the world." (David Purpel, 1989. The Moral and Spiritual Crisis in Education: A Curriculum for Justice and Compassion in Education. Masschusetts, Bergin and Garvey Publishers, Inc. 133)

"...for half a century we have been in the midst of a ... conceptual revolution that is once again changing the scientist's conception of space, matter, force, and the structure of the universe." (Kuhn T. "The Copernican Revolution" Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press 1957)
 

 "Surely an education designed for the nineteenth century industrial society does not address the needs of our time. Our schools do not speak to the confused, fearful condition of the young generation who must inherit this troubled culture and this threatened planet. Consequently, American education has entered a period of upheaval and conflict from which it cannot emerge unchanged. Corporate leaders call for 'excellence' and accountability, while mainstream politicians seek to educate for a gobally competitive economic system; teachers demand greater professional autonomy, and minority communities and progressives work to make education responsive to a diverse multicultural society. Religious conservatives desert the public schools for more disciplined Christian academies and homeschooling, while more child-centered parents and educators seek greater freedom and meaningful learning for young people, sometimes througn homeschooling as well. Some factions advocate greater choice, through vouchers or magnet schools, while others warn against ababndoning the vision of common schooling. This last group will ultimately be the most disappointed, for the conflicts over education today result from the bare fact that there is no longer a societal consensus supporting the nineteenth century model of common schooling. A radically different paradigm, not yet clearly defined, is emerging." ( Ron Miller, 1993. Renewal of Meaning in Education: Responses to the Cultural and Ecological Crisis of Our Times. Brandon, VT: Holistic Education Press.)

 Institutionalized education with its emphasis on conditioning and behavioral outcomes is no longer relevant in the times of mass communications and the 'global village'. 'Education' designed for the nineteenth century industrial society does not address the needs of today's children.  As well as the sequential printed word, information is derived from multisensory sources of various forms and intensities. The complexity of information requires the brain to process simultaneously multitudinous stimuli - sights, sounds, images, ideas and others. For the purpose of survival, the brain must be able to derive meaning from a complex environment. One must be able to process a mass of stimuli simultaneously as well as sequentially. The educational paradigm of industrialism and behaviorism has become too limited for the simultaneous processing and interpretation of complex stimuli. The educational experience for growing children is no longer a matter of simple preparation for a future workiong life. The educational experience must enable them to adapt to a changing environment and changing circumstances. It must prpeare them for personal fulfillment and a life of change. It must engage their full capacity for learning, and for learning to learn. For a future of change and a global perspective in the global village, their subjective life must become of paramount concern in education. It is no longer possible to ignore their inner experience..

student/teacher contradiction: In the institution of the school, the function of the teacher is measured by the difference in knowledge level with the student and in this way is formalized. On the basis of the assumption that knowledge is "finite and unchanging the student is expected to memorize and 'possess' the knowledge transmitted by the teacher whose function as a 'monopolist' (making a claim to a monopoly of knowledge) is to concentrate on "artificial and arbitrary kinds of scholarship." Open to serious question is the assumption that the possession of knowledge brings with it the power to control the future. The notion that a teacher is there to impart facts or demonstrate skills implies a set of social and cultural objectives that are inappropriate in face of the current explosion of knowledge and its continuous challenge to the validity of orthodox opinion, and in face of the general demand for the democritization of education. Institutionalized within the framework of industrialism and behaviorism, the traditional paradigm has become too limited. Instead of preparing students for life, traditional methods of education obscure the real challenges of living, deny their inner experience, and foster the illusions of material 'happiness' and the myths of capitalism .

Education for the 'needs of the society' becomes task oriented and lacks vision and wisdom. It is no longer relevant for living in the these times of mass communications in the global village. It does not prepare the leaaner for the impact of electronic technology and the resulting complexity of life. The educational experience for growing children is no longer a matter of simple preparation for a working life. Instead as children grow up, they must learn to be prepared for a life of complex learning, a life of change, and a life of personal fulfillment. They must be able to adapt a changing environment and changing circumstances. They must be able to engage their full capacity for learning and leanning how to learn.

 For a future of change and a global perspective in the global village, it is no longer possible to ignore the learner's inner experience. The new paradigm of education has one paramount concern - the learner's inner life. The hierarchical and mechanical school environment of traditional education is viewed differently from the perspective of this new framework. With the traditional methods of teaching, learners are deprived of the opportunity to develop their natural capacity to grasp the relationship between learning and life experience. With a fragmented and assembly line education, learners are deprived of learning experiences which are meaningful and joyful. With emphasis on conditioning in the reward and punishment system of 'grading' and evaluation, learners become prisoners of their own minds. With emphasis on predetermined learning behaviour outcomes, their inner life is ignored. With the ignorance of their inner life, they are deprived of the opportunity to develop their own personal capacity for decision making and personal creativity. With emphasis on the authoritarian approach, learners are discouraged from understanding the positive aspects of responsibility to themselves. They are prevented from developing the critical consciousness and the self-discpline which they need for their own self-preservation and self-realization. They are inhibited from thinking about and discussiing those issues which affect their own intellectual, emotional and moral growth and development. They are prevented from understanding the realities of what it takes to, realize their own hopes and dreams. As a reslt, learners are unprepared to meet the challenges of complex learning for meaningful living in a complex world. Essential for complex learning is the ability to grasp the links between learning and life experience. Complex learning depends on the ability to make connections between learning and human experience. The fragmented and assembly line education of the traditional paradigm actually inhibits their capacity to grasp the connections between their learning and their human problems. Failure to grasp the link between learning and life experience results in their limited understanding and nonadaptive behaviour

 Instead of preparing students for life, traditional methods of education obscure the real challenges of living, deny their inner experience and foster the illusions of material 'happiness' and the social myths of capitalism. "...by criticizing traditional schools, what we have to criticize is the capitalist system that shaped these schools". (Freire, P. Pedagogy for Liberation page 35)

"Americans need to examine their culture critically. They need to reconsider their basic assumptions and reexamine their way of being. What is needed is sophisticated educational 'dialogue' which is broad in scope, dealing with cultural, moral and spiritual issues. What is needed is a social-cultural critique of today's educational practices. What is needed is a fundamental reconceptualization of 'education' and the schooling process. What is needed is a critique of the roots of the educational 'crisis'. Educators must analyse the cultural context in which they are doing their work of 'educating'".

Economic theories and the 'values' of capitalism account for the lack of motivation, decrease in academic standards etc. The task-oriented perception of the environment results in incomplete cognition....in capitalist society individual learns to perceive the social environment in terms of what is 'threatening' and what is useful'.

 The attention of educators is being shifted towards the biological basis of the human potential for learning and thinking.
drawn away from the mechanical paradigm... and towards the holistic paradigm

 The educational experience for growing children is no longer a matter of simple preparation for a future working life. It should constitute preparation for a life of change and a life of personal fulfillment. The educational experience should engage the person's full capacity for learning and learning how to learn. The educational experience should enable the learner to adapt to a changing environment and changing circumstances. The subjective life of the learner becomes the important concern for education for a future of change and a global perspective in the global village. It is no longer possible to ignore the subjective life of the learner. The subjective life and experience of the learner world must be recognized and respected. Effective learning engages the learners total being. Effective learning requires a wholistic persopective and a wholistic mode of thought. Effective teaching methodologies take into account the important role of the learners subjective experience in the learning process. They respect the effectiveness, the need and the rationale for wholistic education.


The human organism is ultimately interdependent with the rest of the biota. The contacts between the different entities - humans, plants soil, atmosphere etc. - that characterize the multiple layers of life which constitute an ecology involve differences in patterns. The contacts betwen the different entities (humans, plants soil, atmosphere etc.) that characterize the multiple layers of life that constitute an ecology involve differences in patterns. Humans make sense of the information exchanges on the basis of the The wellbeing of individuals is interdependent over the long term with the viability of the system ecology, of which they are a part... the mental processes that have their roots in cultural traditions may lead to dumping toxic wastes into the environment, leading to changes in the patterns of water, plant and animal life that will eventually impact human behavior. Survival depends on perception of the whole system i.e. the 'holistic perception'. Holistic perception is the perception of the totality of information exchanges that occur within the living ecology where humans are ultimately interdependent with the rest of the biota, It is th totality of information exchanges that becomes the basic unit of survival. The individual makes sense of information exchanges on the basis of conceptual images and schemata they acquire from their culture.. i.e. 'metaphors'. Cultural metaphors may prevent some forms of information from being recognized or properly understood. The most elementary form of idea or bit of information can be the 'difference that makes a difference'.
 

Human ability to adapt to changing social conditions... 'adaptability'... depends on social intelligence Considering the political, economic and social changes of today, it is no longer possible to provide for an education for change while ignoring the needs for personal growth and development i.e. the 'inner life'. Education for the inner life is required for adaptation to rapidly changing social conditions i.e. 'adaptability'. Adaptability depends on social intelligence. Complex learning for social intelligence depends on teaching methodologies which provide an education for growth and responsible freedom i.e. 'libratory pedagogy'. Libratory pedagogy provides an educational experience which prepares the learner for a life of change and a life of personal fulfilment or 'self-actualisation'. Self-actualisation depends on an education which facilitates brain-based learning or natural 'experiential learning'. As a pedagogy for responsible freedom, libratory pedagogy is the practice of criticism or 'critical practice'. The function of the teacher is to provide a learning environment of responsible freedom in which children engage their full capacity for complex learning i.e. optimalearning'. Optimalearning involves not only the learning of content but the learning of 'how to learn' or 'metacognition'.

Culture-language-thought connection: The new paradigm of the systems approach emphasizes the biological basis of the human potential for learning and thinking. It emphasizes human response and subjectivity...The learner's subjective experience plays an important role in the learning process... it emphasizes the dialectic (process whereby contradictions merge to form a higher truth) between 'phenomenon and perception'. The phenomenon appears to be such and such... the reality behind the appearance... the 'true reality' is revealed when the phenomenon and perception merge to form a higher truth. It is the individual's perception which affects their understanding and experience of the world - the phenomenon or 'reality'. An individual's perception of reality is determined by their way of being i.e. their orientation or 'character'. Character is mediated by language, beliefs, values and the conceptual images which are acquired from the culture i.e. 'metaphors'. Cultural metaphors influence the process of thinking. Human thinking is 'metaphorical'. Cultural metaphors provide the schemata for the thinking which is involved in understanding new situations i.e. 'analogic thinking'. Analogic thinking depends on the ability to distinguish between different types of information.

The shift of emphasis from teaching of 'content' to the 'process of learning' 

Human survival depends on a paradigmatic shift towards the humanization of education. Humanization of education requires a reexamination of the basic assumptions and values of the cultural beliefs. The shift is taking place in the dominant scientific worldview. Reductionist 'science' is being replaced by 'wholistic science'. The reductionist worldview is being replaced by the wholistic worldview. Traditional policies which were formulated on the basis of values of the reductionist worldview are being replaced by new policies formulated on the basis of the wholistic scientific paradigm. Wholistic pedagogies are compatible with a global worldview. Emphasis is placed on the learner and the learning process. Truly innovative pedagogy liberate both learner and teache from the oppression of the curriculum and the institution. The implementation of liberating pedagogies is providing opportunities for humanization in education. Wholistic science validates the subjective participation of the observer in the scientific process of inquiry. Wholistic science gives rise to new cultural belief systems and values. Reproduced in the culture's educational policies, the changes are manifest in several characteristic trends in education. There is a trend away from fragmentation of knowledge and towards integration of knowledge areas. There is a trend away from the authoritarianism of 'science' and 'experts' and a trend towards the inner authority of the concience. There is a trend away from the value of the need to control and a trend towards the value of the need to trust 'humanity' and the human spirit. There is trend away from the reductionist worldview and a trend towards the global worldview. There is a trend away from the individual's cultural alienation and a trend towards the individual's cultural integration. In the discussion and debate about 'education', there is a trend away from the 'individualistic' perspective and a trend towards the cultivation of the wholistic perspective. There is a trend away from competitiveness in learning and a trend towards cooperation and integration in the learning process. There is a trend towards liberatory wholistic education. The learner becomes free to develop self-discipline, engage in self-directed learning and achieve self-actualization. A theoretical framework for education practice becomes possible. Findings in brain research provide evidence for the rational basis of brain-based learning. Based on the wholistic learning functioning of the brain, the new practice - theory for effective education is brain-based wholistic education.
 

 In the English speaking part of the industrialized world and in Northern Europe there is a shift in the scientific paradigm from reductionist science to wholistic science. This change consits of new trends ... away from linear perspectives and towards whole-system perspectives; away from cause-effect relationships and towards interrelationships; away from reductionism and towards wholism...away from reductionist science and towards wholistic science. 

Traditional teaching methods conflict with the natural learning function of the brain. They antagonize the brain's natural capacities for learning - they are 'brain-antagonistic'. Brain-antagonistic pedagogies do not acknowledge the brain's rules for learning. In ignoring the brain's natural functioning, they inhibit its capacities for making connections and reduce its natural capacities for understanding relationships. In this way they deprive the learner of the opportunity for self-development.

With the fragmented and assembly line approach to education, the brain is activated largely for the purposes of memorization and its potential is only partly used. The brain naturally resists learning isolated facts which are unrelated to meaningful experience and becomes rapidly fatigued. As a result, it becomes deficient in carrying out the natural functions which are essential to complex learning.

 The findings of brain research lend validity to a rational basis for wholistic education.They provide a rationale for the implementation of an integrative teaching and learning model.  "The research of the neuroscientis

ts and psychobiologists, together with the knowledge and intuition of educators and psychologists, points to the need for a more deliberate involvement of the whole brain in the process of learning." (Caine Making Connections p.7)

With a shift in paradigm to a systems approach, it becomes possible to view the learning process in all its complexity. Recent findings in the neurosciences provide information about the process of learning which is based on the natural functioning of the brain. Neurobiology, the science of the brain and cognitive psychology, science of the mind, have merged over the past several decades. As a result the attention of educators is being shifted towards the biological basis of the human potential for learning and thinking... organic learning theories Improvements in educational theory result in the formulation of effective teaching methodologies such as thematic teaching, whole-language approaches to literacy, and the integration of curricula.

There is a fundamental shift in the philosophical paradigm of education as a result of recent findings in brain research or 'neuroscience'. Neuroscience  is the study of biological substrates of mental functions in terms of mechanisms involving the nerve cells or 'neurons' and their connections the 'synapses'.  Insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms of learning constitute the beginnings of the bridge being formed between the science of the mind... 'cognitive psychology' and science of the brain... 'neurobiology'. Over the past several decades studies of neuroscientists, neurobiologists, psychobiologists indicate that the brain has a natural capacity to make connections... that effective learning results from the wholistic response of the whole brain to incoming stimuli. The findings have significant implications for education. Educators are shifting their attention from the paradigm of the behavioral sciences which focuses on the techniques of teaching and towards the new paradigm which focuses on the biology of acquiring new knowledge i.e. 'learning' and the biology of remembering what is learned i.e. 'memory'.

The formulation of effective teaching methodologies is based on principles of learning as a natural function of the 'brain'. The brain's natural function is to consider bits of information in terms their relationships to other bits. It is the connections between bits of information which constitutes their 'significance'. Information is significant if it relates to other information. The human capacity for making connections between pieces of information and then extending the associations is the process of acquiring knowledge or 'learning' i.e. 'brain-based learning'. Brain-based learning is a process of 'knowing' or 'cognition'.  

The 'cognitive paradigm' of education is concerned with the formulation of policies in terms of the interrelationships between the 'process' of learning and the information which is learned or 'content'.

There are indications that the basic assumptions of the reductionist worldview are being reexamined and a fundamental change or 'shift' is taking place in the scientific paradigm.

The shift from the reductionist worldview to the wholistic worldview in teaching methodology is noticeable in three characteristic trends: first, the trend away from fragmentation, competition and separateness and towards the emphasis on oneness and wholeness; second, the trend away from faith in external authority, such as religion, science and 'experts' and towards the inner authority of the conscience; third, the trend away from the need to control and towards the need to trust the human spirit or human nature... trust in human development and construction of moral consciousness or 'conscience'... 'brain-based learning'. 

"The discoveries of Rudolf Steiner concerning the interrelationships of body, soul and spirit represent a new educational paradigm which ... can provide a secure theoretical and practical foundation for a holistic education that directs itself to educate the whole person for the whole of life." (Gerald Karnow 'Educating the Whole Person for the Whole of Life' Holistic Education Review, Spring, 1992)
 

The mechanical worldview is now being challeneged by the worldview of wholistic science. The goals of education are being shaped by the new wholistic science ... .. New perspectives are emerging from scientific philosophy ...a change in consciousness from the mechanical paradigm

A radically different paradigm is emerging one which emphasizes oneness and wholeness - the 'holistic paradigm'
The holistic paradigm reflects the integration of collective, cooperative, and organizational aspects of culture and emphasizes wholes and patterns. It challenges every single dividing line between areas of study and knowledge.


For half a century we have been in the midst of a conceptual revolution that is changing the scientist's conception of space, matter, force, and the structure of the universe. New perspectives are emerging from scientific philosophy. There is a fundamental shift in the philosophical paradigm of education paradigm shift from anti-ecological (dogmatic) to ecological (wholistic, systems oriented).from the Cartesian paradigm which emphasizes parts and elements to the configuration worldview of the holistic paradigm. The holistic paradigm emphasizes the process of learning. In the paradigm of wholistic education, the function of the teacher is to focus on the learner and the learning process. Key to the new paradigm is emphasis on the learner's intrinsic motivation.

The roles of educational institutions are changing. They are becoming less concerned with providing content than with facilitating learning. The so-called 'holistic education movement' is indicative of the recent concern for an education which 'draws forth' (from the Latin 'educare') the latent capacities and sensitivities of the individual.

The goals of education are being shaped by the new wholistic science which forms the basis for a wholistic education. The new methodology of wholistic science acknowledges the subjective experiences of the observer in the process of observation... observer participation. The new educational methodology recognizes and validates the participation of the learner in the learning process.

The paradigm shift in teaching methodology from the traditional worldview to the wholistic worldview...

shift in the conceptualization of the teaching and learning paradigm. The attention of educators is being drawn away from the mechanical paradigm and towards the new paradigm of the systems approach... organic worldview which perceives the world as an interconnected developing organism... 'Gaia'.

The cognitive or 'holistic' paradigm: systems approach  In the English speaking part of the industrialized world and in Northern Europe there is a shift in the scientific paradigm from reductionist science to wholistic science. This change consists of new trends away from linear perspectives and towards whole-system perspectives; away from cause-effect relationships and towards interrelationships; away from reductionism and towards wholism. At the turn of the century, the mechanistic view of the physical world was challenged by Einstein's theory of relativity and quantum theory. Since then, new laws of integrated wholes have been postulatedthe laws of natural systems of organized complexity such as the universe, the galaxy, the solar system, the terrestrial biosphere, man's societies, man's environment, and man himself. A scientific study of reality which is wholistic emphasizes the 'whole-system perspective.' This approach requires an understanding of the interrelationships between the parts of the whole system. In a wide variety of systems - biological, social, cosmological and others - the natural tendency for the evolution of ever larger and more complex wholes cannot be fully comprehended by analysing the constituent parts. Whether one considers a cell, a human being, a nation, or a world of nations, the whole is somehow greater than the sum of its parts. Within the framework of the wholistic paradigm, the observer focuses on the order, harmony and synchrony inherent in complex systems. Known as the 'systems approach,' the wholistic perspective views the interrelationships and unifying patterns within the complexities of natural systems.

"A fundamental shift is taking place in the philosophical paradigm of education...  New perspectives are emerging from scientific philosophy which suggest the new worldview required for a new way of thinking... The attention of educators is being drawn away from the paradigm of the behavioral sciences and towards the new paradigm of the systems approach." (Sam Crowell, A New Way of Thinking: The Challenge of the Future, Educational Leadership, vol. 47 no.1 Sept 1989, 60.)

With a shift in paradigm to a systems approach, it becomes possible to view the process of learning in terms of its complexity... as a complex process - 'complex learning' - of applying the content of learning to the understanding of oneself and one's world i.e. cognition of 'self-knowledge'. Complex learning involves the brain's natural ability to grasp the links and make connections in the experiences of life. Complex learning is meaningful learning. because it engages intrinsic motives for learning 'intrinsic motivation' by  'human needs'... Intrinsically motivated learning involves personal development i.e. 'holistic education'. Holistic education is concerned with development of the whole person - emotional, psychological, intellectual, aesthetic, and spiritual or 'moral development'. Moral development is a function of development of 'moral consciousness' or 'conscience'.  Developed conscience is prerequisite to adaptation to the responsibilities of 'freedom' i.e. 'social intelligence'. Social intelligence is necessary for resolution of social problems.  

 In the holistic paradigm the teacher's role is defined as 'facilitator of learning'.

"The implications for education are far reaching. The shift from the reductionist worldview to the wholistic worldview in teaching methodology is noticeable in three characteristic trends: first, the trend away from fragmentation, competition and separateness and towards the emphasis on oneness and wholeness; second, the trend away from faith in external authority, such as religion, science and 'experts' and towards the inner authority of the conscience; third, the trend away from the need to control and towards the need to trust the human spirit." (Capra The Turning Point)
 

COMPLEX LEARNING AS WHOLISTIC LEARNING Complex learning involves learning on a number of levels and engages the learner's total being. It is effective because it depends on a wholistic perspective and a wholistic mode of thought.

Successful teaching methodologies are those which recognize and encourage the learning process as a natural phenomenon. They take advantage of the brain's natural functions and orchestrate complex learning experiences. They teach to the brain's innate drive to search for meaning. They teach to its natural capacity to organize information and recognize patterns and interrelationships. They provide the learner with experiences which enable them to perceive the 'patterns which connect.' They teach to the brain as a pattern detector which perceives parts and wholes simultaneously. They teach to the brain's natural capacity to integrate new experience with learned experiencen. They are formulated on the basis of interconnecting themes which unify different 'subjects' and 'disciplines.' They are designed around the meaningful interpenetration and interrelationships between the factual knowledge of different subjects. They teach with the understanding that knowledge of one 'subject' is embedded in knowledge of other subjects and that all knowledge is embedded in life experience. They are based on the relevance of real life learning experiences in the classroom, in the school setting, the local community, the national community and the global community. They utilize the brain's natural capacity to make connections when immersed in context and content in the learning process. They provide a rigorous and intellectually challenging content in a meaningful context. They teach to the brain's innate drive to relate to others and encourage the social interaction which is crucial to effective learning. They promote teacher attributes which facilitate the brain's natural capacity to make connections. They promote the student's natural capacity to grow through learning. They provide a rational context for brain-based learning and wholistic education. Known as 'thematic teaching methods,' they are validated by recent findings in brain research... the new brain-based teaching methods


Teacher's function The trend is away from the role of teacher as monopolist in the transferral of knowledge and towards the role of teacher as 'mediator' in the understanding of knowledge The teacher recognizes and encourages the learning process as a natural phenomenon.The teacher's function is to influence the direction of the learner's natural patterning capacities and elicit the learner's intrinsic motivation. Teaching becomes an integral part of the learning process. The emotional context of the learning process is one of cooperation rather than antagonism. The teacher and the student work together. The shift is translated into emphasis on meaning. The teacher removes those factors which threaten the learner's sense of confidence and which inhibit natural learning... reduces threat and contributes to a learning environmnent of safety and security with friendship and companionship... encourages learners to communicate in personal expression and increases learner motivation. The empowered learner is perceived as an active participant in self-directed learning, organizing experiences and creating new patterns and meanings according to psychological processes which relate to the individual's motivation, needs and personal meaning.

Take advantage of the brain's natural functions and natural potential... orchestrate complex learning experiences... teach to the brain's innate drive to search for meaning... teach to the natural capacity of the brain to organize information and recognize patterns and interrelationships... provide the learner with experiences which enable them to perceive the 'patterns which connect'... teach to the brain as a pattern detector which perceives parts and wholes simultaneously... natural capacity to integrate new experience with learned experience... interconnecting themes which unify different 'subjects' ...designed around the meaningful interpenetration and interrelationships between facts and between subjects... teach with the understanding that knowledge of one 'subject' is embedded in knowledge of other subjects and that all knowledge is embedded in life experience... emphasizes the relevance of real life learning experience in the classroom... utilize the brain's natural capacity to make connections ...provide intellectually challenging content in a meaningful context... teach to the brain's innate drive to relate to others and encourage the social interaction which is crucial to effective learning... promote the student's natural capacity to grow through learning...provide a rational context for brain-based learning and wholistic education... pedagogical methods which teach to the brain are thematic teaching methods, integrated curricula, teaching as facilitation of learning via authentic dialogue; The teacher's role as facilitator of learning ...is to teach for meaningful learning...

teaching methods which are compatible with the natural wholistic functioning of the brain...

For teachers to become facilitators, we need a new model for educational theory and practice. Because it is the brain which learns, it is the brain which is the basis of the model... educators need to know functional theories, basic operations and processes.
teacher as facilitator practises those teaching methods which are compatible with the holistic functioning of the brain... account for the physiological basis of wholistic thinking... the wholistic or 'global' functioning of the brain is stimulated by teaching methods which depend on a global presentation of the subject matter... they acknowledge the value of learning which is brain-based...they teach to the natural function of the brain as a pattern detector... they provide experiences which enable the learner to perceive patterns of connections... to the brain's natural capacity for organizing information and recognizing interrelationships... they teach for knowledge which is meaningful and significant to the learner...

The so-called 'holistic education movement' is the manifestation of the concern for an education which 'draws forth' (from the Latin 'educare') the latent capacities and sensitivities of the individual...

The goals of education are being shaped by the new wholistic science which forms the basis for a wholistic education. The new scientific methodology of wholistic science is based on the assumption that the observer participates in the process of observation. Reflecting the same basic assumption, a new educational methodology recognizes and validates the participation of the learner in the learning process.

The scientifc community is strongly under the influence of the faith in the ability of reductionist science to explain everything. However, it is being discovered that as a worldview for human affairs, the materialist, reductionist scientific paradigm is insufficient. There are indications that a fundamental change is taking place in the scientific paradigm. This change consits of new trends away from reductionist science and towards wholistic science; away from linear perspectives and towards whole-system perspectives; away from cause-effect relationships and towards interrelationships.

The new wholistic science, based on the assumption of oneness, and wholeness.. includes more 'participatory methodology' based on the subjective experiences of the observer in experimental situations. Based on the assumption of oneness, and wholeness, it validates inner subjective experience as well as physical sense data.

It is not possible to have a truly meaningful education for the 'humanization' of society without the scientific recognition of the intrinsic nature and value of what it is to be human. The worldview of wholistic science does recognize the intrinsic nature and value of the human inner life. It is therefore possible to have a truly meaningful wholistic education if it is based on the wholistic paradigm and the scientific recognition of the human inner life. A wholistic education is possible within the context of the worldview of a wholistic science. With the scientific recognition of the inner life, the wholistic worldview permits a global view of the human being as a 'totality of body, soul and spirit.' Scientific discoveries of the interrelations of body, soul and spirit are reflected in a new educational paradigm. The new pedagogical methodology recognizes that the child's learning experiences and learning difficulties are global in nature. The global view of the child and the learning process "can provide a secure theoretical and practical foundation for a holistic education that directs itself to educate the whole person for the whole of life." (Gerald Karnow. Educating the Whole Child for the Whole of Life)

 The educational experience for growing children is no longer a matter of simple preparation for a future working life.

The educational experience must enable them to adapt to a changing environment and changing circumstances. It must prepare them for personal fulfillment and a life of change. It must engage their full capacity for learning, and learning how to learn.

For a future of change and a global perspective in the global village, their subjective life must become of paramount concern in education. It is no longer possible to ignore their inner experience.

 The young generations inherit troubled cultures and a threatened planet.

It should constitute preparation for a life of change and a life of personal fulfillment. The educational experience should engage the person's full capacity for learning and learning how to learn. The educational experience should enable the learner to adapt to a changing environment and changing circumstances.

 It is no longer possible to ignore the subjective life of the learner. The subjective life and experience of the learner world must be recognized and respected. Effective learning engages the learners total being. Effective learning requires a wholistic persopective and a wholistic mode of thought. Effective teaching methodologies take into account the important role of the learners subjective experience in the learning process. They respect the effectiveness, the need and the rationale for wholistic education.

 It is being discovered that not only is the reductionist scientific paradigm insufficient for the study of the physical world; it is insufficient for the study of human affairs as well. This shift in the dominant scientific paradigm and world view has profound far reaching implications for education.   

   Improvements in educational theory result in effective methodologies such as thematic teaching, whole-language approaches to literacy, and the integration of the curriculum.                            

 


The holistic paradigm involves a change in consciousness... away from the need to control and the need for rules for living and towards the need to trust the inner authority of the human spirit or 'conscience'.

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______________________________________________________________________________________molecular biology.

Educational aims were formulated in the mechanical framework of industrialism and the objective framework of behaviorism... expressed in terms of desirable behavior patterns for social and political purposes.

Research methods of the behavioral sciences were applied to the study of the learning process. 

A scientific study of a wholistic reality emphasizes the 'whole-system perspective'. This approach requires an understanding of the interrelationships between the parts of the whole system. As an example, the evolution of organisms and the environment can best be understood within the context of a whole system in which the parts develop and evolve together.

There are indications that the basic assumptions of the reductionist worldview are being reexamined and a fundamental change is taking place. At present there is another shift (scientific revolution) in the dominant worldview which has profound implications for education. 

The goals of education are being shaped by the new wholistic science which forms the basis for a wholistic education. The new scientific methodology of wholistic science is based on the assumption that the observer participates in the process of observation. Reflecting the same basic assumption, a new educational methodology recognizes and validates the participation of the learner in the learning process.
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER In ancient myths and legends, eating from the 'tree of knowledge' meant banishment from some garden. This is because knowledge is power and the power of knowledge makes it fearful. To know something is to hold power over it. The person with knowledge has the power to use it. It can be used for purposes of destruction or creation depending on the motivation of the person who has it. It is this aspect of knowledge - its Januslike quality - which is frightening.

The transmission and transaction positions of philosophy are rooted in dualism. The transformation position is rooted in a philosophy which focuses on the interconnectedness of reality i.e. the 'perennial philosophy'. According to the perennial philosophy, there is a fundamental unity of the universe. The interconnected web is at the heart of nature. If one part of the whole is affected, then changes are felt throughout the entire system).If there is a connection between one individual's inner or higher self and this unity (which comes from the cultivation of intuition and insight through contemplation and meditation in order to 'see' the unity) then the realization of this unity among a group of individuals leads to social action which is designed to counter injustice and suffering.




instructor centered teaching methods:instructional techniques focus on the performance of instructors... what they say, what they do... the only source of information... curriculum goals are set around instructor performance and used for instructor guidance...  two sources of information lectures and textbook... often providing dated information having little to with the changing realities of a changing world.  evaluation of studens reflects instructor interest and preference                                                                                                                                       

 

 

student-centered teaching methods: what student learn and how they learn it... students are actively engaged in the learning process.  instructor becomes facilitator of student discovery and student learning... curriculum goals or 'learning goals' are set around learner outcomes...

students direct their own learning,select their own learning tasks, evaluate their own progress...  students have access to varied resources and instructor  is a provider of resources and a facilitator in their

use. instructor provides a variety of learning experiences.

This traditional approach to education is seriously questioned today and there is a fundamental shift in the paradigm of education

"Surely an education designed for the nineteenth century industrial society does not address the needs of our time. Our schools do not speak to the confused, fearful condition of the young generation who must inherit this troubled culture and this threatened planet. Consequently, American education has entered a period of upheaval and conflict from which it cannot emerge unchanged. Corporate leaders call for 'excellence' and accountability, while mainstream politicians seek to educatefor a gobally competitive economic system; teachers demand greater professional autonomy, and minority communities and
progressives work to make education responsive to a diverse multicultural society. Religious conservatives desert the public schools for more disciplined Christian academies and homeschooling, while more child-centered parents and educators seek greater freedom and meaningful learning for young people, sometimes througn homeschooling as well. Some factions advocte greater choice, through vouchers or magnet schools, while others warn against ababndoning the vision of common schooling. This last group will ultimately be the most disappointed, for the conflicts over education today result from the bare fact that there is no longer a societal consensus supporting the nineteenthcentury model of common schooling. A radically different paradigm, not yet clearly defined, is emerging." ( Ron Miller, 1993. Renewal of Meaning in Education: Responses to the Cultural and Ecological Crisis of Our Times. Brandon, VT: Holistic Education Press.)

student/teacher contradiction: In the institution of the school, the function of the teacher is measured by the difference in knowledge level with the student and in this way is formalized. On the basis of the assumption that knowledge is "finite and unchanging the student is expected to memorize and 'possess' the knowledge transmitted by the teacher whose function as a 'monopolist' (making a claim to a monopoly of knowledge) is to concentrate on "artificial and arbitrary kinds of scholarship." Open to serious question is the assumption that the possession of knowledge brings with it the power to control
the future. The notion that a teacher is there to impart facts or demonstrate skills implies a set of social and cultural objectives that are inappropriate in face of the current explosion of knowledge and its continuous challenge to the validity of orthodox opinion, and in face of the general demand for the democritization of education.Institutionalized within the framework of industrialism and behaviorism, the traditional paradigm has become too limited.Education for the 'needs of the society' becomes task oriented and lacks vision and wisdom. It is no longer relevant for living in the these times of mass communications in the global village. It does not prepare the leaaner for the impact of electronic technology and the resulting complexity of life. The educational experience for growing children is no longer a matter of simple preparation for a working life. Instead as children grow up, they must learn to be prepared for a life of complex learning, a life of change, and a life of personal fulfillment. They must
be able to adapt a changing environment and changing circumstances. They must be able to engage their full capacity for learning and leanning how to learn. Instead of preparing students for life, traditional methods of education obscure the real challenges of living, deny their inner experience, and foster the illusions of material 'happiness' and the myths of capitalism . For a future of change and a global perspective in the global village, it is no longer possible to ignore the learner's inner experience. The new paradigm of education has one paramountconcern - the learner's inner life. The hierarchical and
mechanical school environment of traditional education is viewed differently from the perspective of this new framework. With the traditional methods of teaching, learners are deprived of the opportunity to develop their natural capacity to grasp the relationship between learning and life experience. With a fragmented and assembly line education, learners are deprived of learning experiences which are meaningful and joyful. With emphasis on conditioning in the reward and punishment system of 'grading' and evaluation, learners become prisoners of their own minds.  With emphasis on predetermined learning behaviour outcomes, their inner life is ignored. With the ignorance of their inner life, they are deprived of the opportunity to develop their own personal capacity for decision making and personal creativity. With emphasis on the authoritarian approach, learners are discouraged from understanding the positive aspects of responsibility to themselvesThey are prevented from developing the critical consciousness and the self-discpline which they need for their own self-preservation and self-realization. They are inhibited from thinking about and discussiing those issues which affect their own intellectual, emotional and moral growth and development. They are prevented from understanding the realities of what it takes to, realize their own hopes and dreams. As a reslt, learners are unprepared to meet the challenges of complex learning for meaningful living in a complex world. Essential for complex learning is the ability to grasp the links between learning and life experience. Complex learning depends on the ability to make connections between learning and human experience. The fragmented and assembly line education of the traditional paradigm actually inhibits their capacity to grasp the connections between their learning and their human problems. Failure to grasp the link between learning and life experience results in their limited understanding and nonadaptive behaviour

"Schools don't really teach anything but how to obey orders... Although teachers do care, and do work very, very hard, the institution is psychopathic; it has no conscience." (John Gatto "An Award-Winning Teacher Speaks Out." Utne Reader March 1992 page 73)

 Instead of preparing students for life, traditional methods of education obscure the real challenges of living, deny inner experience and foster the illusions of material 'happiness' and the social myths of capitalism. ...by criticizing traditional schools, what we have to criticize is the capitalist system that shaped these schools". (Freire, P. Pedagogy for Liberation page 35)


"Americans need to examine their culture critically. They need to reconsider their basic assumptions and reexamine their way of being. What is needed is sophisticated educational 'dialogue'
which is broad in scope, dealing with cultural, moral and spiritual issues. What is needed is a social-cultural critique of today's educational practices. What is needed is a fundamentalreconceptualization of 'education' and the schooling process. What is needed is a critique of the roots of the educational 'crisis'. Educators must analyse the cultural context in which they are doing their work of 'educating'". (Illich?)

Economic theories and the 'values' of capitalism account for the lack of motivation, decrease in academic standards etc. The task-oriented perception of the environment results in incomplete cognition....in capitalist society individual learns to perceive the social environment in terms of what is 'threatening' and what is useful'