The paradigm of traditional education

theme:Traditional paradigm of education for the 'needs of the society'... With the focus on the political ideals of the 'nation', the 'purposes of educaton' have been defined in terms of ideological principles and economic theory. Theoretical alternatives have been overlooked.

"There can be no educational policy or practice independent of a social and cultural context and therefore there is no such theory as 'objective' educational theory'". (David Purpel. "Holistic Education in a Prophetic Voice" in Miller et al. The Renewal of Meaning in Education: Responses to the Cultural and Ecological Crisis of our Times 69)   

 

traditional education and social control...

reform depends on change in philosophy...

responsible education: school's function is socialisation in terms of children's growth...

traditional education and imposition of ideals encourages conformity...   banking education...

 originated with Industrial Revolution...   emphasis on mechanics of learning and methods of teaching...

emphasis on conditioned learning...    discipline as obedience to rules...  

 

 hidden curriculum as process..  term 'hidden curriculum' coined by Phillip  Jackson...  

  schooling...   rote learning..

fundamental shift...   teacher as facilitator of learning...   aims of education and American ideals...

....................................................

Instead of preparing the individual for his own future as a self-responsible social being, the institutions of education focus on the individual's preparation as a 'contributing member of society'....  the educational system neglects to foster the individual's innate capacities for adaptation to changing social conditions... incapacitated individuals in a changing society constitute the human evidence of an anomalous social situation.

 

 THE DELIVERY MODEL FOR TEACHING OR 'SCHOOLING'

 
theme: The traditional paradigm for teaching evolved in the context of industrialism and its requirements for discipline, rigidity and authoritarianism. In the traditional paradigm for teaching education is confused with school and learning is confused with 'schooling'.  The confusion between schooling and learning is relatively recent. The teaching model for schooling is the 'delivery model'.
 

"Surely an education designed for the nineteenth century industrial society does not address the needs of our time. Our schools do not speak to the confused, fearful condition of the young generation who must inherit this troubled culture and this threatened planet. Consequently, American education has entered a period of upheaval and conflict from which it cannot emerge unchanged. Corporate leaders call for 'excellence' and accountability, while mainstream politicians seek to educate for a gobally competitive economic system; teachers demand greater professional autonomy, and minority communities and progressives work to make education responsive to a diverse multicultural society. Religious conservatives desert the public schools for more disciplined Christian academies and homeschooling, while more child-centered parents and educators seek greater freedom and meaningful learning for young people, sometimes through homeschooling as well. Some factions advocte greater choice, through vouchers or magnet schools, while others warn against abandoning the vision of common schooling. This last group will ultimately be the most disappointed, for the conflicts over education today result from the bare fact that there is no longer a societal consensus supporting the nineteenth century model of common schooling. A radically different paradigm, not yet clearly defined, is emerging... The major purpose of schooling until now has been to preserve the hegemony of the established culture to induct each new generation into the dominant worldview... But we can conceive education as a genuine community of learning in which new meanings, new metaphors are generated... sense of reverence toward nature and life - respect for diversity, spontaneity and the inherent wisdom of organic growth - it is essential that we draw on our deepest source of renewal and creativity: the imagination. The holistic critique calls for an integration of rational, empirical, analytical modes of knowing with the imaginative and intuitive... The recent so-called 'holistic education movement' is the manifestation of the concern for an education which 'draws forth' (from the Latin 'educare') the "latent capacities and sensitivities of the individual". (Miller R. et al. The Renewal of Meaning in Education: Responses to the Cultural and Ecological Crisis of our Times Brandon,VT: Holistic Education Press, 1993 p.20-23)

www.johntaylorgatto.com  Schooling as training in consumerism... bored people are the best consumers: Underground History of American Education

"The function of education in any society is the socialization of youth into the prevailing culture. On the one hand, schooling serves to integrate individuals into society by institutionaliz ing dominant value, norm and belief system. On the other hand, schooling provides the individual competencies necessary for the adequate performance of social roles. These educational systems are fundamental to the stability and functioning of any society." (See Gintis in R.C. Edwards et al(eds) The Capitalist System. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1972 123)

History of American traditional education as education for the economy...

                       vertical fragmentation of the curriculum...

                             horizontal fragmentation of the curriculum...

                             education and scientific reductionism... 

  aims of schooling...

schooling as dependency training...   

mistrust in human nature...

implications for education...  today's dilemma of schooling...

American 'traditional education' as education for the economy An objective account of traditional education as school education depends on an understanding of the issues in a historical context.

Eighteenth century: In the 18th century, the American founding fathers believed in the success of the republic in terms of dependence on the intellectual self-reliance of its citizenry. They believed in self-education and promoted open debate through free speech and a free press.

End of nineteenth century: Education in schools evolved in the context of industrialism. The industrial revolution produced the notion of education for the 'masses'. Education for the 'masses'... 'mass education' for purposes of the economy. .with the rise of industrialism and the demands of industry attention was focused on the economy. A system of public education was devised to provide a work force for the economic infrastructure of the new industrialized society. Educational policies were formulated to prepare children for a future working environment in an industrial world. School education was designed to pre-adapt children to the social requirements of collective discipline, authoritarianism and regimentation. It is in this context that one can understand the issues which pertain to the traditional paradigm for teaching.

 the so-called 'traditional' paradigm of education associated with school education.

The 'traditional' curriculum was designed to produce an assembly line education for the production of the kind of adults which were needed for the new world of business and industry. Schools were structured and organized as an effective means of training the masses for work in the factories. The school environment was modelled after the hierarchical and mechanical environment of industry. A fragmented and assembly line approach to education produced educational curricula and teaching methodologies which were designed for mass education. A twelve-grade classification system of public schools was established in 1890.

The educational curriculum was conceived for purposes of training for the factory workplace and designed for mass education. Within the context of a management hierarchy, the 'classical curriculum' consisted of the basic skills of reading, writing and arithmetic. Students were expected to be punctual, to follow orders and to perform repetitive tasks in preparation for work on the factory floor and in the offices. A regimented education prepared them for a future as mechanical laborers of assembly line technology. Teachers were required to be authoritarian, emphasizing repetitive work and rote learning. At first, the principles of 'traditional' education and the 'classical curriculum' were applied to primary and secondary schools and later they were applied to higher education as well. More recently, they have been applied to the new practice of 'adult education'. 

 A fragmented and assembly line approach to education produced educational curricula designed to produce an assembly line education for the production of the kind of adults which were needed for the new world of business and industry. The aim was to provide a work force for the economic infrastructure of the new industrialized society. The school environment was modelled after the hierarchical and mechanical environment of industry. The educational system was devised in the form of 'public schools' which were structured and organized as an effective means of training the young for work in the factories. A twelve-grade classific ation system of public schools was established by 1890. Teaching methodologies were also designed for mass education.

 SCHOOLING AS MECHANISM OF SOCIAL CONTROL... EDUCATION FOR DOMINATION OR FOR 'FREEDOM' as 'political freedom' (as opposed to 'freedom of conscience' or 'inner freedom') There is no such thing as a neutral educational process. Education functions either as an instrument which is used to facilitate the integration of the younger generation into the logic of the present system and bring about conformity to it, or it becomes the 'practice of freedom,' the means by which men and women deal critically and creatively with reality and discover how to participate in the transformation of their world 

Traditional learning as school learning or 'schooling'.  In the modern sense, the meaning of 'traditional education' is education in schools.school education  'Traditional' education in the modern sense is best characterized by referring to the use of classrooms, scheduled activities, assymetrical teacher-student ratios etc. 'Non-traditional' would refer to the absence or modification of one of these characteristics. The extent of variation with 'traditional' programs and institutions makes it difficult to define the term 'non-traditional' .

 The twelve-grade classification system of public schools was established by 1890. In the secondary grades, the school curriculum was fragmented and organized around a number of 'subjects' to be studied from textbooks. In the traditional paradigm of education, emphasis is placed on the process of teaching for the mechanics of learning factual knowledge. 

relatively recent. The concept of 'traditional learning' as school-learning is relatively recent.

SCHOOL AS HIERARCHICAL The first assumption stems from the rise of industrialization and the consequent focus on the economy. Schools have had to provide a work force for the hierarchical and mechanical workplace of the factory, of business and of industry. The assumption has always been that schools could be modelled on the basis of a hierarchical and mechanical school environment...

Traditional education as school education accounts for the modern meaning of the term 'traditional learning' as school learning.

In the modern sense, the meaning of 'traditional education' is education in schools. 'Traditional' education in the modern sense is best characterized by referring to cluster of themes or modes such the use of classrooms, scheduled activities, assymetrical teacher-student ratios etc.   "Non-traditional" would refer to the absence or modification of one of these themes or modes. The extent of variation with "traditional" programs and institutions make it difficult to define the term "non-traditional."

"Innovative education" refers to "innovation" in educational methodology. An "innovation," a new approach or technique, is a variation on a known theme based on one of three principles.  the modern sense, the meaning of 'traditional education' is education in schools. 'Traditional' education in the modern sense is best characterized by referring to the use of classrooms, scheduled activities, assymetrical teacher-student ratios etc. 'Non-traditional' would refer to the absence or modification of one of these characteristics. The extent of variation with 'traditional' programs and institutions makes it difficult to define the term 'non-traditional.' Traditional education as school education accounts for the modern meaning of the term 'traditional learning' as school learning. The concept of 'traditional learning' as school-learning is relatively recent. ("The Learning Tradition" page 7-9 in Peak Learning by Richard Gross)

In the ancient Athens of Plato and Socrates, learning was a part of life, work and leisure. Citizens engaged in discussion of issues in the market, in the baths and in the gym.

"The founding fathers of America believed in self-education. They believed that the success of the republic depended on the intellectual self-reliance of the citizenry and promoted open debate through free speech and a free press. Only recently has schooling been confused with education and peoples' competence been judged by their diplomas. The major qualification of the 'professional' is that he/she can pass a licensing examination. Increasing numbers of people make learning a continuing part of living. These so-called peak learners may represent a chance of survival of the human species and the planet". (from 'Peak Learning page 5-7)

Traditional education as 'schooling' is based on a fallacious mistrust in human nature

The paradigm of 'traditional American culture' (American Constitution) is characterised by its dichotomous perception of human nature... goodness versus supposed wickedness or 'evil'.   

The paradigm of traditional education as 'schooling' is based on the assumption that the human personality or 'human nature' is basically immoral and antisocial.  The mistrust of human nature accounts for the fallacious notion that the indvidual's interests and those of society are mutually exclusive... leads to the  notion that the purpose of civilisation is to control human impulses or 'antisocial instincts' (Freud).

The supposed dichotomy between individual and society is the basis for confusion about formulation of rational educational theory... Confusion between schooling and learning is relatively recent.  

 "Mass education was the ingenious machine constructed by industrialism to produce the kind of adults it needed. The problem was inordinately complex. How to pre-adapt children for a new world - a world of repetitive indoor toil, smoke, noise, machines, crowded living conditions, collective discipline, a world in which time was to be regulated not by the cycle of the sun and moon but by the factory whistle and the clock.The solution was an educational system that, in its very structure, simulated this new world...The most criticized feature of education today - the regimentation, lack of individualization, the rigid systems of seating, grouping, grading, and marking, the authoritarian role of the teacher - are precisely those that made mass public education so effective an instrument of adaptation for its place and time..." (A Toffler. Future Shock. London, Pan Books. 1976 pp 361-362)

'School' can be defined as an "age-specific, teacher related process requiring full-time attendance at an obligatory curriculum." (Illich Deschooling Society 26)

Schooling as dependency training: 'student-teacher contradiction'

 "Resistant dependent learning may well be a product of culture, upbringing and the public education system. Students do not naturally arrive at high school, college or adult education programs at once dependent upon teachers and resentful of being taught. They become that way as a result of years of dependency training." (Grow, Gerald. "Teaching Learners to be Self- Directed" Adult Educational Quarterly, 41: 3 (Spring 1991) 142)

"The exercise of the role of teacher is a matter of time, place and circumstance. The individual can make no claim to the permament title of 'teacher' since a change of circumstances, an encounter with somenone else, may at any moment reverse the roles." (Goble. The Function of Teaching 53)

 In the institution of the school, the function of the teacher is measured by the difference in knowledge level with the student and in this way is formalized. On the basis of the asumption that knowledge is "finite and unchanging" the student is expected to memorize and 'possess' the knowledge transmitted by the teacher whose function as a 'monopolist' (making a claim to a monopoly of knowledge) is to concentrate on "artificial and arbitrary kinds of scholarship." (Goble. The Function of Teaching 54)

 Traditional teaching methods were justified by principles of behavioural science. Educational methods were formulated on the basis of the assumption that learning is a matter of conditioning

    Aims of schooling Educational policies were designed to pre-adapt children for future rigid working environments of industrial society with its social requirements of collective discipline, authoritarianism and regimentation.

The aim of schooling was to inculcate the values of 'mental discipline' as the performance of meaningless tasks without questioning and 'obedience to authority' as punctuality and the following of orders. This is the 'hidden curriculum' of the traditional paradigm. Educational methods are justified  by principles of behavioural science or 'behaviourism'.  They are based on the assumption that education is a matter of conditioned learning or 'conditioning'.

School education became equated with educational institutions expert authorities, classroom teachers and textbooks, assigned readings and memorization of content for tests and grades, judgment of competence by diplomas, policies of teacher authoritarianism, rigid seating and grouping arrangements, reward and punishment systems of marking and grading and a curriculum without individualization. Traditional teaching methods were justified  by the principles of behavioural science. Educational methods were formulated on the basis of the assumption that learning is a matter of conditioning. Methods of teaching emphasized memorization of facts i.e. 'learning by rote'. In the secondary grades, knowledge areas and skill areas were fragmented and distributed into separate subjects and skills to make up a curriculum of academic 'requirements.' The school curriculum was organized around subjects to be studied from textbooks.

 Teaching methods are based on policies of teacher authoritarianism and classroom teachers are considered as expert authorities. They emphasize assigned readings to be studied and memorized from textbooks and then tested in terms of isolated factual content by 'performance' on objective tests. Evaluation of competence is in the form of a reward/punishment grading system. Recognition of achievement is in the form of diplomas and other 'credentials'. The curriculum is without individualization.

Knowledge areas and skill areas are fragmented and distributed into separate subjects to make up a curriculum of 'academic requirements'.

"The lecture-based passive curriculum is not simply poor pedagogical practice. It is the teaching model most compatible with promoting the dominant authority in society and with disempowering students." (Freire page l0 Politics of Education)

'Vertical fragmentation' of the curriculum  Fragmentation of the curriculum can be traced  back to the publication of two documents committed to the ideals of democracy. The first document, published in 1893, was entitled The Report of the Committee of Ten on Secondary School Studies. The report focused on the ideal of quality education for every American citizen and emphasized the integration of different subject areas of the traditional humanistic curriculum. After l900 as a result of the misinterpretation of Darwin's concept of 'survival of the fittest' in the evolution of biological species, educational goals were set with a view for 'social efficiency'. ThereafterThe aim of schooling was to train young minds to become imitative and exploitative. In 1918 the second document was published entitled 'The Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education'. This report was a response to the effects of the immigration policies between 1893 and 1918 as a result of which the school population was doubling every ten years. Attempts were made to adjust to the new social situation and preserve the democratic ideal of 'education for every American'.

Emphasis was placed on the subjects of the curriculum which were thought to be important for social adjustment in a democratic society - the formal subjects of reading, writing, arithmetic -i.e. 'formalism'.

Horizontal fragmentation of the curriculum During this time, the ideas of philosopher John Dewey and leaders of the 'progressive movement' emphasized individual differences, stressed the importance of a 'humane curriculum' which respected 'experiential learning'.These progressive ideas were combined with the principles of educational 'formalism' and in this way they were  incorporated into the institutionalized system of education. The results were unfortunate.  'Progressive education' was perceived as a kind of 'romantic formalism' and the curriculum was fragmented further - this time 'horizontally'. Children were allocated to different 'groups' or 'tracks' depending on their level of 'intelligence'.  Children of the different groups were given access to information which was considered to be appropriate for their individual 'capacities'. Information was selected for the purpose of preparing children in those subjects and skills which were considered to be necessary not only for work and for leisure  but for good citizenship as well. Each individual was to be educated in terms of their 'usefulness to society'.

In this way progressive education was accommodated to the democratic ideal of 'education for every American'.

2. LEARNING AS CONDITIONING

3. LEARNING IS OBJECTIVE

Educational policy and scientific reductionism Educational policy in the traditional paradigm is based on assumptions inherent in the scientific paradigm of reductionist science or 'reductionism'. In the paradigm of reductionism,Like the 'objective' scientist, the student's role in the learning process is assumed to be as objective... just as the scientist must be 'objective' in the process of observation, in the same way the student must be objective in the process of learning. Emphasis is placed on the 'objective' of 'learning' - test scores, grades, diplomas, credentials and so on...forced learning. The learner’s inner life is ignored and its validity in the learning process is discredited. Teaching in the traditional paradigm ignores the learner's  inner life and discredits its validity in the learning process.                      

It is in this context that one can begin to understand the issues pertaining to the questioning of the traditional paradigm and the paradigm 'shift' of today.

Ritual character of schooling as the initiation into the consumer society

  As long as people are not aware of the ritual character of schooling as the initiation into the consumer society, they cannot begin to conceive of educational reform. Under the power of the ritual of the educational 'machine', they remain under the spell of the economy (capitalism- consumerism). Once that spell is broken and only after it is broken, can they reform the educational system within a new paradigm. (Illich Deschooling Society)

Traditional educaton today: dilemma of schooling

We know that learning is a natural function of the healthy mind and that learning and thinking are valuable assets for citizens of a free and democratic society. Given that schools are faced with the dilemma of how to motivate students to work, the central problem appears to be the following: how can we teach within the framework of a required curriculum while respecting children's natural motivation for learning? the educator, whether in the administrative or instructional capacities of schools or government, has the very great responsibiliuty of leading students to use and develop their own minds - to learn to think.

In the traditional paradigm of education, the aim of education has always been considered in terms of the individual's 'usefulness to society'.

Since their beginning, traditional schools have been institutions of education as compulsory 'education' and forced learning. Today's fragmented and assembly line approach to education continues the tradition of compulsory education. Traditional education continues to promote values derived from the belief systems of American culture. In this 'cultural context' the traditional teaching paradigm continues to be used to promote the ideals of capitalism... to foster adult 'immaturity'.  In the current educational systems, emphasis is placed almost entirely on the acquistion of data. There is little concern for the development of the reasoning mode of learning. Training of the observational and contemplative modes are almost completely lacking. And the affective dimension of learning... the individual's instinctive striving for inner development to maturity or 'self-actualisation' is completely ignored. .

Self-actualisation is the aim of education for the whole person i.e. 'holistic education'.

 'Passive teaching'- teaching as if information must be poured into childrens' heads - is destructive for children. They are judged on the basis of their ability to learn passively. The passive teacher makes a claim to a monopoly of the knowledge he teaches. (Paul Goodman Growing Up Absurd 77)

What would be the implications for education if it were based on trust in the human organism as a social organism with a social brain and without antisocial instincts?

...if human nature is defined in terms of human 'values for living' or 'human needs'?

"Ignorance, poverty and crime in society will not be solved by more of the same 'old education' - forcing children to learn under the systematic repression of adult-controlled instruction. Despite the billions of dollars and lip service efforts at 'reform' this type of traditional education remains as ever a part of the problem - not the solution. Instead, we must create a 'new education' to free the human spirit - true education which is based entirely on fundamental principles of nature." Illich

  "Students who are capable of more individual involvement in learning are often relegated to passive roles in authoritarian classrooms." (Grow, Gerald. "Teaching Learners to be Self-Directed" Adult Educational Quarterly, 41: 3 (Spring 1991) 125-149 the quote is on page 137) 

"Generally speaking, the good student is not one who is restless or intractable, or one who reveals one's doubts or wants to know the reason behind facts, or one who breaks with preestablished models, or one who denounces a mediocre bureaucracy, or one who refuses to be an object. To the contrary, the so-called 'good student' is one who repeats, who renounces critical thinking, who adjusts to models, and who 'thinks it pretty to be a rhinoceros'"  Paulo Freire The Politics of Education South Hadley, MA: Bergin and Garvey Publishers, Inc. 1985 (117)

  "It is characteristic of the permament search for humanistic education that the more you have freedom to criticize, the more necessary is the sacredness of the domesticating social order for its self-preservation. For this reason, all attempts at mystification obviously tend to become totalitarian, that is, they tend to reach all human endeavors. No category or enterprise can escape falsification, because an exception might become a threat to the sacredness of the established sorder. In this sense, schooling at whatever level plays one of the most vital roles, as an efficient mechansim for social control. It is not hard to find educators whose idea of education is 'to adapt the learner to his environment,' and as a rule formal education has not been doing much more than this." (Paulo Freire The Politics of Education South Hadley, MA: Bergin and Garvey Publishers, Inc. 1985 11    Increasing numbers of people make learning a continuing part of living. These so-called peak learners may represent a chance of survival of the human species and the planet

EDUCATION AS EXPRESSSION OF POWER AND POLITICS... EDUCATION FOR DOMINATION AS EDUCATION FOR THE NEEDS OF "SOCIETY" COUNTERACTS MOTIVATION RESULT IS EDUCATIONAL "CRISIS".... Education for the 'needs' of the society becomes task oriented, lacks vision and wisdom, inhibits intellectual and emotional growth. Education for domination counteracts natural learning and intrinsic motivation... traditional policies and programs counteract children's motivation for learning...

The successful schools as communities of learning and places where students were known to have ongoing contact with their teacher.

 

"i never let my schooling interfere with my education" (mark twain)

Traditional teaching paradigm as irresponsible education for control and manipulation:  'banking education'.  In the traditional teaching paradigm, education is confused with task-oriented or objective learning i.e. 'schooling'. Teaching methods involve the use of external motivating devices such as punishment/reward systems of evaluation such as 'grades and 'grade averages'.  Students are coerced into patterns of learning for external ... goals... and objective tasks or 'learning outcomes'. Such extrinsically motivated learning or 'extrinsic motivation' inhibits the free use of creative energy and productiveness or meaningful work... inhibits 'free will'...  'freedom'. Denial of freedom inhibits development of personality integration in the realisation of human potential i.e. 'self-realisation' or 'self-actualisation'. Self-actualisation depends on freedom for effective learning and self-initiated meaningful work driven by the need for personal integrity and spiritual independence i.e. 'self-transcendance'Consequently teaching for external purposes is not functional in personal development and moral failure and subsequent irresponsiblility of behaviour

Traditional education and imposition of ideals... The concern is with the idea of what the individual should be... there is no concern for the individual's humanity... no 'love'. Imposition of ideals encourages conformity. Education for conformity is education for personal gain not for the awakening of intelligence. .. based on assumption that learning is conditioned... 'conditioning'...

When the aim of education is to work for an ideal… for the future ... fear of the unknown - the future - leads to the establishment of psychological zones of safety… in the form of systems, techniques, beliefs. The ‘should be’ becomes more important than seeing the individual in the context of the complexities of their own life - the ‘what is’. This brings about confusion …creates in the individual  psychological barriers which separate them and hold them apart from others. This breeds fear and produces inner conflict between what they are and what they are made to think they  should be. The inner conflicts are manifest outwardly and this hinders the understanding of the person as well as the person's  understanding of themselves. 

Ideals have no place in education...because they prevent understanding of  present reality. 

 Concern for the ideal indicates sluggishness of mind which wants to avoid the present. Aim of education is not based on any ideology … not a means of conditioning the individual in some special way. When one is pursuing an ideal pattern of action there can be no integration of personality.  This is not understanding the full significance of life. The idealist , like the specialist, is only concerned with part of life... not the whole of life.

With little concern for the student's active participation, they have emphasized the mechanics of textbook knowledge - facts, procedures, and behaviors.

   So-called 'laziness' is really a question of not caring... lack of motivation..

Educational policies are formulated in the context of the cultural worldview which is inherent in the prevailing cultural belief systems and values. The cultural perception of 'reality' is based on the assumptions underlying the cultural worldview. The cultural paradigm or worldview is the perception of reality as it is perceived by enculturated individuals in the context of their own culture. Cultural beliefs are derived from scientific 'beliefs' and the cultural belief systems are derived from the culture's prevailing 'scientific' paradigm or perception of 'reality'. The cultural paradigm is the product of 'scientific' activity in the cultural context. The prevailing scientific activity uses technology and resources which are available. The cultural assumptions about reality form the basis of the culture's belief systems or cultural 'myths'. Further scientific activity modifies the perception of reality. Modifications in the perception of reality modify the cultural paradigm and the cultural myths. The new cultural perceptions of reality provide the framework for new belief systems and new cultural values. Cultural value systems provide the framework for the formulation of the culture's educational policies. In this way the educational 'institutions' formulate policies which are consistent with the cultural value system. In the American educational system, the basic assumptions of the reductionist scientific paradigm formed the basis for educational policy. According to reductionism, 'scientific' observation and inquiry excludes the observer's subjective participation. The reductionist perception of 'reality' depends on the observer's objective detachment and rejects the individual's 'inner reality' as a source of knowledge. .

Aims of education and American ideals... The aims of education were  formulated on the basis on the ideals of American nationalism and the values of American culture which were  based on the characteristic mistrust of human nature.... forms the basis of the moralistic attitude towards human problems.Educational institutions promote the cultural myths by reproducing the cultural values. According to the Fall -Redemption myth of orthodox Christianity, the individual is born into the world tainted with sin and is naturally 'evil'. The individual's suffering in this life is perceived as a natural consequence of original sin. Inner life is explained away as a natural consequence of the evil inherent in human nature. Each individual is 'responsible' for restraining and controlling his own evil impulses and those of other people as well. An individual who is unable to restrain the evil part of his nature must be 'punished.' Not able to trust human nature, the individual cannot trust his own nature. He cannot trust his own 'humanity' or the humanity of others. In the educational system, the individual is not trusted to develop a personal sense of moral responsibility and is expected to rely on external authorities, strict codes of civil law and codes of 'ethics'.

 Education is considered necessary for the teaching of morals as well as knowledge.

 'Scientific' knowledge of human nature was provided by the mechanistic explanations of behavioral psychology and sociology. As the 'objective' science of the psyche or 'mind', behavioural psychology emphasizes conditioned learning, learning 'outcomes' and student 'performance' on tests. As the 'objective' study of society, sociology emphasizes the controlling nature of 'social factors', social environments and social institutions on the development of the individual.

Assumptions of both the social 'sciences' and Protestantism have been combined with the traditional ideals of 'democracy' to justify the economic theories of capitalism. In the interest of promoting capitalism, emphasis is placed on the necessity to control  human nature and the scientific validity for doing so. According to the worldview of capitalism, the human being is lazy and needs to be disciplined to do work. Individuals must be encouraged to compete with one another in order to weed out those who are lazy and undisciplined. 'Individualism' is promoted to encourage competition. Individuals are expected to demonstrate their efforts and productivity with tangible results. Hard work is rewarded with material gain, economic 'wealth', and 'professional' status. Acquisition of wealth and status is equated with 'success'. Pursuit of success is identified with the individual's inalienable right to the pursuit of 'happiness.' In American 'society', the individual who subscribes to the myths of American culture is rewarded with material success. The values of American culture have become the values of 'consumerism.' In fostering the traditional values of American nationalism, Protestantism, reductionism, capitalism, and materialism, the schools are reproducing the myths of American consumerism. In keeping with 'tradition', the schools teach the values of hierarchy, success, moralism and control. With authoritarian teaching methods, they teach the 'hidden curriculum'. In the cultural context of 'school', the individual is required to conform to the forced imposition of cultural myths and value systems. School authorities make demands on the learner to meet 'expectations'. Instead of fostering self-responsibility, they cultivate the individual's sense of dependence on 'role models' and authorities. Instead of fostering the development of moral responsibility, they cultivate unrealistic ambitions for 'professional' status in the consumer culture. Instead of fostering the individual's sense of integrity and health, they cultivate 'competitive spirit' and stressful living. By cultivating conformity to cultural values, they impose thought and behavior patterns which inhibit the individual's natural capacity for learning, for growth, for independence and for happiness. Instead of trusting the individual's human potential for intellectual and moral development, they impose academic requirements and ethical codes. Instead of fostering the individual's critical consciousness, they cultivate mindlessness. In forcing the individual's 'adaptation' and enculturation, they obscure the real challenges of living and deny the real joys of learning. Their demands for meaningless and passive learning inhibit the individual's capacity for creative and critical thinking. This approach to education is seriously questioned today. With the function of reproducing the cultural values, the educational system neglects to prepare the individual for life in a complex world. It neglects to foster the individual's natural intellectual and moral development into a responsible social human being. It neglects to foster the individual's natural capacities for adaptation to changing social conditions. Incapacitated individuals are the product of an anomalous social situation. Educational 'crisis' is the manifestation of an anomalous human situation. In American culture, social problems are not understood in terms of defects in the cultural institutions. Social reforms are not formulated in terms of institutional changes. Social problems are perceived in terms of the individual's lack of moral responsibility - in keeping with the Protestant moralistic ethic. Social reforms are perceived in terms of 'helping' the individual to initiate the necessary changes. Social problems are discussed in terms of 'scenarios' and solutions. Attempts are made to resolve them through the implementation of 'discipline' and enforcement of the 'law'. Preventing the natural development of moral responsibility, theories of capitalism and consumerism ignore the individual's instinctive striving for self-realization. They misinterpret the life of contemplation and meditation. They do not trust the individual's inner freedom. They do not encourage the individual's self-expression. They devalue natural human needs and metaneeds. They denigrate the intuitive and emotional aspects of intellectual development. With their emphasis on American 'products', they have produced declining academic standards on all levels of thew educational system. The issue of declining standards in education is discussed within the narrow context of the practical aspects of education, particularly those concerned with 'innovation' in curriculum design. Emphasis is placed on the issue of 'traditional' versus 'nontraditional' or 'innovative' education. In the name of 'innovation', faculty power politics supersede consideration for quality education and student needs. Unecessary changes are made with enormous waste of faculty time and financial resources. Educational policies focusing on curriculum content and innovative teaching 'methods' are incompatible with the new 'demands' of a changed social and political environment. Institutionalized education with its emphasis on conditioning and behavioral outcomes is no longer relevant in the times of mass communications and the 'global village'. The educational 'crisis' reflects a general cultural, political and moral crisis. The individual is dehumanized in a culture of capitalism and consumerism. By focusing on the reproduction of values of a consumer society, the schools do not educate for the individual's human development. They do not prepare the learner to meet the challenges of a global community. Paradigm shift to wholistic learning... learning is holistic and holistic learning is brain-based.

So-called traditional 'education' (traditional teaching paradigm) originated with the Industrial Revolution and evolved in the context of industrialism when school education was devised as an effective way to pre-adapt children to the demands of an industrial society and its rigid requirements for discipline and authoritarianism... to teach children the knowledge which they would need to adapt to the demands of an industrial society. The traditional paradigm for teaching evolved in the context of industrialism and its requirements for discipline, rigidity and authoritarianism (1). Emphasis is placed on the mechanics of learning and the methods of teaching (2). Traditional teaching methods are justified by the behavioural sciences and based on the premise that learning is a matter of conditioning (3). In the traditional paradigm, the role of the teacher is to define the outcomes of learning and to decide how students should learn (4). Learning in terms of given outcomes and teachers' expectations requires the memorization of content and a passive learning process (5). Knowledge and understanding are evaluated and measured in terms of a standardized punishment/reward system of grades and grade averages (6). As a result, students' motivation for learning becomes dependent on the avoidance of failure and the rewards of success - they become dependent on 'extrinsic motivation' (7). With the political, economic and social changes of today, in traditional paradigm of teaching is a likely cause for declining educational standards and is being seriously questioned 9). There is a fundamental shift in the philosophical paradigm of education and a new paradigm is emerging. Instead of placing the emphasis on methods of teaching, the new paradigm emphasizes the process of learning (10). New information about the learning process which is based on the natural functioning of the brain is provided by recent findings in the neurosciences (11). The natural function of the brain is to search for meaning in experience (12). Therefore a process of learning which is based on the brain's natural function in the context of experience is experiential learning or meaningful learning (13). Known as 'brain-based' and 'wholistic' learning, meaningful learning is based on the optimal functioning of the whole brain (14). Brain-based wholistic learning involves those brain processes which are both conscious and unconscious (15). The unconscious aspect of learning is involved with the intrinsic motives for learning or 'intrinsic motivation' (16). Emphasis on the learner's intrinsic motivation is key to the new paradigm for teaching in which the teacher's function is to facilitate the learning process. Teaching methods are based on their compatibility with the wholistic functioning of the brain (17). Discourse of traditional educational theory and practice: with the discussion of education within the narrow scope of pragmatism, the theoretical aspects of education have been deemphasized.

Since the end of the 19th century schools were structured and organized in response to the rise of industrialism. With attention focused on the economy, schools were constructed to provide an efficient work force for the economic infrastructure of an industrial society. The educational system of mass public education was devised as an effective means of adaptation to the industrial world. Educational policies were formulated with a view to pre-adapting children for the collective discipline, authoritarianism and regimentation of a rigid society of business and industry...to inculcate mental discipline... The hierarchical and mechanical school environment was modeled after the hierarchical and mechanical environment of industry. Schools were designed to produce an assembly line education...mass education... to prepare them for a future working environment ... to train them for the work force of an industrialized society... the policies of teacher authoritarianism, rigid seating and grouping arrangements, reward and punishment systems of marking and grading and a curriculum without individualization..

 The educational curriculum was conceived for purposes of training for the factory workplace. Students were expected to be punctual, to follow orders and to perform repetitive tasks in preparation for work on the factory floor and in the offices. A regimented education prepared them for a future as mechanical laborers of assembly line technology.

The 'classical curriculum' consisted of the basic skills of reading, writing and arithmetic.

 In the traditional paradigm of education, the goals of education were shaped by the worldview of reductionist science. Consistent with the reductionist worldview and its demand for detachment of the observer in the process of observation... 'scientific objectivity'... educational 'policies' were formulated on the basis of the learner's detachment from the process of learning.... emphasis was placed on the 'objective' indicators of the learner 'performance' - test scores, grades, diplomas, credentials, .

  which gave rise to the notion of individuality and individual 'freedom.' The price for freedom was alienation from nature and the loss of the natural perspective of the whole i.e. 'holistic perception..

 These methods are the legacy of the 'traditional' curriculum

 At first, the principles of 'traditional' education were applied to primary and secondary schools and later they were applied to higher education as well.

Within the context of a management hierarchy, teachers were required to be authoritarian, emphasizing repetitive work and rote learning

 

Mass education was a product of the industrial revolution. With the rise of industrialization and the consequent focus on the economy, schools have had to provide a work force for the hierarchical and the mechanical workplace of the factory, of business and of industry. Hierarchical and mechanical school environments have been modeled on the basis of the schools' function to provide a work force for the economic infrastructure of the society. Justification for the pragmatic function was found in the principles of behavioural psychology and its emphasis on conditioned learning. Dominating the educational system with their limited worldview, the behavioral sciences have ignored the students' inner life. They have imposed severe limitations on both psychology and the educational experience. With the specifiction of learning outcomes in predetermined lesson plans, they have promoted the evaluation of students on the basis of their 'performance' in objective testing. Teachers have been the primary authority and the judge in evaluation and asssessment of learning. In their pursuit of good grades for good learning behaviors, students have been motivated extrinsically.

Educational curricula and teaching methodologies were designed for the masses. Knowledge areas were fragmented and distributed into separate 'skills' and 'subjects', making up a 'curriculum' of academic 'requirements.' The fragmented approach of 'traditional' education emphasized punctuality and obedience. It required students to perform meaningless tasks without questioning. It required them to learn by rote memorization. Schools have become institutions of compulsory 'education'. Continuing in the tradition of forced learning, the function of the schools foster the illusions of 'democracy', 'equal opportunity' and the 'pursuit of happiness'. They continue to promote the values of the belief systems of American culture. Based on the ideals of the 'founding fathers', the belief systems of the American culture represent a unique form of 'nationalism'. By combining the American ideals with values derived from Protestantism, reductionism and capitalism, it has produced the characteristic myths of American culture. The notion of self-responsibility, though upheld by the founding fathers, has been replaced by the notion of responsibility to the 'society.'

 "Mass education was the ingenious machine constructed by industrialism to produce the kind of adults it needed. The problem was inordinately complex. How to pre-adapt children for a new world - a world of repetitive indoor toil, smoke, noise, machinesd, crowded living conditions, collective discipline, a world in which time was to be regulated not by the cycle of the sun and moon but by the factory whistle and the clock. The solution was an educational system that, in its very structure, simulated this new world...The most criticized feature s of education today - the regimentation, lack of individualizatio , the rigid systems of seating, grouping, grading, and marking, the authoritarian role of the teacher - are precisely those that made mass public education so effective an instrument of adaptation for its place and time..." (A Toffler. Future Shock. London, Pan Books. 1976 pp 361-362)

Traditional learning theory emphasizes retention of conditioned learning or 'conditioning' rather than the process of learning as creation of meaning in experience... 'experiential learning'... As creative learning, experiential learning is meaningful learning... is joyful, challenging and absorbing... engages attention and imagination enhances communication... Conditioned learning is non-creative... non-insightful... non-adaptive.  

In the traditional teaching paradigm, the goals of education are shaped by the worldview of reductionist science

"In the educational system, aptitude is substituted for vision... testing, guidance, counselling, career planning etc. This is a tragedy for children in our society. The evidence is in the tragedy of the adults who do not have sufficient creative inititiative to master their own lives. Creativity and imagination are natural to human beings. It is unnatural to limit them the way most people have been trained to do. Traditional education attempts to limit and control imagination". (Robert Fritz Path of Least Resistance)   

 EMPHASIS ON MECHANICS OF LEARNING AND METHODS OF TEACHING  .

  Traditional methods of teaching were justified by the behavioural sciences

  They were and based on the premise that learning is a matter of 'conditioning'.

 The traditional role of the teacher was to define the outcomes of task-oriented learning and then to decide how their students should learn.

  Within this paradigm, learners depend for their direction of learning on expected 'learning outcomes' and are encouraged to engage in a process of passive learning - memorizing objective knowledge with little understanding... imposed learning patterns are essentially meaningless and tend to be resisted.

 7. The resulting superficial knowledge whch results is evaluated and measured in terms of grades and grade averages.

8. The emphasis on the avoidance of failure and achievement of success results in the learner's dependency on external or 'extrinsic motivation'.

 9. Dependency on extrinsic rewards for learning is a likely cause for declining motivation in the modern post industrial age and the traditional paradigm is questioned today.

   The word 'discipline' when used in the context of traditional education is understood to mean obedience to rules ...expectations and codes of behaviour... imposed on the individual by an outside authority ...such as school teachers and administrations. In this context, the concept of freedom in the school is perceived as a lack of respect for authority, hence the commonly held notion that freedom and discipline cannot be worked out together in the same school environment. Educators perceive a real predicament when the real source of confusion arises from a problem in semantics. The words 'freedom' and 'discipline' must be defined in the context of an educational environment in which freedom and discipline prevail together... international cooperation... means the whole-hearted cooperation of all people of goodwill, regardless of race, creed, flag or political affiliation. The aims of education are to foster the individual's inner freedom and development toward the following: self-initiated action and acceptance of responsibility for one's own actions, self-direction and intelligent decision-making, critical learning and evaluation of others, acquisition of knoweledge for resolution of problems, intelligent and flexible adaptation to new situations, creative utilization of experiential learning in adaptation to new situations, effective cooperation with others, self-motivation and a desire to work for one's own purposes. Necessary environmental conditions must be provided for the students in a so-called 'progressive' educational setting. Self-initaited learning occurs when students have direct confrontation with meaningful and relevant problems. Self-direction in the learning process occurs with teachers who have a basic trust in the capacity of the student for developing his own potentiality; self-moitivation and desire to work occurs with teachers who are sincere, sensitive, and sympathetic. The effective teacher is a mature person with integrity as well as knowledge. He concentrates on creating a climate which facilitates learning and fosters responsible freedom. Without imposing himself of his knowledge, he is a resource and a provider of resources. He values each individual student as a developing human being with many feelings and many potentialities

 There is a fundamental shift in the philosophical paradigm of education and a new paradigm is emerging. Recent findings in brain research... 'neuroscience'... are shifting the attention of educators towards the biological basis of the human potential for learning and thinking.

  There is new information about the learning process which is based on the natural functioning of the brain.

The traditional teaching methods are in conflict with the natural functioning of the brain are described as'brain-antagonistic'.

  Emphasis on the learner's intrinsic motivation is key to the new paradigm for teaching.

 . Instead of placing the emphasis on methods of teaching, the new paradigm emphasizes the learning process. Teaching methods are based on natural principles of brain functioning.

TEACHER AS FACILITATOR OF LEARNING The teacher as facilitator encourages intrinsic motivation and self-directed learning. In order to facilitate the learning process, the facilitative teacher enhances learners' confidence with the intelligent use of error. Self- evaluation is a natural process which involves the correction of one's own errors.

 Teaching methods for the facilitation of learning are based on the natural principles of brain functioning.

The concept of 'traditional learning' as school-learning is relatively recent.

 In the ancient Athens of Plato and Socrates, learning was a part of life, work and leisure. Citizens engaged in discussion of issues in the market, in the baths and in the gym.

 The founding fathers of the America  believed in self-education. They believed that the success of the republic depended on the intellectual self-reliance of the citizenry and promoted open debate through free speech and a free press.

Only recently has schooling been confused with education and peoples' competence been judged by their diplomas. The 'professional' major qualification of the 'professional' is that he/she can pass a licensing examination. Increasing numbers of people make learning a continuing part of living. These so-called peak learners may represent a chance of survival of the human species and the planet.

 "Nontraditional education": The characterization of "traditional" education is best done by referring to a cluster of themes or modes such as l. use of classrooms 2. scheduled activities 3. assymetrical teacherstudent relationships etc. "Non-traditional" would refer to the absence or modification of one of these themes or modes. The extent of variation with "traditional" programs and institutions make it difficult to define the term "non-traditional." "Innovative education" refers to "innovation" in educational methodology.

INNOVATION An "innovation," a new approach or technique, is a variation on a known theme based on one of three principles. An innovation can be LOGICAL if it seems reasonable, ANALAGOUS if it is similar to something that has worked in a different cultural setting or geographic location or EMPIRICAL if it has been shown to work in a trial or experimental situation. The terms "nontraditional education" and "innovative education" are difficult to define. What is considered to be "nontraditional" and "innovative" in education is a matter of definition and opinion and of little intellectual interest.

References:

Goodman, Paul. Growing Up Absurd: Problems of Youth in the Organized System. New York: Random House, 1961.

See "The Learning Tradition" page 7-9 in the book "Peak Learning" by Richard Gross 

 Teaching strategies or 'techniques'...

 "...It is in fact nothing short of a miracle that the modern methods of instruction have not yet entirely strangled the holy curiostiy of inquiry; for this delicate little plant, aside from stimulation, stands mainly in need of freedom; without this it goes to rack and ruin without fail." (Einstein cited by Carl Rogers Freedom to Learn Charles Merrill Publishing Company, Columbus Ohio l969)

theme: 'Traditional' education, concerned with the transfer of knowledge, is irresponsible education if it ignores the child's inner development of personality... 'inner life'.  The adult's responsibility to the child is to recognise and respect the inner life and those inner needs which lead to complete development into a mature human being.

 Traditional teaching methods focus on 'surface knowledge' which does not necessarily make sense to the learner. Most teaching is done with a view to predetermined outcomes and the learner's successful 'performance' on tests. Most learning is by memorization of facts and procedures. The learner is rewarded with scores, grades and grade averages.

 "The old model of the teacher (based on the assumption that the teacher knows more than the student and must transfer knowledge to the student), and the whole complex set of attitudes and expectations that relates to that model, are extremely persistent." (Norman Goble)

 "The present teaching of 'teaching techniques' too often consists of strategies for maintenance of the teacher's status, in which a passive, non-developing role is assigned to the student." In this way the 'monopolist' teacher unwittingly becomes a protector of the status of the institution, antagonizing the student who refuses to cooperate in defense of his own status and self respect. A power struggle is set up between teachers and administration on the one hand and students on the other. Real knowledge is not "static, unchanging and quantitatively measureable." On the contrary, it is "dynamic and in constant flux." Treated as a status symbol and perceived quantitatively, knowledge becomes meaningless. Like money, the worth of knowledge is measured according to what it is used for and the beneficial changes which it is used to bring about. Emphasis on the teacher's possession of knowledge obscures the important fact that "the only purpose of teaching is to bring about successful learning."(66)

The teacher's responsibility: "teaching how knowledge can be sought, validated, assimilated and used as a basis for further learning, for forming and modifying goals and ideas, and for rational decision making. He is not so much a source or a purveyor as a guide to sources, an organizer of opportunities and an instructor in the techniques of inquiry and thought. His knowledge is not an ingredient in the student's education, to be consumed and used up, but a catalyst promoting the reactions of learning and growth as a result of the encounter between human capabilities and increasing knowledge." (58) "The old model of the teacher (based on the assumption that the teacher knows more than the student and must transfer knowledge to the student), and the whole complex set of attitudes and expectations that relates to that model, are extremely persistent." 

THE FACTOR OF STATUS: "One of the most serious obstacles to the kind of change that we are advocating is the persistent idea that status is gained or preserved by knowing more than somebody else." When this concept is institutionalized in a school system, children are subjected to the worst features of adult society- authoritarianism and "resistance to anything perceived as a threat to authority or status." "If the function of teacher is seen as the transmission of successive quanta of knowledge" and the knowledge itself is used as a criterion for status, then the teacher of an upper school grade has more status than a teacher of a lower grade, and the absurd equation results: "the younger the child, the lower the status of the teacher (since everyone 'knows' that younger children have had less time to ingest knowledge than the older ones, and so need less knowledgeable teachers.)" ref l. In order to prevent his own loss of status, the 'monopolist' teacher in such an institution, might devise ways to prevent the acknowledgement of a deserving student's competence, by striving to possess more knowledge and by making competence testing more difficult.In order to be able to respond to the needs of the student, "the teacher has to have a deep understanding of the nature of perceptions and of the learning process at various ages and stages of personal development (not just theoretical knowledge, but a shrewd practical awareness), comprehension of the idiom of speech and thought of the student, and a considerable degree of empathic understanding of the student's outlook and state of feeling."

 

 "Education, by serving the ruling interests in a class society, and by doing this in a disguised way, actually gives people a distorted view of the world, and offers a misrepresentation of reality. Through its process, its content and its political power in bestowing social rewards, it presents a conceptual scheme and methodologies- ways of perceiving the world - that largely ensure that people will take their place in the existing world as well-fitting members of the status quo, without questioning the status quo or perceiving the real relations on which it is built ...Education promotes a distorted and illusory view of reality in the name of enquiring into truth. And since it does this in a deliberate and systematic way, its offerings and products can properly be characterised as a structured misrepresentation of reality." ( Kevin Harris. Education and Knowledge: The Structured Misrepresentation of Reality. London, Boston and Henley: Routledge & Kegan Paul. 1979 chapter 5, On Education 164)

           TRADITIONAL SCHOOLING AS A MECHANISM OF SOCIAL CONTROL AS 'SOCIALIsATION': THE 'HIDDEN CURRICULUM'

theme: Discussion of educational policy must consider not only the content factor of education - the kind of knowledge acquired - but also the process factor - how the knowledge is acquired. Content is the overt curriculum. Process is the 'hidden curriculum'. Decisions about both content and process in education are based on value premises of both ethics and politics.

"Schools don't really teach anything but how to obey orders. Although teachers do care, and do work very, very hard, the institution is psychopathic; it has no conscience." (John Gatto)

Production of knowledge: Curriculum of content (overt curriculum) and curriculum of process (covert or hidden curriculum)  Education is concerned with the transmission and production of knowledge. The production of knowledge involves two aspects of educational practice or 'curricula'. One involves the knowledge itself or  'content'. The other involves the way in which the content is transmitted and produced i.e. 'process' . The process is concerned with the methodology of teaching and learning or 'pedagogy'. Pedagogy is concerned with how one learns the content, how one makes decisions about who learns the content and to what extent they learn it. The curriculum of content is the 'overt curriculum'. The curriculum of 'process' is the 'unstudied curriculum ' or 'hidden curriculum'.  In the process of learning the content, one learns how to learn the content, one learns who decides which aspects of the content are to be learned, one learns whom one must obey and respect, one learns how to addresss and react to different members of one's class, one learns whose favor one must curry, whose opinions to respect and so on.  Ethics and politics determine what is to be studied, by whom and to what extent.

Traditional schooling as a mechanism of social control: function of socialisation through the 'hidden curriculum'  

 In the American culture of capitalism and consumerism, educational policy focuses on the reproduction of so-called 'American values' which are reproduced in that aspect of the curriculum which deals with the process of transferring content from teacher to student i.e. the covert or 'hidden curriculum'.

 In the traditional paradigm education is provided by the state to serve the ruling interests of the society. 

Traditional education is based on the premise that education depends on obligatory attendance in school. Children belong in school, they learn in school and they can only be taught in school. This type of schooling and teaching as skill instruction confuses 'schooling' with education and learning.

Progressive learning is confused with grade advancement and competence is confused with school certificates and diplomas or 'credentials'.

Education as a matter of politics Education is a matter of politics. The system of education depends on the promotion of those teaching philosophies and methodologies which are compatible with the cultural values of the society in which the education is occurring. Education is concerned with the transmission of knowledge within the constraints of the material conditions and social relations determined by the values which are held by particular social groups and interests.

As a political act, education is concerned with determining which knowledge is transmitted and how it is transmitted if it is to serve these interests... 'unstudied curriculum or' 'hidden curriculum'

American education and capitalism The educational system of the American culture is designed to serve the interests of capitalism and consumerism. The cultural values which foster conformity to belief systems which are based on historical traditions and ideals are the ones which are sustained with American educational practice.   

 The basic structure of the culture is reproduced in the 'hidden curriculum' of the educational system. Decisions about process as well as content are derived from value premises which underlie the political and social philosophies. The hidden curriculum of obligatory instruction is justified by the constitutional principle of 'equal educational opportunity'. The function of the hidden curriculum is to foster conformity to the cultural values. The hidden curriculum serves to initiate the student into the culture of capitalism and consumerism by reproducing those cultural values which are compatible with it. The hidden curriculum transforms the non-material needs of the 'consumer' into demands for commodities. Students are taught how to be consumers of the services of 'teaching'. They are taught how to accept its inherent cultural values and expectations. They are taught how to blend in with the cultural belief systems. Once they have learned this lesson, they lose their incentive to grow in independence, to recognize relatedness and connection, and they disconnect themselves from opportunities which life has to offer... decline in motivation... 'problem of motivation'.

theme:  Discussion of educational policy must consider not only the content factor of education - the kind of knowledge acquired - but also the process factor - how the knowledge is acquired. Content is the overt curriculum. Process is the 'hidden curriculum'. Decisions about both content and process in education are based on value premises of both ethics and politics.

"Schools don't really teach anything but how to obey orders. Although teachers do care, and do work very, very hard, the institution is psychopathic; it has no conscience." (John Gatto)

                                                                                                                                   

Production of knowledge: Curriculum of content (overt curriculum) and curriculum of process (covert or hidden curriculum)  Education is concerned with the transmission and production of knowledge. The production of knowledge involves two aspects of educational practice or 'curricula'. One involves the knowledge itself or  'content'. The other involves the way in which the content is transmitted and produced i.e. 'process' . The process is concerned with the methodology of teaching and learning or 'pedagogy'. Pedagogy is concerned with how one learns the content, how one makes decisions about who learns the content and to what extent they learn it. The curriculum of content is the 'overt curriculum'. The curriculum of 'process' is the 'unstudied curriculum ' or 'hidden curriculum'.  In the process of learning the content, one learns how to learn the content, one learns who decides which aspects of the content are to be learned, one learns whom one must obey and respect, one learns how to addresss and react to different members of one's class, one learns whose favor one must curry, whose opinions to respect and so on.  Ethics and politics determine what is to be studied, by whom and to what extent.

 

School's function of socialisation: the term 'hidden curriculum' was invented by Philip Jackson.  Jackson's perspectives derive from educational psychology founded by Emile Durkheim in France at the end of the nineteenth century. His is "the most philosophically and scientifically comprehensive, clear, and workable approach to moral education..." (Kohlberg, L. "The Moral Atmosphere of the School" 200)

Phillip Jackson (Life in Classrooms 1968) was influenced by the educational psychology of French philosopher Emile Durkheim who had "the most philosophically and scientifically comprehensive, clear, and workable approach to moral education..."   Jackson invented the term 'hidden' or 'unstudied curriculum' to refer to ninety percent of what goes on in classrooms... the curriculum of obligatory instruction...  The hidden curriculum of the educational system reproduces the basic structure of the culture.  The school's function of socialisation is represented by three central characteristics of school life which teach the student to fit into a society of the same three characteristics - the crowds, the praise, the power.  In school the student learns to be treated as a member of a crowd of same-age, same-status others and thus to fit into a world of impersonal authority in which a relative stranger gives orders and wields power. This is the hidden curriculum of the educational system which reproduces the basic structure of the culture. 

 reference: Lawrence Kohlberg 'The Moral Atmosphere of the School' Chapter 13 Moral Education: It Comes With the Territory (Ed) David Purpel and Kevin Ryan, Berkeley,CA: McCutchen Publishing Co. 1976,196-220.

"In order to commit ourselves to collective end, we must have above all a feeling and affection for the collectivity. We have seen that such feelings cannot arise in the family where solidarity is based on blood and intimate relationship since the bonds uniting the citizens of a country have nothing to do with such relationships. The only way to instill the inclination to collective life is to get hold of the child when he leaves his family and enters school. We will succed the more  easily because in certain respects, he is more amenable to this joining of minds in a common consciousness than is the adult. To achieve this tonic effect on the child, the class must really share a common collective life. .... The most powerful means to instill in children the feeling of solidarity is to feel that the value of each is a function of the worth of all... there is a great distance between the state in which the child finds himself as he leaves the family and the one toward which he must strive. Intermediaries are necessary, the school environment the most desirable. It is more extensive than the family or the group of friends,. It results neither from blood nor free choice but from a meeting among subjects of similar age and condition. In that sense it resembles political society. On the other hand it is limited enough so that personal relations can crystallize. It is groups of young persons more or less like those of the social system of the school which have enabled the formation of societies larger than the family. Even in simple societies without schools, the elders would assemble the group at a given age and initiate them collectively into the moral and intellectual patrimony of the group. Induction into the moral patrimony of the group has never been conducted entirely within the family." (Emile Durkheim Moral Education. New York: Free Press, 1961 page 231)

Traditional schooling as a mechanism of social control: function of socialisation through the 'hidden curriculum'  

 In the American culture of capitalism and consumerism, educational policy focuses on the reproduction of so-called 'American values' which are reproduced in that aspect of the curriculum which deals with the process of transferring content from teacher to student i.e. the covert or 'hidden curriculum'.

 In the traditional paradigm education is provided by the state to serve the ruling interests of the society. 

Traditional education is based on the premise that education depends on obligatory attendance in school. Children belong in school, they learn in school and they can only be taught in school. This type of schooling and teaching as skill instruction confuses 'schooling' with education and learning.

Progressive learning is confused with grade advancement and competence is confused with school certificates and diplomas or 'credentials'.

The hidden curriculum as obligatory instruction or 'education' becomes obligatory attendance or 'schooling'. Obligatory schooling revolves around teacher authority and student passivity. Life as obligatory schooling is based on student classification according to age and performance on standardized tests. In the sorting process, students are expected to be obedient and passive, to work at meaningless tasks without complaint, to value competition and to respect their teachers as authority figures even though are forced to remain weak and demoralized. In this way, the schools can pursue their objectives in the successful reproduction of cultural values which form the basis for the hidden curriculum.

In this way the hidden curriculum prepares the student for a future of alienation and the institutionalization of life in a capitalist consumer culture.

Characteristics of school life: people, praise and power This is done through the three main characteristics of school life - the people, the praise, the power. In the life of 'school' the student learns to adapt to being treated as a same-age same-status member of a group, to obey the impersonal authority of strangers who give orders and wield power, to respond to the praise which is part of the rituals of schooling i.e school credentials and ceremonies such as diplomas, certificates, licenses, grades, honors lists, graduations and so on and to subscribe to the philosophy of 'accumulation'. As the philosophy of acculmulation the hidden curriculum of school and schooling is for the promotion of consumerism. As a promotor of consumerism, the schooling system performs the same three functions as powerful churches throughout human history. Like the church, the school is the repository of 'social myth'.

It serves to institutionalize the contradictions of that myth and it is the site of the ritual which hides and reproduces the discrepancies, disparities and conflicts existing between social principles and the practical applications of those principles.

Schools are responsible for children's learning and growth Schools create dependent personalities who are unable to draw on their own resources in order to give substance and pleasure to their existence. The absurdity... the growing child becomes unable to create meaningfulness for their own lives. In this 'education game', uncritical students focus on the content of the overt curriculum and become unaware of the other curriculum which is hidden in the process of teaching and learning that content. It is for this reason that the schooling system can be considered as a form of political manipulation (banking education.) As obligatory instruction for institutionalized living, education of the hidden curriculum becomes an industry for the production of knowledge. The knowledge industry is a fast-growing labor market which directly or indirectly employs a growing proportion of the population. In the labor market, education is defined in terms of 'services' and institutions which are created for the services required for educating people. Many people are kept in school for life, or they are guaranteed to fit into some other form of institution.

As obligatory instruction, the hidden curriculum is an educational process which lacks authenticity and depends for success on expectations.

 

Genuine educational reform Both the overt curriculum and the hidden curriculum must be considered in any discussion of educational 'reform'. Educational reform requires a fundamental change in the way children are educated i.e in the 'process of education'. Teachers and schools, no matter how good, can't do it alone. Parents can make the critical difference by taking an active role in children's education. Any reform in schooling has to deal with the absurdities of the system and expose the hidden curriculum. It is the hidden curriculum which combines consumer expectations with producers' beliefs in its claims and its ritual. If people remain hypnotized by the power of ritual, it is only by breaking the spell that one can create changes which lead to reform.

Hence educational reform is possible if it is based not only on changes in the overt curriculum,  but on changes in the hidden curriculum as well...  based on philosophy

 The hidden curriculum is an educational process which lacks authenticity and depends for success on expectations. Reform depends on an educational process which is meaningful and depends for success on self-reliance and hope.

Any discussion of educational 'reform' must consider not only the overt curriculum of content but also the hidden curriculum of process.  Genuine educational reform depends on a fundamental change in the way children are educated in the 'process of education'.  Teachers and schools can't do it alone. They must work with parents who can make the critical difference by taking an active role in their children's education. Any reform in schooling has to deal with the absurdities of the system and expose the hidden curriculum.

  Reform depends on  recognition of ritual of schooling as initiation into consumer culture It is the hidden curriculum which combines consumer expectations with producers' beliefs in its claims and its ritual. If people remain hypnotized by the power of ritual, it is only by breaking the spell that one can create changes which lead to reform. (Illich)

 

 ...an educational process which is meaningful and depends for success on self-reliance and hope.

Education is concerned with the transmission and production of knowledge.

Reform depends on educational philosophy What is needed is an educational philosophy that works. One philosophy which has been at the core of the education of the European ruling classes for years is based on the belief that the only basis of true knowledge is 'self-knowledge'. In this system the family is the main arena for education. At every age the child finds himself alone with a problem to solve. Children are trusted with independent study from a very early age. Their privacy and solitude is respected. Curricula are developed which enable children to cultivate self-knowledge and self-reliance. Their sense of responsibility is enhanced by making community service a part of their schooling. The understanding teacher is respected and children are not deprived of the time which they need to develop self-knowledge. Children who develop self-knowledge are capable of rational thought. They are able to apply the natural principles of social life to their own lives and they are able to mature and develop their own humanity (conscience) and the humanity of others.

Education is concerned with the transmission and production of knowledge.

 "The educational use of the 'hidden curriculum'...is to bring the dialogue of justice into the classroom." (Kohlberg, L., and Turiel, E. "Moral Development and Moral Education." Psychology and Educational Practice, edited by Lesser. G. Chicago IL: Scott Foresman, 1971. 214)

Implications for education Both the overt curriculum and the hidden curriculum in any discussion of educational 'reform'. Educational reform requires a fundamental change in the way children are educated i.e in the 'process' of education. Teachers and schools, no matter how good, can't do it alone. Parents can make the critical difference by taking an active role in children's education. Any reform in schooling has to deal with the absurdities of the system and expose the hidden curriculum. It is the hidden curriculum which combines consumer expectations with producers' beliefs in its claims and its ritual. If people remain hypnotized by the power of ritual, it is only by breaking the spell that one can create changes which lead to reform. Hence educational reform is possible if it is based not only on changes in the overt curriculum, but on changes in the hidden curriculum as well. The hidden curriculum is an educational process which lacks authenticity and depends for success on expectations. Reform depends on an educational process which is meaningful and depends for success on self-reliance and hope. What is needed is an educational philosophy that works. One philosophy which has been at the core of the education of the European ruling classes for years is based on the belief that the only basis of true knowledge is self-knowledge. In this system the family is the main arena for education. At every age the child finds himself alone with a problem to solve. Children are trusted with independent study from a very early age. Their privacy and solitude is respected. Curricula are developed which enable children to cultivate self-knowledge and self-reliance. Their sense of responsibility is enhanced by making community service a part of their schooling. The understanding teacher is respected and children are not deprived of the time which they need to develop self-knowledge. Children who develop self-knowledge are capable of rational thought. They are able to apply the natural principles of social life to their own lives and they are able to mature and develop their own humanity (conscience) and the humanity of others.

references:

Kevin Harris. Education and Knowledge: The Structured Misrepresentation of Reality. London, Boston and Henley: Routledge & Kegan Paul. 1979 chapter 5 education.

Lawrence Kohlberg The Moral Atmosphere of the School Chapter 13 Moral Education: It Comes With the Territory (Ed) David Purpel and Kevin Ryan, Berkeley,CA: McCutchen Publishing Co. 1976,

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The system of education depends on the promotion of those teaching philosophies and methodologies which are compatible with the cultural values of the society in which the education is occurring. Education is concerned with the transmission of knowledge within the constraints of the material conditions and social relations determined by the values which are held by particular social groups and interests. As a political act, education is concerned with determining which knowledge is transmitted and how it is transmitted if it is to serve these interests.

Education is concerned with the transmission and production of knowledge. The production of knowledge involves two aspects of educational practice or 'curricula'. One involves the knowledge 'content'. The other involves the way or 'process' in which the content is transmitted and produced. The process involves the methodology of teaching and learning or 'pedagogy'. Pedagogy is concerned with how one learns the content, how one makes decisions about who learns the content and to what extent they learn it. The curriculum of content is the 'overt curriculum'. The curriculum of 'process' is the 'hidden curriculum'. Both the overt curriculum and the hidden curriculum in any discussion of educational 'reform'.

Decisions about process as well as content are derived from value premises which underlie the political and social philosophies. The hidden curriculum of obligatory instruction is justified by the constitutional principle of 'equal educational opportunity'. The function of the hidden curriculum is to foster conformity to the cultural values. The hidden curriculum as obligatory instruction or 'education' becomes obligatory attendance of obligatory schooling. Obligatory schooling revolves around teacher authority and student passivity. Life as obligatory schooling is based on student classification according to age and performance on standardized tests. In the sorting process, students are expected to be obedient and passive, to work at meaningless tasks without complaint, to value competition and to respect their teachers as authority figures even though are forced to remain weak and demoralized. In this way, the schools can pursue their objectives in the successful reproduction of cultural values which form the basis for the hidden curriculum. The hidden curriculum serves to initiate the student into the culture of capitalism and consumerism by reproducing those cultural values which are compatible with it. The hidden curriculum transforms the nonmaterial needs into demands for commodities. Students are taught how to be consumers of the services of 'teaching'. They are taught how to accept its inherent cultural values and expectations. They are taught how to blend in with the cultural belief systems.

Once they have learned this lesson, they lose their incentive to grow in independence, to recognize relatedness and connection, and they disconnect themselves from opportunities which life has to offer. In this way the hidden curriculum prepares the student for a future of alienation and the institutionalization of life in a capitalist consumer culture. This is done through the three main characteristics of school life - the people, the praise, the power. In the life of 'school' the student learns to adapt to being treated as a same-age same-status member of a group, to obey the impersonal authority of strangers who give orders and wield power, to respond to the praise which is part of the rituals of schooling i.e school credentials and ceremonies such as diplomas, certificates, licenses, grades, honors lists, graduations and so on and to subscribe to the philosophy of 'accumulation'. As the philosophy of acculmulation the hidden curriculum of school and schooling is for the promotion of consumerism. As a promotor of consumerism, the schooling system performs the same three functions as powerful churches throughout human history. Like the church, the school is the repository of social myth, it serves to institutionalize the contradictions of that myth and it is the site of the ritual which hides and reproduces the discrepancies, disparities and conflicts existing between social principles and the practical applications of those principles. At the same time they are responsible for children's learning and growth. Schools create dependent personalities who are unable to draw on their own resources in order to give substance and pleasure to their existence. Unable to create meaningfulness for their own lives, children grow up absurd. In this education 'game', uncritical students focus on the content of the overt curriculum and become unaware of the other curriculum which is hidden in the process of teaching and learning that content. It is for this reason that the schooling system can be considered as a form of political manipulation (banking education.) As obligatory instruction for institutionalized living, education of the hidden curriculum becomes an industry for the production of knowledge. The knowledge industry is a fast-growing labor market which directly or indirectly employs a growing proportion of the population. In the labor market, education is defined in terms of 'services' and institutions which are created for the services required for educating people. Many people are kept in school for life, or they are guaranteed to fit into some other form of institution.

 Education is concerned with the transmission and production of knowledge.

It is for this reason that the schooling system can be considered as a form of political manipulation

EDUCATION INDUSTRY AND THE HIDDEN CURRICULUM

Myths of schools: School combines the expectations of the consumer, expressed in its claims, with the beliefs of the producer, expressed in its ritual

An analysis of the 'hidden curriculum' of school and the 'educational machine' of obligatory instruction:

When the aims of education serve political ideology - education for citizens of a democracy - they do not concur with the natural aims of education for human development.

  Reform depends on  recognition of ritual of schooling as initiation into consumer culture ( Illich)...

      

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The system of education depends on the promotion of those teaching philosophies and methodologies which are compatible with the cultural values of the society in which the education is occurring. Education is concerned with the transmission of knowledge within the constraints of the material conditions and social relations determined by the values which are held by particular social groups and interests. As a political act, education is concerned with determining which knowledge is transmitted and how it is transmitted if it is to serve these interests.

Education is concerned with the transmission and production of knowledge. The production of knowledge involves two aspects of educational practice or 'curricula'. One involves the knowledge 'content'. The other involves the way or 'process' in which the content is transmitted and produced. The process involves the methodology of teaching and learning or 'pedagogy'. Pedagogy is concerned with how one learns the content, how one makes decisions about who learns the content and to what extent they learn it. The curriculum of content is the 'overt curriculum'. The curriculum of 'process' is the 'hidden curriculum'. Both the overt curriculum and the hidden curriculum in any discussion of educational 'reform'.

Decisions about process as well as content are derived from value premises which underlie the political and social philosophies. The hidden curriculum of obligatory instruction is justified by the constitutional principle of 'equal educational opportunity'. The function of the hidden curriculum is to foster conformity to the cultural values. The hidden curriculum as obligatory instruction or 'education' becomes obligatory attendance of obligatory schooling. Obligatory schooling revolves around teacher authority and student passivity. Life as obligatory schooling is based on student classification according to age and performance on standardized tests. In the sorting process, students are expected to be obedient and passive, to work at meaningless tasks without complaint, to value competition and to respect their teachers as authority figures even though are forced to remain weak and demoralized. In this way, the schools can pursue their objectives in the successful reproduction of cultural values which form the basis for the hidden curriculum. The hidden curriculum serves to initiate the student into the culture of capitalism and consumerism by reproducing those cultural values which are compatible with it. The hidden curriculum transforms the nonmaterial needs into demands for commodities. Students are taught how to be consumers of the services of 'teaching'. They are taught how to accept its inherent cultural values and expectations. They are taught how to blend in with the cultural belief systems.

Once they have learned this lesson, they lose their incentive to grow in independence, to recognize relatedness and connection, and they disconnect themselves from opportunities which life has to offer. In this way the hidden curriculum prepares the student for a future of alienation and the institutionalization of life in a capitalist consumer culture. This is done through the three main characteristics of school life - the people, the praise, the power. In the life of 'school' the student learns to adapt to being treated as a same-age same-status member of a group, to obey the impersonal authority of strangers who give orders and wield power, to respond to the praise which is part of the rituals of schooling i.e school credentials and ceremonies such as diplomas, certificates, licenses, grades, honors lists, graduations and so on and to subscribe to the philosophy of 'accumulation'. As the philosophy of acculmulation the hidden curriculum of school and schooling is for the promotion of consumerism. As a promotor of consumerism, the schooling system performs the same three functions as powerful churches throughout human history. Like the church, the school is the repository of social myth, it serves to institutionalize the contradictions of that myth and it is the site of the ritual which hides and reproduces the discrepancies, disparities and conflicts existing between social principles and the practical applications of those principles. At the same time they are responsible for children's learning and growth. Schools create dependent personalities who are unable to draw on their own resources in order to give substance and pleasure to their existence. Unable to create meaningfulness for their own lives, children grow up absurd. In this education 'game', uncritical students focus on the content of the overt curriculum and become unaware of the other curriculum which is hidden in the process of teaching and learning that content. It is for this reason that the schooling system can be considered as a form of political manipulation (banking education.) As obligatory instruction for institutionalized living, education of the hidden curriculum becomes an industry for the production of knowledge. The knowledge industry is a fast-growing labor market which directly or indirectly employs a growing proportion of the population. In the labor market, education is defined in terms of 'services' and institutions which are created for the services required for educating people. Many people are kept in school for life, or they are guaranteed to fit into some other form of institution.

 Education is concerned with the transmission and production of knowledge.

It is for this reason that the schooling system can be considered as a form of political manipulation

Most teaching is done with a view to predetermined outcomes and the learner's successful 'performance' on tests. It places the emphasis almost entirely on acquiring data through memorization or 'rote learning'.

According to the modern meaning of 'traditional' education i.e. the fragmented and assembly line approach to education, most learning is by memorization of isolated information. The emphasis is placed almost entirely on acquiring data which on its own, does not necessarily make sense i.e. 'inert knowledge' or 'surface knowledge'. Surface knowledge refers to the mechanics of knowledge i.e. the facts and procedures. Knowledge of the fact as knowledge that something is the case is 'declarative knowledge'. Knowledge of the procedure is 'procedural knowledge'. Teaching practice is based on the notion that declarative knowledge and procedural knowledge are learned in a process of conditioning which involves the separate functioning of the 'emotions' and the 'intellect'.

In the traditional teaching paradigm teachers are considered to be authorities who decide what and how their students should learn. Most teaching is done with lesson plans which include specified learning outcomes. Students learn through the lecture and textbook. Evaluation of learning is based on the successful 'performance' on objective tests even though much of what is 'learned' is forgotten after testing. Performance is evaluated in terms of a reward/punishment system of scores, grades and grade averages (grade).

The inner life is the basis of social life.

Naturally protective ethical barriers are spontaneously set up between learner and teacher, preventing the learner from engaging in a learning process which is a natural product of brain functioning. The emphasis on the conventional reward/ punishment system of grading deprives the learner of experiencing the real joys of learning... inhibits the learner's natural capacity for personal creativity and intellectual growth... emphasis on predetermined outcomes deprives the learner of the opportunity to develop a personal capacity for decision making. They deprive the brain ...learner of the opportunity for its own natural development. By ignoring the brain's natural function as a pattern detector, 'brain-antagonistic learning'...

Brain-antagonistic learning intrudes on the brain's natural development, interfering with natural intellectual and moral development. Interference with personal development prevents from the learner from seeing the links between their learning and their life experience... makes of the learner a prisoner of his own mind.

 Emphasis on memorization leaves the learner impoverished, does not facilitate transfer of learning, and probably interferes with the development of understanding.

A fragmented and assembly line education ...a hierarchical and mechanical school environment inhibits the brain's capacity for making connections... actually inhibits the grasp of a link between subjects and life that is essential for complex learning. Those teaching and learning methods which are brain-antagonistic inhibit learning because they inhibit the formation of synaptic connections between nerve cells (synapse).

 In contrast to the brain-antagonistic pedagogies are the pedagogies for complex learning which are based on the principles of brain functioning. These are known 'brain-compatible' pedagogies. Pedagogies which are compatible with the functioning of the brain are effective because they involve the efficient use of its potential. They enhance learning because they are based on the natural functioning of the brain... the nerve cell or neuron... nerve impulse... the synapse. They strengthen the synaptic connections between neurons and they enhance the formation of new synaptic connections.

The process of learning is neither enjoyable nor stimulating unless it is part of a larger pattern which is intrinsically motivating i.e. based on the learner's 'intrinsic motivation'.

 Performance is evaluated in terms of a reward/punishment system of scores, grades and grade averages (grade).

Teaching practice is based on the notion that declarative knowledge and procedural knowledge are learned in a process of conditioning which involves the separate functioning of the 'emotions' and the 'intellect'.

  'Brain-antagonistic' pedagogies contrast with the so-called 'brain-compatible' pedagogies of learning by the brain's rules.

Teaching and learning methods which are brain-compatible enhance learning because they are based on the natural functioning of the brain.

They strengthen the connections which exist between nerve cells or 'neurons' and they enhance the formation of new connections or 'synapses'.

The practice of American education has been profoundly influenced by the American worldview, and its characteristically hostile attitude toward nature and human nature. Derived from orthodox Protestantism and its emphasis on religious texts and creeds, the American moralistic worldview has stressed the importance of authorities in dealing with educational practices. Traditional' education' was molded by the Industrial Revolution. The educational curriculum was conceived for purposes of training for the factory workplace and designed for mass education. Within the context of a management hierarchy, the 'classical curriculum,' consisted of the basic skills of reading, writing and arithmetic. Students were expected to be punctual, to follow orders and to perform repetitive tasks in preparation for work on the factory floor and in the offices. A regimented education prepared them for a future as mechanical laborers of assembly line technology. Teachers were required to be authoritarian, emphasizing repetitive work and rote learning. At first, the principles of 'traditional' education and the 'classical curriculum' were applied to primary and secondary schools and later they were applied to higher education as well. More recently, they have been applied to the new practice of 'adult education.'

SCHOOLS PERPETUATE MYTHS OF CAPITALISM

In fostering the traditional values of American nationalism, Protestantism, reductionism, capitalism, and materialism, the schools reproduce the myths of American consumerism.

In keeping with 'tradition', the schools teach the values of hierarchy, success, moralism and control... obligatory instruction of the cultural values - 'hidden curriculum' - promoted with authoritarian teaching methodologies and 'philosophies'. In the cultural context of 'school' and 'schooling', the individual' is expected...required... to conform to forced imposition of cultural myths and cultural values.

School authorities want the individual to meet their 'expectations' instead of fostering the individual's self-reliance and self-responsibility ...hope for his own future and his own expectations.

By cultivating conformity to cultural values, they impose thought and behavior patterns which repress... inhibit the individual's natural capacity ...desire for learning, for growth, for independence and for happiness... they cultivate a sense of dependence on 'role models' authorities and experts...

they cultivate unrealistic ambitions for 'professional' status 'competitive spirit' and stressful living.

in the consumer culture. Instead of fostering the individual's sense of integrity... the positive aspects of moral responsibility to themselves... health

Instead of trusting the individual's human potential for intellectual and moral development, the school imposes requirements in the form of grades and 'performance' scores.

Instead of fostering the individual's critical consciousness, they cultivate mindlessness.

With its demands for meaningless and passive learning, the school discourages creative and critical thinking.

In forcing ... imposing requirements for their ...'adaptation' and enculturation, the use of traditional methods obscure the real llenges of living... deny the real joys of learning.

the demands of complex learning in a complex environment... the real challenges involved in realizing their personal hopes and dreams... deprived of the experience of the real joys of learning.

Instead of trusting the individual's human potential for intellectual and moral development, they impose academic requirements and ethical codes.

The demands for meaningless and passive learning inhibit the individual's capacity for creative and critical thinking.

With the function of reproducing the cultural values, the educational system neglects to prepare each individual for life in a complex world. It neglects to foster the individual's natural intellectual and moral development into a responsible social human being. It neglects to foster the individual's natural capacities for adaptation to changing social conditions. The resulting anomalous social situation produces incapacitated and incompetent individuals manifest as the so-called educational 'crisis'.

 

 Brain antagonistic teaching  methods: rote memorization or 'rote' learning'     

Theme: In the framework of the traditional teaching paradigm, most teaching is done with a view to predetermined outcomes such as successful 'performance' on tests which emphasize the acquisition of data through memorization of factual material and isolated information i.e. 'rote learning'. Rote learning is conditioned learning... programmed learning... not necessarily with understanding.  Rote learning develops dependent personalities...

"Much of the problem in leading a child to effective cognitive activity is to free him from the immediate control of environmental rewards and punishments. Learning that starts in response to the rewards of parental or teacher approval or to the avoidance of failure can too readily develop a pattern in which the child is seeking cues as to how to conform to what is expected of him. We know from studies of children who tend to be early overachievers in school that they are likely to be seekers after the 'right way to do it' and that their capacity for transforming learning into viable thought structures tends to be lower than that of children achieving at levels predicted by intelligence tests ...They develop rote abilities and depend on being able to 'give back' what is expected rather than to make it into something that relates to the rest of their cognitive life. Their learning is not their own." (Jerome Bruner. On Knowing: Essays for the Left Hand, Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1962, 88)

Rote learning is 'route' or 'taxon' learning   Rote learning is 'route' learning or 'taxon' learning (from 'taxonomies' meaning lists, prototypes and categories which refer to generic terms such as 'dog', 'school' etc.) As taxon learning, rote learning is based on the brain's 'taxon memory systems'. Retention of taxon memories depends on repeated rehearsals. Lack of rehearsal results in loss of memoryor 'forgetting. Rote learning is inefficient because it activates only part of the brain's potential. Route learning is the traditional textbook learning for test-taking and grades. It involves specified 'routes' for acquisiton of knowledge

  When the brain is activated largely for the purposes of rote learning, a relatively small number of neurons are fired repeatedly resulting in rapid brain fatigue and inhibiting the formation of synaptic connections.

Traditional paradigm  Pedagogies based on methods of rote learning have been evident for centuries. In the relatively recent 'traditional' or 'behavioural paradigm' of education the fragmented and assembly line approach is based on the confusion of learning with school and 'schooling'. Learning as schooling places the emphasis almost entirely on the mechanics of knowledge - the knowledge that something is the case as in a 'fact' i.e. 'declarative knowledge', and knowledge of how something is done as in a 'procedure' i.e. 'procedural knowledge'. Declarative and procedural knowledge or 'data' which on its own does not  necessarily make sense is 'inert knowledge' or 'surface knowledge'. Surface knowledge which is unrelated to life experience is meaningless.

In the traditional paradigm of education emphasis is placed on  surface knowledge which is often  for the learners concerned.

  Traditional teaching methods are detrimental to brain function... 'brain- antagonistic' methods of learning  Teaching methods which impose meaningless patterns on the brain are met with its resistance to learning... are known as 'brain-antagonistic' pedagogies. Brain-antagonistic methods involve the processing of meaningless stimuli which are forced ]and meet with its natural resistance. The brain naturally resists the imposition of meaningless patterns and isolated facts which become meaningless when unrelated to meaningful experience. Brain-antagonistic pedagogies antagonize the learning process. The brain naturally resists rote learning of fragmented information which has no meaning in experience. Rote learning is a form of learning which is very tiring and taxing. With rote learning the brain is rapidly fatigued. When the brain is activated largely for the purposes of memorization, a relatively small number of neurons fire repeatedly and this is what leads to rapid brain fatigue. When the brain is used largely for the purposes of rote learning, only part of its potential is activated.

Pedagogies based on methods of rote learning have been evident for centuries... evident in the sixteenth century at the time of Montaigne. "'Tis the custom of pedagogues to be eternally thundering in their pupils' ears, as they were pouring into a funnel, whilst the business of the pupil is only to repeat what the others have said: now I would have a tutor to correct this error, and that at the very first he should, according to the capacity he has to deal with, put it to the test, permitting his pupil himself to taste things, and of himself to discern and choose them, sometimes opening the way to him, and sometimes leaving him to open it for himself. ... Cubs of bears and puppies readily discover their natural inclination; but men, so soon as ever they are grown up, applying themselves to certain habits, engaging themselves in certain opinions, and conforming themselves to particular laws and customs, easily alter, or at least disguise, their true and real disposition; and yet it is hard to force the propension of nature. Whence it comes to pass, that for not having chosen the right course, we often take very great pains, and consume a good part of our time in training up children to things for which, by their natural constitution, they are totally unfit." (Michel Eyquem de Montaigne (1533-1592) "Of the Education of Children", The Essays, The Great Books of the Western World, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1952 volume 25:64)

Teacher's role in the traditional paradigm  In the traditional paradigm of 'banking education', the teacher is an authority who decides what and how their students should learn through lecture and textbook. Lessons are designed with a view to specific 'learning outcomes' which are outlined in structured 'lesson plans'. Evaluation of learning is based on student 'performance' on 'objective tests'. And even though much is forgotten after testing, performance is measured in terms of a reward/punishment system of 'scores', 'grades' and 'grade averages'. These methods are characteristic of the 'student/teacher contradiction'  in which naturally protective ethical barriers are spontaneously set up between learner and teacher and the learner is prevented from engaging in natural learning. Teaching practice is based on the assumption that learning is a mental process which substitutes one stimulus for another in conditioned responses i.e. 'conditioned learning' or 'conditioning'. Conditioning is 'programming. Programming without understanding involves the separate functioning of 'emotions' and 'intellect' and its retention depends on the repetition of rote learning.

 Emphasis on conditioning and rote learning involves the unnatural imposition of meaningless stimuli on the brain.

Brain-antagonistic methods of teaching (teaching for 'rote learning' or 'conditioned learning' actually inhibit 'real learning' as experiential learning because they inhibit the formation of new synaptic connections in the cortex of the brain.

Traditional teaching methods are 'brain-antagonistic'  The traditional teaching methods which emphasize facts and outcomes are ineffective in the development of the human potential for intelligence required for social adaptability - rational, spiritual, emotional, aesthetic, creative i.e.  'social intelligence'. Development of social intelligence depends on a learning environment characterised by respect for the individual's 'freedom' and their instinctive capacity for 'self-evaluation'. Since authoritarian methods teach to behavioural objectives, they can actually prevent real understanding of meaningful learning and are described as 'brain-antagonistic'. Brain-antagonistic teaching  ignores the role of the unconscious or 'emotion' in the process of learning. Meaningful learning engages personal initiative based on instinctive motivations or 'emotional drives' i.e. 'intrinsic motivation'. The various types of intrinsic motivation - 'motivational types' - are determined by a range of human motives for learning or 'human needs'. Human needs include the so-called 'higher needs' or 'spiritual needs' i.e. 'metaneeds' for 'ego-transcendance' as well as the basic psychological 'ego needs' for security and self-esteem. The motivational type depends on the individual's level of psychological development or 'sociocognitive stage'. Hence the importance of intrinsic motivated learning which engages personality development to maturity or 'self-actualisation'.

 "Route learning is the traditional textbook learning for test-taking and grades. It involves specified 'routes' for acquisiton of knowledge. Map learning involves the whole brain.... "Maps allow for the whole brain - feelings included... The brain is designed to deal with complex stimuli." (Nummela, R., and T. Rosengren. "The Brain's Routes and Maps: Vital Connections in Learning." NAASP National Association American Society of Principals Bulletin 72: 507 83-86 April 1988)

Emphasis on rote learning inhibits the development of 'conscience' and 'social intelligence'  The brain's  natural function is to detect patterns, find relationships and make connections as quickly as possible in order to adapt to the complexities of changing conditions i.e. 'adaptability'. Adaptability depends on the brain's ability to make meaning of experience or 'learn'. Natural learning involves the brain's ability to integrate isolated facts with experience and to resist fragmentation of information. Teaching methods which depend on rote learning of fragmented knowledge naturally meet with the brain's resistance and antagonize the learning process. So-called 'brain-antagonistic' methods inhibit the brain's natural capacity for making connections and reduce its capacities for understanding relationships. This leads to brain deficiencies such as inability to process complex stimuli and connect with the emotional or 'inner life' which is the basis for social life. Brain-antagonistic methods interfere with the brain's natural development - intellectual or 'cognitive' development, emotional or 'psychological' development, and spiritual or 'ethical' development i.e. 'moral development'. Moral development is a function of development of 'moral consciousness' or 'conscience'. Alienation from conscience leads to imprisonment of mind and lack of 'freedom'. Development of conscience is a function of development of 'morality' and occurs in a series of age related stages i.e. 'socio-cognitive stages'.

Overemphasis on the rote learning capacity of the brain is an inefficient use of its potential. Learning by rote inhibits the brain's natural capacities for making connections and reduces its capacities for understanding relationships. As a result, the brain can become deficient in carrying out the natural functions which are essential to complex learning ...in the natural processing of complex stimuli. With deficiencies in the brain's capacity to process complex stimuli, there is little connectedness with other knowledge, or with the learner's emotional or 'inner life'.

Developed conscience is the source of human values for living or 'social intelligence'.

'Brain-compatible' pedagogies  Social intelligence which depends on the brain's ability to see links between learning and life is fostered by educational methods based on the brain's rules for complex learning i.e. 'brain-based learning'. So-called brain-compatible pedagogies enhance learning because they stimulate the brain's natural capacity for making connections between nerve cells or 'neurons'. They strengthen existing connections or 'synapses' and stimulate the formation of new ones. Brain-compatible pedagogies are based on recognition and respect for the learner's intrinsic motives for learning i.e. 'intrinsic motivation'.

Intrinsic motivation determines the extent to which rote learning is meaningful.

Implications for education  Overemphasis on predetermined outcomes, taxon memory and rote learning is an inefficient use of brain potential unless it is part of a larger pattern which is intrinsically motivating... a product of 'intrinsic motivation'.The inefficiency of rote learning deprives the learner of experiencing the real joys of learning and inhibits development of their natural capacity for personal creativity and intellectual growth and effective decision making i.e. 'adaptability'. It prevents the full functioning of the brain i.e. 'optimal learning' or 'optimalearning'. Optimalearning is effective because it involves the efficient use of brain potential...  involves understanding through expression and dialogue i.e. 'dialogical knowledge' - an outcome of teaching methods which are based on the resolution of the traditional 'teacher/student contradiction' i.e. 'humanisation' of education. Humane education is education of the whole person or 'holistic education'. Holistic education is education for the freedom to develop human potentialities... education for 'freedom' or 'libratory pedagogy'.

BRAIN-COMPATIBLE METHODOLOGIES Teaching methodologies are based on the integration of subject matter with life experience... respect for children's innate intelligence. Teaching for brain-based learning acknowledges the brain's ability to relate vast amounts of information to what has already been learned... allows for the learner's unique contribution. Learning takes place in different contexts. Brain-compatible methodologies encourage holistic thinking and a global perspective or 'wholistic perception'. Good pedagogical method is based on sound theoretical foundations. Teaching for the enhancement of learning... Brain-compatible pedagogies... They teach for learning which is meaningful in contextual frameworks. They provide for the individual's needs as well as for cultural differences and commonalities.

  TRADITIONAL EDUCATION as education for domination: STUDENT/TEACHER  ONTRADICTION  AND 'BANKING EDUCATION'

theme: Traditional education or 'banking education' is based on the assumption that the possession of knowledge  brings with it the power to control the future.  

 "Banking education mythisizes reality and therefore fosters irrational thinking which creates further mythisizing." (Paulo Freire. Pedagogy of the Oppressed Herder and Herder, 1971 (original Portuguese manuscript 1968, translated by Myra Bergman Ramos) (15)

                                                                                                                                  

politics of banking education...    banking education and learning theory...   control of imagination...

student evaluation...   mechanistic view of consciousness...

implications for education...

quotations...

 Politics of banking education: 'student-teacher contradiction' The term 'banking education' was coined by Paulo Freire to refer to educational pedagogy which is likened to the process of banking. The passive student becomes a depository for storing bits of knowledge which might be withdrawn and used later in life. The 'banking concept' of education is based on the perception of knowledge as an unchanging finite entity which like a gift can be bestowed to those don't have it by those who do. The politics of banking education is justified on the basis of the assumption that the student's ignorance is absolute. The teacher is considered to be a 'monopolist' of knowledge and their function is to concentrate on artificial and arbitrary scholarship. The function of the teacher is measured by the difference in knowledge level compared with the student.The teaching role is defined in terms of the transferrence of knowledge from the knowlegeable 'teacher' to the ignorant 'student'. (Immature) teachers confuse their authority of knowledge with professional authority. They set their authority in opposition to their students and present themselves as the necessary opposite in the so-called 'student-teacher contradiction'.  

Implicit in the student-teacher contradiction is the assumption that there is a dichotomy between the students and their world... the 'social reality'. In the learning situation, students are 'objects' and the teacher is the 'subject' which engages in the destructive pedagogy of transferring information as if it should be placed in a depository or 'bank' to be stored and then withdrawn and used later. Teachers teach and students are taught; teachers know everything and students know nothing; students accept their ignorance as justifying the teacher's existence... they never discover that it is in fact they who educate the teacher. Teachers think and students are thought about; teachers talk and students listen; teachers discipline and students are disciplined; teachers choose and enforce their choices and students comply; teachers choose program content and students adapt without consultation; teachers act and students act through the teacher; students are spectators and not creators. As a result teachers become afraid of communicating  with the students and the student/teacher contradiction is maintanied.

If the contradiction is formalized in the school institution then it is a reflection of the oppressor-oppressed contradiction of the mythical reality... the 'social realty'.  

"The opposite of education, manipulation is based on the absence of faith in the growth of potentialities and on the conviction that the child will be right only if the adults put into him what is desirable and cut off what seems to be undesirable. There is no need of faith in the robot since there is no life in it either." (Carl Rogers. Freeedom To Learn)

Banking education and learning theory...learning is considered to be passive 'behavioural paradigm'  ...The learning process is understood in terms of tranferrals of information from the teacher to the student...  Students of banking education are expected to accept a passive role. The student of banking education is taught to accept a passive role and not to challenge or question. In this way banking education attempts to control thinking and to transform the student into an individual who will adjust to the reality intended by the oppressor.

In order to possess the knowledge which the teacher transfers to them, they are expected to memorize or learn by 'rote'.

 Banking education is the practice of domination and mirrors the oppressiveness of the dominant society. The ideological intent or aim is to stimulate credulity and to indoctrinate the student to adapt to the world of oppression. This is the 'hidden curriculum' not often perceived by educators.

Banking education is an instrument of social control... controls by manipulating the content of the imagination. This explains the almost instinctive reaction against educational 'experiments' which would stimulate the student's critical faculties and encourage a critical consideration of reality. The banking approach to education teaches the individual to accept without questioning. The student of banking education is not permitted to ask 'why?'

    The propaganda of banking education anesthetizes and inhibits the individual's creativity and the creative power of inner freedom. With the annullment of their creative power, individuals are prevented from thinking and it is this which serves the interests of oppression

Control of the imagination occurs through the inhibition of creative and critical thinking.  The oppressor attempts to justify the conditions of human existence by mythologizing the social reality through the creation of 'social myth'. The creation of social myth is intended to conceal certain facts and present a fragmented view of the social reality. Adaptation to the fragmented view fosters irrational thinking. With fragmented perception, individuals perceive their own situation as unalterable. They become resigned to a fatalistic outlook which is reinforced with further mythologizing resulting in the individual's social rank as the 'oppressed.'

 "Education, by serving the ruling interests in a class society, and by doing this in a disguised way, actually gives people a distorted view of the world, and offers a misrepresentation of reality. Through its process, its content and its political power in bestowing social rewards, it presents a conceptual scheme and methodologies- ways of perceiving the world - that largely ensure that people will take their place in the existing world as well-fitting members of the status quo, without questioning the status quo or perceiving the real relations on which it is built ...Education promotes a distorted and illusory view of reality in the name of enquiring into truth. And since it does this in a deliberate and systematic way, its offerings and products can properly be characterised as a structured misrepresentation of reality." ( Kevin Harris. Education and Knowledge: The Structured Misrepresentation of Reality. London, Boston and Henley: Routledge & Kegan Paul. 1979 chapter 5, On Education 164)

Evaluation Students of banking education are evaluated on the basis of their ability to learn passively. Their passively acquired knowledge is measured in terms of a reward and punishment system of grading or 'grades'. Good grades are given to students who do not refuse to be treated as objects. The 'good student' is the one who repeats and is not restless or intractable, the one who accepts without questioning and does not reveal their doubts, the one who is unable to think critically and does not want to know the reason behind the facts, the one who does not want to break with pre-established models, the one who does not denounce the mediocrity of bureaucracies and adjusts to the status quo. .

Mechanistic view of consciousness  Teaching methods of banking education are based on a mechanistic and static view of consciousness a view which serves the interests of oppression. The so-called 'educated' student of banking education is the individual who adapts without questioning  the social reality created by the dominant classes. The prevention of thinking is based on a mechanistic and static view of consciousness. In the mechanistic view, consciousness is isolated from the world of 'reality'. With methods of banking education, attempts are made to keep the consciousness submerged. Individuals are denied the right to raise their consciousness in the naturally ontological process of becoming fully human i.e. 'self-actualisation'. The result is disempowerment of the student and 'social injustice'.

"The lecture-based passive curriculum is not simply poor pedagogical practice. It is the teaching model most compatible with promoting the dominant authority in society and with disempowering students." (Freire Politics of Education p.10)

Implications for education The teaching model of banking education is based on student/teacher contradiction and the lecture-based curriculum. This model is compatible with the aim of promoting the oppressive cultural forces of the dominant authority in society and with the disempowerment of students. However, in view of the current explosion of knowledge and its continuous challenge to the validity of orthodox opinion, the assumption upon which it is based - that the possession of knowledge brings with it the power to control the future - is no longer valid.

     The notion that a teacher is there to impart facts and demonstrate skills implies a set of social and cultural objectives which are inappropriate for the post-modern age. Consequently the banking concept of so-called 'traditional' education is seriously questioned today. There is a paradigm shift away from the teacher/student contradiction and towards its resolution in the democritization of education. It is only through communiction and dialogue that human life and human education can have meaning through authentic communication or 'dialogue'. 

'holistic education'. 

'Holistic perception' of reality required for congruence of thought and action necessary for survival in a changing environment. To have a rational and critical perception of one's reality means that one can perceive the various parts as constituent elements of a whole. Wholistic perception of reality means having a total vision of the context of the constituent fragments and thereby gaining a clearer perception of the reality in its totality.

 "Problem-posing education de-mythisizes reality, transforming reality by unveiling its 'true' nature and thereby fostering rational thinking". (Paulo Freire)

References:Pedagogy of Oppress

"Education in cultural action for domination is reduced to a situation in which the educator as 'the one who knows' transfers existing knowledge to the learner as 'the one who does not know.' (Paulo Freire The Politics of Education South Hadley, MA: Bergin and Garvey Publishers, Inc. 1985 p. 114)

 "In the 'banking' concept of education, knowledge is a gift bestowed by those who consider themselves knowledgeable upon those whom they consider to know nothing." (Pedagogy of Oppressed 58)

Banking education as education for domination:

"Banking education is education as the practice of domination." (Paulo Freire. Pedagogy of the Oppressed. p. 69) The 'banking' concept of education mirrors the oppressiveness of society as a whole. (59)

Student-teacher contradiction...  Students accept a passive role - they are the 'oppressed.' Their creative power is annulled." Serving the interest of oppression, the banking concept of education is based on a mechanistic and static view of consciousness. In attempting to control thinking and action, it inhibits creative thinking and transforms the student into a receiving object who is capable of adjusting to the reality created by the oppressors. Banking education "mythologizes reality." It "attempts to conceal certain facts which explain the way men exist in the world."(71)

 The practices of 'banking' education: ..."the teacher teaches and the students are taught; the teacher knows everything and the students know nothing; the teacher thinks and the students are thought about; the teacher talks and the students meekly listen; the teacher disciplines and the students are desciplined; the teacher chooses and enforces his choice and the students comply; the teacher acts and the students have the illusion of acting through the teacher,; the teacher chooses the program content, and without being consulted, the students adapt to it; the teacher confuses the authority of knowledge with his own professional authority, which he sets in opposition to the freedom of his students; the teacher is the Subject of the learning process and the students are the objects." (59)

 With banking education, the students accept the passive role imposed on them and adapt to the fragmented view of reality which is presented to them. (60)

 Banking education "anesthetizes and inhibits creative power." It "attempts to maintain the submersion of consciousness." (68)

 "Implicit in the banking concept of education is the assumption of a dichotomy between man and the world.  man is merely in the world, not with the world or with others; man is spectator, not re-creator." (62) The 'educated man' is the adapted man, (63) adapted to the world created by the oppressors; adapted without questioning it.

The teacher of banking education fears communication with the student. And yet it is only through communiction that human life can have meaning (63)

 The banking approach to education teaches the individual to accept without questioning. It prevents the individual from thinking. In the interests of the oppressors, banking education is the exercise of domination which stimulates the credulity of students.

OFTEN NOT PERCEIVED BY EDUCATORS, THE IDEOLOGICAL INTENT IS TO INDOCTRINATE THE STUDENTS TO ADAPT TO THE WORLD OF OPPRESSION (65) This explains the almost instinctive reaction against educational 'experiments' which would stimulate the student's critical faculties and encourage a critical consideration of reality. By mythologizing, the banking method of education reinforces the individual's fatalistic perception of reality. He becomes resigned to his situation and perceives it as unalterable. c. Authoritarianism and licence versus freedom and authority theme: freedom and authority conflict in situations of either licence or authoritarianism. d. Education for domination: student-teacher 'contradiction' "Education in cultural action for domination is reduced to a situation in which the educator as "the one who knows" transfers existing knowledge to the learner as "the one who does not know." (Paulo Freire The Politics of Education South Hadley, MA: Bergin and Garvey Publishers, Inc. 1985 114)

Generally speaking, the good student is not one who is restless or intractable, or one who reveals one's doubts or wants to know the reason behind facts, or one who breaks with preestablished models, or one who denounces a mediocre bureaucracy, or one who refuses to be an object. To the contrary, the so-called good student is one who repeats, who renounces critical thinking, who adjusts to models, and who 'thinks it pretty to be a rhinoceros'" (Ionesco Rhinoceros) (117)