CULTIVATION OF PERCEPTIVE INTELLIGENCE... Spiritual Intelligence... OR 'INTUITION' required FOR HARMONIOUS LIVING depends on
the TRANSPERSONAL PERSPECTIVE (GLOBAL OR 'HOLISTIC PERCEPTION') AND THE ELIMINATION OF DICHOTOMIES
theme: Dichotomy as mental creation of the immature mind... With the use of words and the mental process of 'identification' the immature mind perceives dichotomies with an imagination characterized by limited cognition. The dichotomies do not exist in 'reality'. They exist in the minds of people who perceive them. New metaphors - new concepts- new words- are required for the elimination of dichotomies possible with transpersonal perspective. The transpersonal perspective on the quest for psychological well-being is very different from the traditional Western view. Changes in behaviour, thought, affect, and personality are seen not only as goals in themselves but also as means to facilitate awareness of transcendant dimensions of being. The transpersonal perspective is based on the transpersonal model of human nature...
Learning is enhanced by an alternation of the different states of consciousnes
"A great deal of the distress which so many people experience may be traced in no small part to our living as exiles from our own homeland, the inner world of subjective experience. Through psychotherapy, we can overcome the social conditioniong which has taught us to be suspicious and guilty about living from the center out, about truly putting internal wholeness at the highest priority, and about making choices in terms of inner sensing of our own unique needs and wants. When we have gained that liberation, the whole experience of being alive can be subtly different. We know our individuality; we find richness within our flow of awareness; we deal with issues and concerns with greater integrity; and we find the possibility of creative and aesthetic participation in life." (James Bugenthal cited bby Walsh and Vaughan (eds) Beyond Ego: Transpersonal Dimensions in Psychology J.P. Tarcher, Inc. Los Angeles l980 on page l93)on page l93 Walsh Beyond Ego: )
the question 'what is the meaning of life?' rephrased as 'what is the meaning of my life?
human spirituality as higher consciousness...
human creativity depends on freedom...
holistic health methods...
Harmonious living as source of happiness...
flow learning... so-called 'pursuit of happiness'...
buddhism and happiness as 'enlightenment'...
transpersonal model of human nature...
spectrum of mental states or 'states of consciousness'...
highest consciousness state or 'mind level'...
implications for psychotherapy...
transpersonal psychotherapy... transpersonal psychotherapist...
the need to live on the transpersonal level is instinctively realised in a growth process of self-realisation or 'self-actualisation
philosophy of Buddhism and 'enlightenment'
identification with conditioned learning hinders growth of personality...
meaning of the word 'transpersonal'...
transpersonal psychology... consciousness disciplines...
implications for education...
consciousness as awareness
behavioural sciences as inadequate for studying the eastern psychologies or 'consciousness disciplines'...
Transpersonal model of human nature is a theoretical model which incorporates the transpersonal dimensions of the multidimensional human personality. The word 'transpersonal' from Latin ‘trans’ (beyond and through) and ‘persona’ (mask or personality) means 'through or beyond the personality'... beyond the 'ego level' of consciousness. The transpersonal realm of the human personality lies beyond the ego or 'existential' level and the goal for the individual is to attain knowledge of the total self, to include their humanness as well as their individual personality. On the transpersonal level, the ego is viewed in the same way as the 'superego' of traditional psychoanalysis. As the individual can but does not have to identify with his 'superego', so he can but does not have to identify with his ego. This shift in the identification with the ego reduces its power, resulting in the individual's detachment from its demands. Liberated from his identification with his ego, the 'awakened' individual transcends the ego level of consciousness... enters the transpersonal dimensions of his personality, attains a transpersonal perspective... discovering his own true nature, his humanness, his connectedness with his fellow beings and with nature.
Transpersonal perspective and the elimination of dichotomiesproblem of 'dichotomy' - individual freedom/social responsibility Belief in the dichotomy between man and society is based on the assumption that man is naturally antisocial and the function of society is to restrain man's evil nature.
The mechanistic frame of mind "sees" a dichotomy between consciouness and reality, subjectivity and objectivity, practice and theory... wholistic perspective eliminates the so-called 'dichotomy' between individual freedom and social responsibility. Dichotomies are integrated in the wholistic perspective of maturity. A mature person is aware of his/her responsibilities to society and does not perceive a dichotomy. The mature individual is aware of his/her responsibilities to the society. The mature individual has a self perception which includes a sense of responsiveness to the society.
PERCEPTION OF DICHOTOMY RESULTS FROM INCOMPLETE PSYCHOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT. SELF ACTUALIZING PEOPLE DON'T SEE DICHOTOMIES 'self-actualization' as a vision of human nature: Self-actualizing people perceive many so-called 'problems' as merely pseudoproblems resulting from an ego-centered mental process which dichotomizes and distorts reality. The result is the emergence of problematical false dichotomies such as reason-emotion, mystic-realistic, self-society (Freud) , teacher-learner etc. For the self-actualizing person, false dichotomies can be resolved..."the polarities disappear, and many oppositions thought to be intrinsic merge and coalesce with each other to form unities." (See Lowry on Maslow) Self-actualisation involves dichotomy transcendance... The age old axiom... The interests of the individual and of society are mutually exclusive and antagonistic. This is a false premise.
The transpersonal is ego inclusive. The inclusion of the
ego means there is nothing to fix or get rid of in the psyche. The key is to
align the ego functioning to the blueprint and reign of the higher self (soul
self) The ego's needs and wants are taken into account and harnessed for the
benefit of the whole psyche. The desires of the human ego mind are allowed to be
defined and refined for the growth, health and total wellness of the person.
There are processes that facilitate this process. In this way the ego is seen as
a functioning part of a being; however not the total part of a being. I say
being here, because an individual is looked upon as a spirit with a soul
contained within the very fabric of being a soul purpose and an essential reason
for being and living. So the fact that one is born, alive here; that one exists
or is "being" here on this planet, at this exact time and place is not an
accident and has a purpose. I also say being and living, because one is being
just by being here. The next step is the living. The living is up to you, and
how you live your life. Your unfoldment is in your hands and awareness. Your
life and how you live it has a purpose whether you are conscious of this or not.
The conscious awareness and unfolding of this blueprint leads to your reason for being and is seen as being integral to the universe, world, society and universal/divine plan. In this way there are no mistakes, just the possibility of the realization of ones wholeness and perfection. With this self realization then comes the self actualizing of this awareness of being into the world creating a sense of purpose and deeper sense of peace and fulfillment in one' life.
There is a spectrum of mental states or 'states of consciousness' The consciousness states are (ranging from 'higher' to 'lower') the mind level, the ego level, the existential level and the shadow level. The existential level represents the individual's level of identity as a psychophysical organism existing in space and time. This level is influenced by the familial and cultural context of experience and is the source of rational thought processes and personal will or 'motivation'. The ego level represents the individual's identification with a self-image and is the source of self-interest and egocentric desires. The shadow level represents facets of the personality which the individual judges negatively because they are inconsistent with the self-image of the ego level.
According to Eastern psychospiritual systems (Buddhism) the individual is encouraged to undergo the practice of meditation and self-exploration in order to train or 'discipline' the mind in an effort to raise their consciousness from the ego level to the mind level, thus altering their perception of reality and transcending the limitations of social conditioning. In this way the socially conditioned individual is committed to experiencing directly the deeper nature of their being i.e. their humanness their true nature.. and perceptive intelligence or 'intuition'. Their task is to bring all aspects of their life into increasingly conscious and harmonious alignment with the changing web of relationships which makes up their environment. Only then can they be responsible and live in harmony with their own human nature and with that of others. The human capacity to transcend the limitations of social conditioning and to take responsibility for living in harmony with nature and with others becomes increasingly apparent to those individuals who commit themselves to the self-exploration necessary for direct experience of the deeper nature of their being i.e. their 'human nature'. Human nature involves a broad spectrum of mental states which represent the different levels of expression of the human consciousness or 'consciousness states'... 'rational waking state', 'creative state', 'meditative state', 'dream state' and so on. Mental processes of the various consciousness states are explainable in terms of biological processes and emergent properties of the brain. They are influenced by the organism's state of physical and emotional wellbeing or 'wellness'.
The mind level is the highest state of consciousness or 'consciousness state' because it goes beyond the usual limits of awareness of the ego level of personality development... it goes beyond or 'transcends' the usual limits of awareness of the ego level of personality development...the identity of the self at the ego level. The mind level represents the transpersonal dimension of the human personality ...also known as the 'transcendant level', the level of expanded awareness of 'ego-transcendance' or 'self-transcendance'. The mind level is the most profound state of consciousness and represents the innermost consciousness of the individual's 'supreme identity of humanness'. It is the source of knowledge of the total self or 'self-knowledge'. Self-knowledge is the meaningful appreciation of one's own 'human values... humanity and the humanity of others.On the mind level the person lives by values which preserve the interconnectedness of human beings: justice, truth, beauty, freedom, generosity, love and compassion. The mind level represents the transpersonal dimension of the human personality. For this reason the mind level is the basis for 'social intelligence' (or 'creative intelligence') and the most efficient for human adaptability. Human adaptability depends on a perception of the social reality which is global or 'holistic' and therefore objective i.e. 'holistic perception'. Holistic perception is free of the contaminating and distorting effects of subjective prejudices, fears, wishes, and calculations i.e. 'inner freedom'. Perception of reality which is devoid of distortion is objective. Objective perception of the absolute or 'ultimate reality' is described in terms of spiritual values - the same as those described by philosophers, scientists, artists, spiritual leaders and the religions. Wholistic consciousness of the mind level involves the total and integrated functioning of the brain as a whole. The wholistic functioning of the brain involves the 'higher' mental or neural processes which lead to profound insights. It is these insights of brain-based wholistic perception which form the basis for creative and adaptive human behaviour.
To attain the transpersonal perspective, the person must first become mentally liberated in the four transpersonal dimensions, must let go of all thoughts and fantasies of the usual waking consciousness state to remove distortions in the perceptions of reality, must let go of conditioned attachments to persons, objects, self- images and behaviour patterns, must let go of identifications with personality, personal dramas, thoughts and beliefs. In this way the person is liberated from interests, desires and anxieties of the 'ego' realm of the conscious, obstacles to growth are removed and a perspective from the transpersonal realm becomes possible. The person attains a 'higher' state of consciousness, characterised by an awareness of his connectedness with the rest of humanity and expressed towards others as love and compassion. The transpersonal model of human nature provides an effective alternative technique of psychotherapy. In the treatment of non-adaptive behaviour, the transpersonal psychotherapist capitalizes on the self-healing capacities of the individual's own consciousness. Instead of focusing on the ego conflicts which cause the behaviour problems, the transpersonal psychotherapist focuses on the person as a whole. He utilises the techniques of the consciousness diciplines which are based on the holistic psychologies of Eastern cultures. The individual learns to extend his identity beyond the existential ego level to the transpersonal level of awareness. The transpersonal psychotherapist cooperates with the individual in his efforts to attain awareness on the transpersonal level of consciousness, transcending his own ego conflicts. On the transpersonal level, the ego is viewed in the same way as the 'superego' of traditional psychoanalysis. As the individual can but does not have to identify with his 'superego', so he can but does not have to identify with his ego. This shift in the identification with the ego reduces its power, resulting in the individual's detachment from its demands. Liberated from his identification with his ego, the 'awakened' individual transcends the ego level of consciousness and enters the transpersonal dimensions of his personality, discovering his own true nature, his humanness, his connectedness with his fellow beings and with nature.
To attain the transpersonal perspective one must first become mentally liberated from interests desires and anxieties in the usual waking consciousness state i.e. the ego realm of the conscious. first let go of all thoughts and fantasies to remove distortions in the perceptions of reality, second let go of conditioned attachments to persons, objects, self-images and behaviour patterns, third let go of identifications with personality, personal dramas, thoughts and beliefs. In this way the person removes the obstacles to growth and makes it possible for them to achieve a perspective from a 'higher' state of consciousness, characterised by an awareness of the transcendant dimension of being... their connectedness with the rest of humanity and expressed towards others as love and compassion.
Growth and attainment of a transpersonal perspective can take place at any time and require liberation of the mind or 'mental liberation'... the letting go of the thoughts and fantasies of the usual waking consciousness state thereby removing distortions in the perceptions of reality which hinder optimal growth and interfere with the full functioning of the transpersonal dimension.
In order to live beyond the ego level of consciousness and attain the transpersonal perspective, the person must become mentally liberated in 'consciousness'... the person must first become mentally liberated in the four dimensions of 'consciousness,' 'conditioning,' 'personality,' and 'identity.' 'Consciousness' is the central dimension that provides the basis and context for all experience. 'Conditioning' is the dimension of attachment to any objects, persons, particular self-images or behaviour patterns. Conditioned attachments to persons, objects, self- images and behaviour patterns keep the mind in bondage are the source of pain and suffering. Identification with conditioned learning hinders growth of personality... 'Personality' is the dimension related to the person's emotional baggage. 'Identity' refers to the identification with our thoughts and beliefs..
The person must from the effects of conditioned learning...'conditioning' ....first let go of... detach themselves... all thoughts and fantasies interests, desires and anxieties in the usual waking consciousness state... the ego realm of the conscious... second let go of conditioned attachments to persons, objects, self-images and behaviour patterns, third let go of identifications with personality, personal dramas, thoughts and beliefs. In this way the person removes the obstacles to growth and makes it possible for them to achieve a perspective from a 'higher' state of consciousness, characterised by an awareness of the transcendant dimension of being...
They must also be detached from the personal dramas of other people, a detachment which appears to detract from involvement with society and is thus easily misconceived and misunderstood as selfishness. The contrary is true. Pursuing self-knowledge beyond the ego level of self-interest, an individual fulfills an instinctive need to live on the 'higher' levels of consciousness... their connectedness with the rest of humanity and expressed towards others as wisdom of love or 'compassion'. At these 'higher' levels of consciousness, the individual lives by values which preserve the interconnectedness of human beings: justice, truth, beauty, freedom, generosity, love etc. The dichotomy 'selfishness vs. unselfishness' disappears. The person living at the transpersonal level is selfish in his unselfishness, and unselfish in his selfishness. .
With liberation from identification with the 'ego' the person is liberated from interests, desires and anxieties of the ego realm of the conscious, obstacles to growth are removed and a perspective from the transpersonal realm becomes possible... the individual is 'awakened'... transcends the ego level of consciousness ... attains a 'higher' state of consciousness which is characterised by an awareness of one's connectedness with the rest of humanity and expressed towards others as love and compassion. .. enters the transpersonal dimensions of the personality, attains a transpersonal perspective... discovers their own true nature, their humanness, their connectedness with their fellow beings and with nature. The pursuit of self-knowledge beyond the ego level of self-interest, fulfill an instinctive need to live i.e. 'human nature'. ...the 'higher' levels of consciousness... to live by values which preserve the interconnectedness of human beings: justice, truth, beauty, freedom, generosity, love etc.
From the transpersonal persective, the dichotomy 'selfishness vs. unselfishness' disappears. The person living at the transpersonal level is selfish in his unselfishness, and unselfish in his selfishness.
In connecting to the transpersonal the individual is connecting to their higher expanded self and expanded states of awareness. There is the recognition of a connection to the whole and something larger. This something is The All That Is or 'God consciousness'. The transpersonal is not religious, but through religion one can have transpersonal experiences. The transpersonal can be felt in a myriad of religions, belief systems, rituals, esoteric philosophies, disciplines and activities. However, to consistently be able to tap into this state at will or live in this state is quite another situation, and is possible
Once a person has awakened to the transpersonal dimensions of existence, life itself is held in a different perspective. individuals have greater degrees of voluntary control ... In the dimension of perception, the individual has healthy attributes which include perceptual sensitivity, clarity, and relative freedom from distorted perceptions. The individual lives as a fully realized human being whose " doors of perception have been cleansed." They can see things as they are, free from distorting influences of desire, aversion, ignorance and fear... an aspect of healthy psychological and intellectual growth.
"The healthy person's sense of identity extends beyond the usual
ego self-sense... mental health is associated with recognizing,
owning and integrating the 'shadow' component of the psyche
which comprises those attributes judged to be negative and
inconsistent with one's self-image...the very healthy live in
the presence of the numinous (filled with a sense of the presence
of divinity), the 'sacred unconscious,' the transpersonal self,
or pure awareness, and they realize that too.
The mystic or 'peak' experience of transcendance involves
the individual's total acceptance of his biological nature and
his part in natural evolution. Without having to resort to the
'supernatural,' the individual's "communion with what transcends
him" becomes a biological experience which makes it easily
possible fo life in the transersonal realm of human existence.
Western psychotherapy based on behavioural science... transpersonal realm of human consciousness... transpersonal therapist...
In the major Western traditions of psychology and psychoanalysis, mental health is equated with the absence of pathology. An individual's behaviour is considered as a reflection of his mental health and thought to be measurable in terms of self-esteem and ego strength.
Transpersonal psychology and transpersonal psychotherapy are based on the transpersonal model of human nature which is a theoretical model based on the transpersonal dimensions of the multidimensional human personality.
Transpersonal phenomena cannot be explained by applying the techniques of the behavioural sciences. Scientists and experimenters have to be trained as participant-observers, less interfering and more sensitive to an individual's subjective experiences. The main limiting factor in their intellectual understanding of the transpersonal dimensions of the human personality is their own limited personal growth. They first have to extend their own personal growth beyond the ego level to the transpersonal level. Before they can comprehend any individual's transpersonal experiences, they must themselves have attained a transpersonal perspective.
Sometimes spiritual practices unleash powerful inner forces that can be unsettling, or even frightening. In traditional settings these events were guided by spiritual leaders, mentors or other knowledgeable individuals. In western society these events are often misconstrued as pathological and out of place.
Implications for Psychotherapy There are numerous psychotherapies available to the individual for the treatment of non-adaptive behaviour problems supposedly originating from personality 'deficiencies.' In the major Western traditions of psychology and psychoanalysis, the most common model of psychotherapy utilises techniques based on the Western psychological theory known as 'behavioural science'. The techniques of behavioural science have been developed from empirical methods of experimentation. The model of psychotherapy which is based on behavioural science is known as 'behaviour modification' - so named because it is based on the scientific verification and measurement of behaviour change. An individual's behaviour is believed to be measurable in terms of self-esteem and ego strength - characteristics which are thought to reflect the individual's mental health. In the diagnosis and treatment of behavioural problems, behavioural scientists and therapists focus on pathological conditions which can be identified with very clear overt behavioural patterns and characteristics. Psychotherapies based on Western psychology have placed the emphasis on analytical techniques and measurability.
Although the techniques of behavioural modification psychotherapy are highly
effective in the treatment of behavioural problems, they lack credibility.
Techniques of behavioural modification psychotherapy equate mental health with the 'absence' of pathological behaviour... they ignore other dimensions of an individual's consciousness.... most important aspects of human nature which are the individual's thoughts and feelings. They have excluded the recognition and even acknowledgement of the validity of subjective experience. They ignore some of the most important aspects of human nature which are the individual's thoughts and feeling They fail to recognise the validity of subjective experience... They do not recognize that the individual has the potential for attaining the level of awareness which is necessary to bring about the self-healing effects of consciousness. Consequently behavioural science is disqualified from making any valid conclusions about the human potential for attaining optimal mental health and well-being. A shift in emphasis is presently taking place.
Scientists of the various psychologies are investigating the various influences on behaviour and several models for psychotherapy have been formulated. These include 'cognitive behaviour modification', 'humanistic psychotherapy', 'existential psychotherapy' and 'transpersonal psychotherapy'. Cognitive behaviour modification is concerned with the role of cognition in behaviour modification. Humanistic psychotherapy is concerned with growth as well as health and pathology. It is based on a holistic psychology and has as its central aim the achievement of ego goals and development of personality. Existential psychotherapy is based on the existential philosophy which focuses on the individual's existence as a continuous struggle with the reconciliation of life and its inevitabilities. Consequently it is concerned with the individual's search for the meaning of life and the purpose of his existence, the individual's confrontation with death and aloneness, the necessity of the individuals' responsibility for his destiny and choice of opportunities, and the individual's instinctive demands for authenticity. Existential psychotherapy supports the view that we create our own reality by what we believe. If we believe in the 'existence' of the 'higher' values such as love, freedom etc. then we can live our lives in accordance with these values and so experience our connectedness with humanity and understand the underlying unity of all life.
The transpersonal model of human nature provides an effective alternative technique of psychotherapy... 'transpersonal psychotherapy'. The transpersonal tradition emphasises the centrality of the therapist's consciousness in determining the outcome of therapy. Therapeutic practice embodies compassion, empathic connection, congruence, unconditional positive regard, non-judgement, reverence for life, mindfulness and balance, belief in the sacredness of each individual and in the I-Thou relationship (Martin Buber). This can be summed up as the 'space' that is created between therapist and client. In the treatment of non-adaptive behaviour, the transpersonal psychotherapist capitalizes on the self-healing effects of the individual's own consciousness. Instead of focusing on the ego conflicts which cause the behaviour problems,the transpersonal psychotherapist focuses on the person as a whole. He utilises the techniques of the consciousness diciplines which are based on the holistic psychologies of Eastern cultures.
Transpersonal therapy is holistic therapy encompasses all levels of human experience, including the spiritual level … As holistic therapy transpersonal therapy encompasses all levels of human experience, including the spiritual level … the aim is to reveal the person behind the personality. There is a trust in each person's innate will and capacity to grow to self-actualization and further to self-transcendence and realize their true self.
Transpersonal psychotherapy has a foundational belief in the sacredness and innate goodness of people, people's inherent desire for wholeness and desire to connect with other human beings. There is a trust in each person's innate will and capacity to grow to self-actualization and further to self-transcendence and realize their true self. The transpersonal therapist recognizes that they not in a superior position to the client, are equal to the client and in fact, on the same level of pure consciousness… there is no distinction between client and therapist. This shift in ideology changes the whole nature of the therapy
The transpersonal psychotherapist and nature of the therapy...
In the treatment of non-adaptive behaviour, the transpersonal psychotherapist utilises the self-healing capacities of the individual's own consciousness.
. Instead of focusing on the ego conflicts which
cause the behaviour problems, the transpersonal psychotherapist focuses on the
person as a whole. transpersonal therapy focuses on the 'essential
self.' The therapist listens with suspended judgment
and an attitude of deep respect While each person has their own thoughts and beliefs and
feelings, their experiences cannot be completely separate. The consciousness of
one has a direct impact on that of the other. It is in that shared
consciousness, where true empathy and insight can take place for both therapist
and client. While it is still important at times for the therapist to be
discriminating and analytical, the primary mode of being with the client is with
an attitude of open mindedness, wonder and innocence... 'beginners mind' in Zen Buddhism. It is as if everything that is said, and
felt, and thought, was for the first time ever. The therapist strives to be
completely genuine...authentic and coaches the client to do the same.self-aware, honest, Both
aspire to be self-aware, honest, and 'real'. This makes for a powerful
therapeutic relationship in which tremendous healing and growth can take place.
The transpersonal psychotherapist cooperates with the individual in his efforts to attain awareness on the transpersonal level of consciousness, transcending his own ego conflicts. The individual learns to extend his identity beyond the existential ego level to the transpersonal level of awareness. On the transpersonal level, the ego is viewed in the same way as the 'superego' of traditional psychoanalysis. As the individual can but does not have to identify with his 'superego', so he can but does not have to identify with his ego. This shift in the identification with the ego reduces its power, resulting in the individual's detachment from its demands.
"We are what we think... and with our thoughts we make the world."(Buddha)
"In the 'Tao of Personal and Social Transformation,' Duane Elgin suggests that expanded awareness is reflected in a quality of life that seeks harmony with nature, both inner and outer, rather than domination over it. For the person working in these areas there is no question of their connection with, and responsibility for, the larger whole of which they experience themselves to be an inseparable component. For a person beginning to experience what was formerly 'other,' as 'self,' it makes no sense not to acknowledge responsibility and the need for ethicality and service. With the attendant reduction in egocentric desires, there is less wish to impose one's will on nature and others and more interest in harmonizing with them in an ecological and Taoistic manner. Fewer desires means less desire for consumerism or susceptibility to advertising pressures, resulting in a tendency toward a choiceful life of voluntary simplicity." (Walsh l99-200)
transpersonal realm of human consciousness... transpersonal therapist... The transpersonal realm of the human personality lies beyond the ego or existential level
EASTERN PSYCHOLOGIES OR 'CONSCIOUSNESS DISCIPLINES' There are various 'psychologies' which differ according to the level of consciousness which they emphasize. The ego level of consciousness is emphasized in the traditional western psychologies of the behavioural sciences... the so-called 'higher' mind level consciousness is emphasized in eastern consciousness disciplines. Integration of the two approaches allows for social interaction which is fundamental to education of the whole person i.e. 'holistic education'.
Self-centeredness... Egocentricity... desire to protect the self from the dangers of constant change of life or 'impermanence'... the 'self-center' is the locus of the illusory self or 'ego'... the illusion of the unchanging self... in reality there are only thoughts, feelings, sensations, emotions of wishing, longing, hating, grieving, fearing which warp one's judgment and clouds one's vision.
What is consciousness? Consciousness is the mind's process of awareness... It takes many forms from experience of pain to self-consciousness. In the past the mind or 'soul' was regarded as separate from the brain but interacting with it in some way. In the twentieth century American psychology was dominated by behaviourism (psychology viewed in terms of overt behaviour) and the concept of consciousness as a process (William James The Principles of Psychology) became a taboo subject. In the mid 1950s the advent of cognitive science made it possible to consider psychology in terms of mental processes. However the problem of consciousness was regarded as purely philosophical and too elusive for experimental study. It was therefore largely ignored. Today it is generally believed that consciousness is an aspect of the brain which, like other aspects of brain functioning (emotion, imagination, dreams, mystical experiences and so on... can be explained in terms of the behaviour of large sets of interacting neurons. New ways of thinking are required to study it... a new conceptual framework or 'paradigm'.
Francis Crick began the study of consciousness
with the study of the mammalian visual system... visual consciousness or
'vision'. Visual consciousness is a constructive process of symbolic
representation or 'interpretation' of the three-dimensional visual world... 'seeing'...
a function of complex brain activities - largely unconscious computations
involving not only the two-dimensional information available to the eyes -
ambiguous input - but also past experience as experience of human ancestors
embedded in the genes as well as the brain's own past experience embedded in the
unconscious. Consciousness is always changing in order to increase effectiveness
of adaptation to changing social conditions.
Behavioural sciences as inadequate for studying the eastern psychologies or 'consciousness disciplines'. The Western model is useful in the study of phenomena related to the paradigm of the behavioural sciences but is too limited for the study of the consciousness disciplines. The behavioral sciences ignore those 'psychologies' which present too many difficulties for objective study. The individual who lives within the context of the paradigm of Western psychology is unaware of its limitations and of the mental distortions which affect his perception of 'reality.' Matter is considered to be the primary constituent of 'reality' and consciousness the product of material brain processes. By defining 'psychology' as the 'mental or behavioural characteristics of an individual or group,' behavioural science becomes only one of the many 'psychologies' described by different peoples and cultures of the world. Western scientists have been examining the Eastern consciousness disciplines from the Western point of view. These appear incomprehensible and nonsensical when viewed from the limited Western perspective. They have denied the credibility of other states of consciousness and other perceptions of 'reality.' Not understanding the assumptions of the Eastern paradigms, they have been applying those of the behavioural sciences. Discrediting the 'higher' states of consciousness, they have described practitioners of the consciousness disciplines as pathological, delirious, psychotic and even regressing to infantilism. Without the mental training prescribed by the doctrines of the consciousness disciplines, an individual can be completely unaware of any fixation to the Western 'psychology' paradigm, in itself psychotic behaviour, defined by the behavioural sciences as the lack of recognition of a distorted perception of 'reality.' In order for Western scientists to investigate the consciousness disciplines, they must do several things. They must first recognize that such investigations involve a clash of paradigms - their own with that of the consciousness disciplines. Consequently they must examine the beliefs and models of the paradigm within which they would carry out the investigations. They must be open-minded enough to reject the assumption that the consciousness disciplines are evidence of psychopathology or limited intelligence. They must be prepared to accept the possibility that the paradigms of these other 'psychologies' may be as sophisticated as their own. They must be willing to adapt new research paradigms which serve to concentrate their attention on the appropriate problem areas. As well as being trained in the behavioural sciences, they must be trained in the consciousness disciplines so that they can be aware of the distinction between their central phenomena and any innacurate popular notions. They must in effect shift their viewpoint from the behavioural sciences paradigm to the consciousness disciplines paradigm. They can then apply the methods of behavioural science in an attempt to clarify the paradigm of the consciousness disciplines. The 'objective' study of human mental processes by Western psychology or behavioural science is obscured by the psychological viewpoint of the scientists themselves. In order for Western behavioural scientists to fully understand human behaviour, they need to acknowledge the validity of perceiving the Eastern 'psychologies' as alternative 'lenses' for gaining further insights into the human mental processes.
View of consciousness disciplines... the primary constituent of 'reality' is the consciousness and the material world is its reflection... the view of behavioural science which holds the view that the primary constituent of reality is the material world and consciousness is its reflection.
'Enlightenment' as a the most adaptive consciousness state...
The psycho-spiritual systems of the Eastern 'psychologies' emphasize the more profound and more adaptive 'mind level' of consciousness.... Buddhism
Completeness or 'wholeness' of mind... total freedom from distortion of perception arising from fear and conflict is 'creative intelligence' . The energy of creative intelligence... 'pure consciousness' as 'knowledge of pure potentiality' ... also 'quantum field'... becomes manifest as creation for service to humanity and human evolution... thought and action are motivated by harmony and love. Merging with the present is freedom... depends on willingness to see reality for what it is, assuming responsibility for one's reality and seeing problematic situations as opportunities for transformation ... all this for effective adaptation to social change i.e. 'adaptability'. Human adaptability is a function of sense of well-being which comes from harmony with the environment based on harmony with oneself... 'self-knowledge'... i.e. ‘high-level wellness’ or 'happiness'.
the human organism ceaselessly strives to produce and to create because productiveness as the productive realisation of one's human potentialities... is the source of strength, freedom and happiness ...the more productively one lives, the stronger is one's conscience and in turn, the more it furthers one's productiveness... the less productively one lives, the weaker becomes one's conscience ..
The key to unlocking the secret to happiness is to recognize that true happiness is not locked up in a hidden vault. Happiness is at the heart of our very nature. Everything we need, we already have as pure potential within our mind. The problem is that our awareness permits the experience of thought and emotion, which are like clouds that obscure the clear sky. Happiness lies in the recognition of the sky. Meditation techniques give us the ability to notice the clouds while seeing the sky. "The meaning of meditation", he teaches "is to recognize our own pure inner nature and allow our own possibility, quality, and well being to manifest. It's not like you try to change and then become a better person. It looks like you have changed your life, but it is just recognition
What is the meaning of life... purpose of life?: This apparently complex issue is really an issue of the non-reflective mind. The question by itself is meaningless. The answer depends on one’s attitude to death and dying. With the knowledge that we all will die some day, each person is responsible for providing meaning for their own life. This is the dilemma of the ‘human condition’. The aim of life is happiness in the true sense of the word and this is tied up with an understanding of the meaning of life. Life’s meaning as the meaning of one’s life depends on happiness... So what is ‘happiness’? Happiness is an art which depends on interrelationship and interdependence, never on isolation. The happiness which one seeks for oneself depends significantly on one's relationship with others. From this point of view, one becomes less egocentric… less obstinate. In our daily lives one becomes sensitive to one's connections with others… in the air we breathe, the food we eat and so on.
Happiness is a function of harmony with one's environment or 'external harmony' based on harmony with oneself or 'internal harmony' ... 'self-knowledge'... see 'spiritual emergence'...whole person health... holistic health or..high level wellness... health from the transpersonal perspective... Biochemical function of 'happiness': the opiates of the body called 'endorphins', influence the immune system.
Harmonious living as source of happiness 'Success' as Expression of 'Creative Intelligence' (required for social adaptability) Harmonious human relatedness is the source of 'happiness'. Happiness is the productive realisation of human potential.The true source of happiness is productiveness and creativity which derives from harmonious living. Productiveness and creativity are the source of the strength and freedom from which happiness is derived. The person who has prudence and foresight and who is able to reject immediate gratification for the sake of permanent and tranquil satisfaction is happy. Happiness is the greatest human achievement because it means that one has resolved the dilemma of the 'human condition'. Happiness is the response of the total personality to a productive orientation toward oneself and the world. It is preserving the integrity of the self and being one with the world. Happiness is peace of mind and absence of fear or 'serenity'. Happiness as serenity has a biological function which is connected with the evolution of the human organism as a social organism. Whereas pain results from actions which are injurious to the organism pleasure and happiness result from actions which are conducive to the welfare of the organism.
The intrinsic conscience functions as the guardian of personal integrity as it matures in a process of psychological growth or 'spiritual growth'. Spiritual growth involves development of the conscience as conscious awareness... moral consciousness i.e. ‘moral development’. The result of moral development is the awareness or consciousness of the human morals - the 'moral faculty' -spiritual values - justice, beauty, truth, love and so on, the same values which are prescribed by the organized religions... natural 'moral knowledge'.... which provide meaning to human existence and the so-called dichotomies of the 'human condition' i.e. 'happiness'.
Developed conscience leads to happiness as sense of oneness with the world... Happiness is the greatest human achievement because it is the answer to the problem of human existence... 'human condition'
Happiness depends on living with the responsibility of freedom… To be happy one must be completely free from all conditioning influences… this means being critically aware of all phenomena in one’s environment… being constantly curious of one’s connections to other people as individuals as well as how they represent impacting social forces. It means seeing the whole picture… the forest as well as the trees! For total freedom one must live in that state of consciousness which is beyond the ‘ego level’, that is the eternal present of the ‘transpersonal level’... the so-called ‘higher consciousness state’... in which so-called ‘free will’ is based on moral rationality or 'rational conscience'. On the transpersonal level one is able to adapt to social circumstances much more effectively because one’s own happiness involves the concern for the happiness of others. In a truly civilized society each person honours the other.
For the human being the purpose of life is to be happy… How do we make a happy life for ourselves. What brings about the greatest degree of happiness... The transcendance of fear based ego-consciousness…‘self-transcendance’. In the transpersonal or 'spiritual’ realm the sense of caring for the happiness and welfare of others is the powerful force of compassion... love which implies a sense of responsibility Compassion is the source of inner strength. Life on the transpersonal level of human consciousness results in inner tranquility... serenity. Compassion for others helps remove fears and insecurities thus giving one the strength to cope with one’s own obstacles. Compassion is the source of success in life… ultimately depends on the realistic attitude based on the realisation that all human beings share the same suffering … With this attitude one perceives obstacles as challenging opportunities for self-improvement. The need for love as compassion is the manifestation of the profound interdependence between all human beings and the foundation of our humanity…. A law of nature. Humility... profound respect for others... in dealing with human problems results in behaviour which is effective and forceful. Happiness is required for effective adaptation to changing social conditions i.e.'adaptability'.
If one insists on remaining on the so-called ‘lower consciousness state’or ‘ego level’ one is basically not happy because at that level one is unaware of the meaningfulness of human relationship and therefore of the meaning of life. It is this basic unhappiness which motivates the egocentric person to make continued efforts to escape life’s meaninglessness often at the expense of the freedom and happiness of others.
The human organism is a social organism... depends for adaptability on developed conscience as the guide for life... provides for flexibility... as bending with the storm... necessary for adaptability.
Spirituality of the human personality or 'human nature' as higher consciousness or pure consciousness i.e. 'conscience' of the 'Self'required for 'adaptability'... Development of conscience and ‘self-mastery’ is a function of natural growth in the context of freedom for rational decision-making and initiation of creative action necessary for effective adaptation to social change... 'adaptability'. Human adaptability is a function of awareness free from the conditioning influences of past experience and depends on functioning at the transcendental level of human consciousness... level of human spirituality... described in terms of interdependent natural laws or spiritual truths ... difficult to put into words... These function in preserving the integrity of the organism while adapting to social change. Human integrity depends onknowledge of one's self beyond and above ego-consciousness... the ‘higher self’ or ‘true Self’. The Self is equivalent to spiritual essence... essential or intrinsic nature of the human personality i.e 'human nature'. Human nature is defined in terms of creative intelligence, a function of personality integration. Creative intelligence is the source of creativity and abundance.... the field of infinite possibilities of choices and outcomes... creative potential... 'pure potentiality' and pure knowledge. Access to pure consciousness... domain of spirit is through non-judgemental attitudes of good will and practice of meditation which lead to silence of the mind.
Human creativity depends on freedom as 'inner freedom'. Human freedom involves conscious choice-making... one must be aware... be conscious of the choices one makes every moment.... ..‘karma’. .. ... thus removing them from the unconscious and brings them to consciousness.... making it possible to observe the choices one makes while making them. If each karmic episode involves conscious choice it can be analysed and evaluated in terms of its implications for the future. The best way to prepare for any moment in the future is to be fully conscious in the present. The future is created in the present... one's intent for the future or 'intention' without attachment to the outcome.... is the power behind desire..... intention with detachment leads to life-centered present moment awareness or 'attention' required for appropriate and effective action... intention, the power behind desire, without attachment to the outcome leads to present-moment awareness which is most effective context for attention... create the future through detached intention but always in the context of present-moment awareness. The future is created in the present. Past, present and future are properties of attention in consciousness. Past is recollection or memory; Future is anticipation. Present is awareness. Only present is real and eternal. With life-centered present moment awareness, imaginary obstacles disintegrate.The remaining obstacles can be transmuted into opportunities through one-pointed intention. One commits oneself to a goal with intense passion.... this is the power of detached awareness and one-pointed intention operating simultaneously. The quality of intention on the object of attention will orchestrate an infinity of space-time events to bring about the outcome intended, Intention lays the groundwork for the effortless, spontaneous, frictionless flow of pure potentiality from the unmanifest to the expression of the manifest... Create good karma with actions of giving and receiving with the right intention... state of equilibrium maintained... giving and receiving are aspects of the flow of universal energy ...ntention behind the giving ad receiving is the most important thing... if the intention is to create happiness then the giving or receiving generates affluence as happiness. When choices are motivated by harmony, joy and love then very little effort is required to bring about successful results. This depends on one’s perception of reality as it is so that one can see the inherent opportunities and respond creatively.
Happiness as 'success' depends on the ability to create a desire that is ‘intention’ combined with detachment... The ‘affluence’ of true success is the abundant flow of goodness which leads to the continued expansion of ‘happiness’ - that state of being described as carefree, joyous and loving. Success as happiness can be characterised in terms of the ability to live in harmony with one’s own nature, with other human beings and with ‘nature’ as the environment … the ability to progressively realise one’s own worthy goals… the ability to fulfill one’s desires with effortless ease... the ability to involve oneself in meaningful human relationship as a reflection of one's relationship with oneself... to engage in creative freedom…to function with emotional and psychological maturity… to have peace of mind… to engage in spiritual growth which is a function of the unfolding of complete humanness or ‘divinity’ involved in the process of transcending the ego consciousness or ‘self’ i.e. ‘self-transcendance’… to experience life as a miracle and so appreciate its beauty... to enjoy health as well-being, energy, enthusiasm for life i.e. ‘wellness’. Success in this sense is a function of spiritual freedom and therefore of consciousness or developed ‘conscience’.
Success depends on the ability to become involved to create a desire that is ‘intention’... without attachment to the outcome...with ‘detached involvement’ ...or ‘detachment’. Detachment is a function of the belief in the power of the Self... freedom to create the symbols of wealth or ‘wealth consciousness’. Wealth consciousness depends on actualisation of one's unique talent, unique way of expressing that talent and unique needs related to that talent. Expressing unique talents takes you into timeless awareness or 'bliss'. If the needs are matched with the creative expression of the talent and if that is combined with service to humanity then this is the person's purpose in life or ‘dharma’(Sanskrit) In detachment lies the wisdom of uncertainty... there are no rigid or forced solutions... Forcing solutions creates new problems... attention on the uncertainty (comes from detachment) enhances alertnessand awareness of opportunities inherent in the problems. Solutions emerge from the problem when one is free to see opportunity. Preparedness and opportunity coming together is 'good luck'... the recipe for success... uncertainty is the ground of pure creativity and freedom from the prison of past conditioning. Conditioned responses are unconscious responses and are therefore not free choices. .
Attachment to the symbolic manifestation of intention and desire i.e. ‘poverty consciousness’ is a function of the belief that one cannot have what one desires... a belief based on fear and insecurity which comes from ignorance of one's true nature....
Happiness depends on the natural striving to take charge of one's own life and health... 'self-mastery'. Interference with personal freedom and independence deprives the individual of the capacity to recognize their own emotions or 'feeling states'. The result is inability to integrate life experiences... psychological failure... or 'psychological impotence'.
Health as 'wellness' is a function of harmony and balance between external and internal environments. Harmony with the internal environment ...harmony with the self or 'internal harmony' involves consciousness - the conscious awareness of one's vitality and energy, of feeling alive throughout one's being, a physical state which induces the mental state of deep appreciation for the environment. Harmony with external environment - 'external harmony' - involves sensitivity to the environment. External harmony depends on internal harmony. Both internal and external harmony are based on the integrated functioning of mind, body and spirit which work synergistically to create a sense of wholeness.
High level wellness is a function of personal philosophy which engages the responsibility for self-awareness or 'self-knowledge'. Self- knowledge is knowledge of the nature of the human personality i.e. 'human nature'. Human nature is a function of human motives for behaviour or 'human needs'. The human needs include the physiological needs - nutrition, exercise and stress management; the basic psychological needs for security and belongingness; the spiritual needs for spiritual growth and 'self-transcendance' i.e. 'metaneeds'.
‘Happiness is a function of higher consciousness... abundance consciousness or 'wealth consciousness'
The road to well-being or 'wellness' is transcendance of the ego... 'ego-transcendance' or 'self-transcendance'...
"It follows, then, that the transpersonal perspective on the quest for psychological well-being is very different from the traditional Western view. Changes in behaviour, thought, affect, and personality are seen not only as goals in themselves but also as means to facilitate awareness of transcendant dimensions of being." (Walsh l2l)
"At the highest levels of well-being-in the transcendent realms where we experience ourselves as pure awareness transcendant to space, form, and time - very different possibilites for describing health become apparent. This realm is clearly transcendent to any existing concept of health. Like the other subjective dichotomies, the distinction between health and illness collapses in the deepest levels of being." (Walsh)
Methods of healing on the transcendental or transpersonal level of human consciousness are called 'holistic health methods'... 'mind-body medecine The individual's ability to recognize and accept responsibility for his/her own feeling states is a necessary condition for the attainment of high level wellness... required for human ability to adapt to changing social conditions... 'adaptability'. Enhanced awareness of one's own feeling states is a precondition for holistic health. The underlying principle of wholistic health care is the respect for human potential. Wholistic health care is based on the fact that each person is a unique personality with a unique life history. In their unique way, each person is motivated by the instinctive striving for physical and mental wellbeing and happiness or 'high level wellness'. Wellness health implies the committment to the individual's goals for self-actualization and wholeness. The attainment of high level wellness depends on the individual's own efforts to maximize their human potential. In order to attain one's goals, one must have a sense of purpose and a means of self-expression. Purposeful living implies personal satisfaction gained from successful achievement. Independent activities integrate life experiences into a unified whole... they are 'integrating experiences'. The self-responsible individual seeks those opportunities which provide for the expression of his uniqueness and dignity and provide for human needs. The wholistic approach to health care emphasizes the positive approach to meeting human needs...
Happiness as learning in the 'flow state' or 'flow learning'... The term 'flow learning' was coined by pioneer research in the field of happiness, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi (pronounced Chick-SENT-mehi) head of the Department of Behavioural Sciences at the University of Chicago and author of Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experiences.
"Flow experiences arise naturally from intrinsic motivation by virtue of the fact that we have a human mind which processes information... Learning is time invested in yourself, in the growth and development of your own unique experience."
Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi (pronounced Chick-SENT-mehi) head of the Department of Behavioural Sciences at the University of Chicago and author of Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experiences.
Deepak Chopra Seven Spiritual Laws of Success
the word 'affluence' meaning to flow in abundance... derives from Latin 'affluere' 'to flow to'
Communion with nature enhances sensitivity to the interconnectedness with other beings... and provides a sense of unity with all of life
So-called 'pursuit of happiness'... American context of the so-called ‘constitutional right’ to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. In the culture of capitalism, the pursuit of happiness is interpreted largely in terms of egocentric motivation for material wealth... seeking money or power for the sake of the ego, is wasted energy because one is chasing the illusion of happiness instead of enjoying happiness in the moment. The knowledge and practice of spiritual law is the basis for true success as a process or journey… not an outcome or destination. In the culture of capitalism, the pursuit of happiness is interpreted largely in terms of egocentric motivation for material wealth as an outcome. On this basis people who make money for its own sake are not successful in the true sense of the word. The creation of material wealth is an aspect of true success only if it is motivated by care and love, joy and happiness. The essence of all material wealth is life energy.
Awakening to the transpersonal dimensions of existence, life itself is held in a different perspective...an aspect of healthy psychological and intellectual growth. .....
Happiness does not depend on a 'high standard of living' and 'wealth'. Material wealth which is in excess of the amount sufficient for one's needs is not a source of happiness.
Philosophy of Buddhism and happiness as enlightenment: So-called ‘Buddhist practice’is primarily concerned with the ‘training of the mind’. The individual must live on the transpersonal level of consciousness, beyond the ego and existensial levels, in order to confront and reconcile life with its apparent inevitabilities of loss and death. According to the First Noble Truth of Buddhism, all life is imbued with suffering... this is the 'human condition'. There are three truths which lead the way out of the dilemma of the human condition... first, 'the cause of all suffering is attachment', second, 'the relief of suffering comes from the cessation of attachment', and third 'the cessation of attachment comes from following the eightfold path, a prescription for ethical living and mental training aimed at attaining full enlightenment.
Social intelligence depends on fulfillment of spiritual needs i.e. 'metaneeds' The expanded awareness of the transcendant level is reflected in a quality of life which is based on seeking harmony with nature - inner harmony with one's human nature and outer harmony of socialization in which the individual lives by the spiritual values which preserve the integrity of the self and at the same time the interconnectedness with other human beings - freedom, truth, goodness, justice, beauty, love, compassion etc. The spiritual values are biological needs for the value life i.e. spiritual needs or 'metaneeds'. As human needs, the metaneeds describe the ultimate nature of humanity i.e. 'human nature'.
The need to live on the transpersonal level is instinctively realised in a growth process of self-realisation or 'self-actualisation'. The self-actualised person engages life consciously and directly, experiencing the connections with all of life. They feel responsible for the larger community and find it impossible to withdraw from worldly responsibility. The person experiences the 'other' as 'self' and has no desire to impose their will on others but acknowledges their responsibility for morality and service. They prefer a life of simplicity and experience life and living as an unbroken pattern of interconnection even in the minutest details of daily existence. They have few desires and are immune to the pressures of advertising and consumerism. On the transpersonal level, the individual lives by values which preserve the interconnectedness of human beings: justice, truth, beauty, freedom, generosity, love and compassi
Philosophy of Buddhism and happiness as 'enlightenment': The 'enlightened mind' is a witness to the world of changing forms but not affected by it.
Pain and suffering come from the false consciousness of ego, that is identification with the transient.
The extinction of the illusion of self-centeredness of the ego is 'nirvana' or 'enlightenment'.
So-called ‘Buddhist practice’is primarily concerned with the ‘training of the mind’. The individual must live on the transpersonal level of consciousness, beyond the ego and existensial levels, in order to confront and reconcile life with its apparent inevitabilities of loss and death. According to the First Noble Truth of Buddhism, all life is imbued with suffering... this is the 'human condition'. There are three truths which lead the way out of the dilemma of the human condition... first, 'the cause of all suffering is attachment', second, 'the relief of suffering comes from the cessation of attachment', and third 'the cessation of attachment comes from following the eightfold path, a prescription for ethical living and mental training aimed at attaining full enlightenment.
The following is based on conference of Sogyal Rinpoche: The path of buddhism? The term 'buddhism' is unfortunate because buddhism is not an 'ism'. We use the term is 'dharma' which means everything which exists and doesn't exist ...on the ordinary level. Dharma is the intrinsic nature of everything, that which supports. The essence of the buddhist path is deep and transforming compassion towards all living things coupled with wisdom... penetrating insight into the nature of reality not external reality but internal reality...the reality of intrinsic human nature... the nature of mind is the same as intrinsic nature of everything.The essential of Buddha teachings ... don't commit a single unwholesome action... this avoids harm, cultivate a wealth of virtues, train the mind to achieve peace of mind... this is buddhadharma ....involves practice of the way we conduct our lives the ethical way of being and meditation.
There are two types of meditation: Analytical meditation (using reason) to examine the mind very deeply to see its effects on itself ... love compssion and patience give inner strengt, confidence and courage which liberate the mind allowing for the understanding of its true nature... One-pointed focused meditation. The problem is distraction. The mind must first be settled. Ego-consciousness... egotism... is the root cause of all our problems. With deep analytical meditation you realise the non-existence of ego.. with mindfulness practice you can remove the harmful ego. Helping others must not involve ego. Being one good person is the greatest contribution to wor:ld peace. Remove the harm within yourself .... interior disarmament... is the first step.
Implications for education Education for adaptability is education for realization of human potential and happiness or 'enlightenment'. Education for enlightenment is education for complete personality development beyond the ego level of self-interest and egocentric desires to include the wholistic perspective of the mind level. 'holistic education'
Transpersonal education or transformative education as protection from media fallout
"People are generally unaware of the transforming power of the intermediate world of symbols - the media. Political scientists have been quite unaware of the effects of media anywhere at any time, simply because nobody has been willing to study the personal and social effects of media apart from their 'content'." (Marshall Mcluhan. Media As Extensions of Man. p 323)
"To know the Illuminati you must study the Reptile" - Credo MutwaZulu shaman
It is important for people to know the basics about the reptilian brain because it (a) reveals where the character and attitudes of the Illuminati come from and (b) how and why we are manipulated mentally and emotionally throughtelevision and other imagery... it is to do with the manipulation of the reptilian part of the human brain. (triune)
Vulnerability to propaganda.... adult immaturity
"Holistic educators seek to promote responsible education based on the fundamental unity of the universe... the connection between this unity and the individual's inner or higher self, cultivation of intuition and insight through contemplation and meditation in order to 'see' the unity... universal realisation of the unity of the universe leads to social action which would counter injustice and human suffering." (Miller)
"In the Western civilizations, there is little awareness of the importance of a pervasive visual culture of literacy and the psychological conditioning it entails as a groundwork for market systems of supply and demand with uniformity of commodities and fixed-price systems. Literate man does not question the logic of lineality in print. The so-called tribal mentality can very easily spot the gaps in literate mentality which tends to have the the special illusion that it is highly aware and individualistic." (Marshall Mcluhan. Media As Extensions of Man.)
Medium is the massage (message) The power of communication media - television, radio and film - is based on their ability to affect the thought process.... Marshall McLuhan's famous phrase 'the medium is the massage' - from the Arabic 'massa' meaning 'to touch'. Owners of media know that they influence peoples' thinking. The effect of the media depends more on the nature of the medium or 'massage' than on its content or 'message'. The power of the media lies in their ability to extend and amplify the functions of the senses and the central nervous system. The individual lacking in critical awareness fails to inspect media content directly, producing a self-protective numbing of the consciousness i.e. 'media fallout'.
The extent of media fallout depends on the nature of the medium. Communication media vary with respect to their capacity to intensify the visual aspect of speech - they vary in their 'intensity'. The degree of intensity determines the extent to which the audience is involved in the content. The less the visual aspect of speech is intensified, the more the audience is involved in the content and consequently the more it participates... The lower the intensity, the higher the audience involvement.
Radio is a medium which has low intensity and high audience involvement. The visual aspect of speech is not intensified and as a result the audience becomes deeply involved and tends to participate in the content. Radio is described as a 'hot' medium. With hot communication media, people are more likely to accept mechanical solutions to their social problems. It was easy for Hitler to persuade people to accept the mechanical solutions to Germany's social problems because the radio was the medium which was used to convey the content of his speeches. The power of the radio medium was in its low intensity and its high audience involvement and participation.
Electric technology of television is an extension of the central nervous system. In extending the central nervous system, electric technology is organic and non-mechanical because it offers a means of getting in touch with every facet of being at once. As in brain functioning, the speed of electric commmunication creates a constant and instantaneous totality of interacting events. The electric media foster uniqueness, social integration, social diversity, and social interaction. People are involved with one another... become compelled to participate and react to the world as a whole. As an electric medium, television extends the central nervous system.
Television is a communication which intensifies the visual aspect of speech and can be described as a medium of 'high intensity'. The audience becomes less involved with the content and audience participation is low. The audience is less likely to become deeply involved with the content or 'message' making the television a 'cool' medium. With the cool medium of television, people are not likely to participate in mechanical solutions to their social problems. Furthermore, as people adapt to the electric age of instant information, they become less interested in fragmented specialization and depend more on their knowledge and insight into the creative processes of life and society. In assuming the role of information gathering, they work in equilibrium with their environment and so they tend to become more involved with the changes taking place.
Electric technology of computers...
The most powerful and aggressive of the media combines the electric technology of instantaneous communication with the old mechanical print technology - the film medium. Film, like the alphabet and the printed word, is a medium of communication which has a 'high level of literacy'. People who accept the unquestioned logic of lineality in print accept the rationality of the sequence of photos as the film unwinds from the reel during its projection onto the screen. The communications media with their capacity for shared mutual dialogue provide the means for cultural transformation to take place.
Money is a medium of communication and an extension of human motivation. Money is a medium of communication - a translator, a bridge, a social metaphor... and like language, 'money talks'. Money extends and intensifies the human motives for behaviour or 'human needs'. Money is an extension of 'intrinsic motivation'. As an extension of human motivation money is a powerful social medium which creates its own social values. The function of money as a medium of communication began in non-tribal and non-literate cultures and societies and evolved with the evolution of agricultural communities... originated in the form of commodities and staples such as cotton, fur or blankets. The staples and commodities themselves were the media of communication.
Notion of money as representative of human work and the specialist technology of money intensifies its function of communication For the hunter and the fisherman of tribal society, work is an integral part of life and does not require the medium of money. Agricultural societies evolved with division of labor and specialization of work. It was the agricultural community living which produced the notion of money as representative of human work and this eventually led to the meaning of 'work' in the sense of 'work for money'.
Literacy as writing helped to establish the concept of money as 'representative money' in the form of currencies and paper money. In its representative form money became an extension of human labor and skill... became the medium of communication which translated one kind of work into another... came to represent the storehouse of communally achieved work, skill and experience. The money itself became the staple and the resource with the power to specialize and rechannel human energies. Like writing or 'literacy', money became a specialist technology which intensified the visual aspect of speech. As a medium of technology, money had the effect of separating 'work' from other social functions. With the depreciation of human moral values the person's existence came to be measured in terms of their ability to make money.
Implications for education: development of critical faculties... 'critical practice': Cultural transformation depends on education... education of the inner life... education for complete personality development and for development of critical consciousness and the critical faculties... 'critical practice'. Development of the critical faculties is a function of personality integration. Complete integration of the personality is characteristic of the self-actualised individual and the mature mind. Complete personality integration results in complete cognition and full awareness and the capacity to defend oneself from the shock of media fallout. Incomplete integration of the personality results in incomplete cognition and limited awareness and the incapacity to defend oneself from the shock of media fallout. Education for the inner life and personality integration is 'transformative education'. Transformative education is based on the 'transformation worldview' - the view of the universe as an interconnected whole.
The transformation worldview is rooted in the 'perennial philosophy' which focuses on the interconnectedness of the universe... ecology and subatomic or 'quantum physics' have shown that at the heart of nature is the interconnected web. If one part of the whole is affected, there are changes in the whole system. An education framed in the transformation worldview is 'transformative education'. Transformative education fosters the development of the personality to maturity... fosters the development of the critical capacities for critical consciousness i.e. the ability to decode reality structures i.e. to unveil the hidden codes which explain the underlying paradigm that frames the social reality and which are embedded in everyday experience. Transformative education is education for the critical inspection of media content regardless of the nature of the medium itself. As education for awareness and for self-defense against the shock of media fallout, transformative education is responsible education. The cultivation of the individual's critical consciousness encourages their active participatation in the reconstruction of their own social reality.
Reference: Marshall Mcluhan Media As Extensions of Man
Television and the electric media can be thought of as an extensions of the central nervous system, including the brain. "Our new electric technology is organic and non-mechanical in tendency because it extends, not our eyes, but our central nervous system." (McLuhan Media: The Extensions of Man. 147)
Film, like the press, radio and televison is a collective art form dependent on teams of skilled people working in collaboration. Like the alphabet and the printed word, "the movie is an aggressive and imperial form that explodes outward into other cultures." (Marshall Mcluhan Media As Extensions of Man 295)
Mcluhan's famous phrase "The medium is the massage" is also the title of a book. The word 'massage' is derived from the Arabic 'massa' meaning to touch. The medium is the 'massage' refers to the power of the medium of communication in affecting the thought process. The power of the medium depends more on the nature of the medium than on the content or 'message'.
Insights from transpersonal psychology can be incorporated in a science of education. Practices of transpersonal psychology and transpersonal pychotherapy can be applied to the practical aspects of curriculum planning and teaching methodologies.
Our current educational systems are almost entirely addressed to the mode of reason. Training of the observational and contemplative modes and affective dimension is almost completely lacking. Even within the mode of reason, most emphasis is placed on the acquisition of data and less on actual training and developing skill in reasoning itself. One of the goals discussed by Tom Roberts in "Education and transpersonal relations" is therefore the expansion of the educative process into these other dimensions. Roberts suggests that thought the field is very young, a number of useful and enjoyable techniques exist for facilitating the attainment of traditional and nontraditional goals. One of the most important tasks awaiting transpersonal educators is the exploration of the optimal goals and potentials of such an expanded curriculum.(Walsh p 198) Book of Walsh and Vaughan "Beyond Ego": Thomas Roberts "Education and transpersonal relations"(228-233) "there is emerging awareness that our current educational psychology is not so much wrong as so very limited." "... psychologists are extending their domain to include the study of consciousness" "What do ..states of consciousness have to do with education? Quite a bit, both at the immediately applicable level and in long-range possibilities. Surprising as it seems, teachers and counselors find no problem in figuring out how to use transpersonal techniques in their day-to-day work. Enough books of games and techniques for classroom use have appeared to justify the label "transpersonal education." Insights from transpersonal psychology can be applied to our ordinary awake state of consciousness (and consequently our ordinary schooling).
Thomas Roberts "Educatin and transpoersonal relations"(228-233) "there is emerging awareness that our current educational psychology is not so much wrong as so very limited." "... psychologists are extending their domain to include the study of consciousness" "What do ..states of consciousness have to do with education? Quite a bit, both at the immediately applicable level and in long-range possibilities. Surprising as it seems, teachers and counselors find no problem in figuring out how to use transpersonal techniques in their day-to-day work. Enough books of games and techniques for classroom use have appeared to justify the label "transpersonal education." The immediate uses (of transpersonal psychology) stem from applying insights from transpersonal psychology to our ordinary awake state of consciousness (and consequently our ordinary schooling) rather than anything requiring an altered state of consciousness.
l. Roberts, T.B. "Transpersonal education: a personal view" Journal of Humanistic and Transpersonal Education,, l976, l Roberts, T.B. (Ed). Transpersonal psychology in education. In
2. T. Roberts (ed) Four psychologies applied to education: Freudian, behavioural, humanistic, transpersonal. John Wiley, New York, l975, pp 395-555
3. Roberts, T., and Clark, F.V. "Transpersonal psychology applied to education." Fastback booklet, no. 532. Phi Beta Kappa Education Foundation, Bloomington, Indiana, l975
4. Hendriks, C.G. and Wills, R. "The centering book: awareness activities for children, parents and teachers." Prentice-Hall, N.J. Englewood Cliffs, N.J. l975
5. Hendriks, C.G. and Roberts, T.B. "The second centering book: awareness activities and transpersonal treasure maps." PrenticeHall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J. l97
6. Hendriks, C.G and Fadiman J. "Transpersonal education: a curriculum for feeling and being." Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J. l976
7. Clark, F.V. Fantasy and Imagination in T. Roberts (Ed.), Four psychologies applied to education : Feudiam, behavioural, humanistic, transpersonal. John Wiley, New York, l975 pp. 498-513
8. Ornstein, R.E. "The psychology of consciousness", W.H. Freeman, San Francxisco, Calif. l972
9. Le Shan "How to meditate, Bantam, New York, l975)
l0. Ullman, M., Krippner, S., and Vaughan, A. "Dream telepathy: experiments in nocturnl ESP" Penguin, Baltimore, Md., l974
ll. Honorton. C., "Psi-conducive states of awareness" In E. Mitchell and J. White (Eds.), "Psychic explorations : a challenge for science" G.P. Putnam, New York, l976 pp. 616-639
l2. Morris, R.L. "The psychobiology of psi. In E. Mitchell and J. White (eds.), Psychic exploration : a challenge for science" G.P Putnam, New York, l976
l3. Green, E. and Green, A "The ins and outs of body energy. InScience year , the world book science annual.Chicago: Field Enterprises Educational Corporation. Reprinted in T. Roberts, (Ed.), Four psychologies applied to education: Freudian, behavioural, humanistic, transpersonal. John Wiley, l975 pp. 463-472 continued from Thomas Roberts "Education and Transpersonal relations: a research agenda"
Left brain/right brain: The psychological locations of the abilities to visualize, fantasize, and intuit, or course are not especially important. What is important is that we have developed a lopsided...education (Clark, F.V. Fantasy and Imagination in T. Roberts (Ed.), Four psychologies applied to education : Freudiam, behavioural, humanistic, transpersonal. John Wiley, New York, l975 pp. 498-513) (Ornstein, R.E. "The psychology of consciousness", W.H. Freeman, San Francisco, Calif. l972)
Fantasy seems to be a handy way to draw on the abilities of the right hemisphere. POTENTIALS FOR EDUCATION OF THE RIGHT HEMISPOHERE OF THE BRAIN AND THE ALPHA, THETA AND DELTA LEVELS OF BRAIN ACTIVITY: Different brain waves: Attending to outside stimulation reasoning, calculating, and alertness are likely to, keeep the grain primarily in beta frequency, that is a brain wave pattern l5 or more times a second. Our current educational curricula are based on the brain operating at the beta range -at the level of ordinary consciousness. There may be a whole range of human abilities, however, that are primarily based on other ranges of brain wave frequencies: alpha (8-l4 times a second), theta (5-7 times a second), and delta (0-4 times a second). There may also be many forms of learning that are most efficient when the brain is operating at one of these nonordinary levels. The potentials of education at these levels may be as great as those at the beta level, perhaps greater. Dreaming, psychic healing (Le Shan "How to meditate, Bantam, New York, l975) and paranormal phenomena ( Ullman, M., Krippner, S., and Vaughan, A. "Dream telepathy: experiments in nocturnl ESP" Penguin, Baltimore, Md., l974) seem to be associated with these relaxed and inner-directed states of consciousness (Honorton. C., "Psi-conducive states of awareness" In E. Mitchell and J. White (Eds.), "Psychic explorations : a challenge for science" G.P. Putnam, New York, l976 pp. 616-639) (Morris, R.L. "The psychobiology of psi. In E. Mitchell and J. White (eds.), Psychic exploration : a challenge for science" G.P Putnam, New York, l976) Control of the autonomic nervous system through biofeedback (Green, E. and Green, A "The ins and outs of body energy. In Science year, the world book science annual. Chicago: Field Enterprises Educational Corporation. Reprinted in T. Roberts, (Ed.), Four psychologies applied to education: Freudian, behavioural, humanistic, transpersonal. John Wiley, l975 pp. 463-472) and artistic expression may be best learned when the brain is operating at these nonnormal levels. New research directions: The realms of educational psychology may well be expandable far beyond their current limits. Instead of an educational psychology of only the left hemisphere of the brain, the right hemisphere will take its place. And there may be whole educational psychologies for each of the alpha, theta, and delta levels of consciouness. Our current beta approach will be continued but seen in a larger perspective.(321232)
TWO MODES OF KNOWING BY KEN WILBER (Walsh "Beyond Ego." pp 234-240) Symbolic and intimate knowledge "With the awakening of symbolic knowledge there 'seems' to arise arise a split in the universe between 'knower' and the 'known,' the thinker and thought, the subject and the object; and our innermost consciousness , as knower and nvestigator of the external world, ultimately excapes its own grasp and remains as the Unknown, Unshown, and Ungraspable, much as your hand can grasp numerous objects but never itself, or your eye can see the world but not itself. Just as a knife cannot cut itself, the universe cannot totally see itself as an object without totally mutilating itself....the (notion) that the universe is severed into subject vs. object (dichotomies of a dualistic universe) ...the very cornerstone of western philosophy, theology and science. For western philosophy is, by and large, Greek philosophy, and Greek philosophy is the philosophy of dualisms. ... the error of dualism forms the root of intellection and is therefore next to impossible to uproot by intellection (Catch 22: If I have a fly in my eye, how can I see that I have a fly in my eye?) To detect this demands a rigorous , consistent, and persistent methodology capable of pursuing dualism to its limits there to discover the contradiction. Today, science potentially offers the type of rigorous approach capable of rooting out dualisms, principally because of its thoroughgoing experimentalism and its sophisticated instrumentation that allows it to pursue a dualism to its limits. This is exactly the type of powerful and consistent methodology that is potentially capable of destroying dualisms, and although scientists didn't realize it, they had started to build upon the Cartesian dualism of subject vs. object a methodology of such persistence that it would eventually crumble the very dualism upon which it rested. Classical science was destined to be self-liquidating. See Heisenberg's 'uncertainty principle' etc. The quantum revolution was so cataclysmic because it attacked not one or two conclusions of classical physics but its very cornerstone, the foundation upon which the whole edifice was erected, and that was the subject-object dualism...It was abundantly clear to these physicists that 'objective measurement and verification could no longer be the mark of absolute reality, because the measured object could never be completely separated from the measuring subject-the measure and the measurer, the verified and the verifier, at this level, are one and the same.' Now at about the same time that the 'rigid frame' of scientific dualism was collapsing in physics, a young mathematician named Kurt Godel (25 years old) was authoring what is surely the most incredible treatise of its kind. In essence it is a type of logical analogue to the physical Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. Known today as the "Incompleteness Theorem", it embodies a rigorous mathematical demonstration that every encompassing system of logic must have at least one premise that cannot be proven or verified without contradicting itself. Thus "it is impossible to establish the logical consistency of any complex deductive system except by assuming principles of reasoning whose own internal consistency is as open to question as that of the system itself." Thus logically as well as physically, 'objective' verification is not a mark of reality (except in consensual pretense). If all is to be verified, how do you verify the verifier, since he is surely part of the all? In other words, when the universe is severed into subject vs. an object, into one state which sees vs. one state which is seen, something always gets left out. No observing system can observe itself observing. For this reason there is always uncertainty, incompleteness. Besides relinquishing the illusory division between subject and object, wave and particle, mind and body, mental and material, the new physics-with the brilliant helf of Einsteinabandoned the dualism fo time and space, energy and matter, ...this is of the utmost importance, for these scientists realized the inadequacy of dualistic knowledge only be recognizing the possibility of another mode of knowing Reality, a mode of knowing that does not separate the knower and the known, the subject and the object. Eddington a calls the second mode of knowing "intimate" because the subject and object are intimately uinted in its operation. As soon as the dualism of subject-object arises, however, this 'intimacy is lost' and is 'replaced by symbolism, and we instantly fall back into the all-too-common world of analytical and dualistic knowledge. Thus-and we will presently elaborate upon this at length-symbolic knowledge is dualistic knowldege. And since the separation of the subject from the object is illusory, the symbolic knowledge that folllows from it is, in a certain sense, just as illusory. This dualistic and symbolic iis at once the gbrilliance and the blind-spot of science and philosophy, for it allows a highly sophisticated and analytical picture of the world iotself, but however illuminatin asndf detailed these pictures may be, they remain just that - pictures. They therefore stand to reality just as a picture of the moon stands to the real moon.
Korzybski, father of modern semantics, lucidly explained this insight by describing what he called the 'map-territory' relationship. The 'territory' is the world process in its actuality, while a 'map' is any symbolic notation that represents or signifies some aspect of the territory. The obvious point is that the map is not the territory. We have available to us two basic modes of knowing, as these physicists discovered (symbolic and intimate). Science started with symbolic, dualistic knowledge focusing on the 'shadows, but as a result of recent advances in the physical sciences, this mode of knowing - in one aspect at least was found to be inadequate for that 'knowledge of the Real' that it had so deceptively promised. This inadequacy led many physicists to draw on the second or intimate mode of knowing, or at least to envisage the necessity of this type of knowledge. Reality as consciousness: ...different modes of knowing correspond to different levels of consciousness. Our personal identity is intimately related to the level of consciousness from and on which we operate. Therefore, a shift in our mode of knowing results in a shift in our basic identity. If we utilize only the symbolic and dualistic mode of knowing, ... we feel ouselves to be fundamentally distinct and alien from the universe, an identity that is signified by our role and our self-image, that is to say, the symbol-picture that we have formed of ourselves, by dualistically becoming an object to ourselves. Non -dual knowlege does not so operate. It is the nature of the non-dual mode of knowing to be one with what it knows, and this entails a shift in one's sense of identity."
Startling conclusion: "Since modes of knowing correspond with levels of consciousness, and since Reality is a particular mode of knowing, it follows that Reality is a level of consciousness." (236)
Based on the underlying principle of respect for the individual's potential, experiments and study in education have stressed the importance of learning at the emotional level, so-called 'affective learning.'
One example, in education, early experiments and study in 'affective learning'- working with children at the emotional level. Respect for the potential of human beings is the underlying principle .
The Western definition of 'psychosis' ... is itself psychotic
Implications for education...
The rational or 'scientific' approach to pedagogy is concerned with the design of pedagogical methods so that they coincide with children's natural holistic perception of reality. Holistic perception eliminates the so-called 'dichotomy' between individual freedom and social responsibility.
"The human mind is capable of transcending apparent empirical 'facts' and can penetrate to the 'world of formative ideas'. Through the power of imagination, we are able to integrate the empirical with the ideal, to place the concrete facts of our experience into a larger context of meaning, evolution and purpose. Physicist David Bohm calls this context 'undivided wholeness in flowing movement'. Gregory Bateson called it the 'pattern which connects'. Spiritual traditions have called it the Absolute, the Tao, or God. It is the infinitely creative source of Being." (Ron Miller)
Classical science The notion from classical 'science' of the formation of ideas or concepts is based on the method of 'logical analysis' involving the mental processes of induction and deduction... 'scientism'.
Holistic science In the paradigm of holistic science, the classic notion is extended to include the ability to perceive a reality as a concrete whole and then to be able to differentiate the different components - the qualities, details etc.
In a natural process of learning, the human mind progresses through three stages of mental processing: global perception, analysis and synthesis.
Natural learning involves perception of the whole In the process of global perception, things are first perceived in their entirety, as a combination of details and qualities which are not divided or abstracted. Global perception is 'holistic'. Holistic perception is perception of reality in terms of its natural organic state, its natural relationships and connections and in its true and natural proportions. Holistic perception is the fusion of the whole with its constituent parts and with everything which pertains to it. Holistic perception is an obvious characteristic of 'sensory functions'. Whole events can be perceived on the basis of simple visual image. Entire circumstances can be perceived on the basis of particular sounds. Complete forms can be recognized on the basis of simple touch.
In every situation the first approximate perception is holistic.
Survival value of holistic perception ... problem-solving The global or holistic perception of reality is an instinctive and unconscious reaction of the whole organism to environmental stimuli. Holistic perception is a spontaneous reaction which has survival value for the organism in changing environmental conditions. Exemplifying the 'law of natural economy', holistic perception allows for the mobilisation of the organism's mental energy and effort for purposes of adaptation and survival. Perception which is holistic enables the organism to make immediate evaluations of new situations and experiences. The immediate evaluation is an approximation of reality which only later becomes conscious and concrete understanding after contemplation or 'meditation'. Complete understanding is the basis for resolution of the problems of life and living. The ability to solve problems depends on holistic perception and subsequent analysis of the global picture.
Adaptation to new situations and experiences depends on the organism's ability to understand how they relate to itself. Understanding how new situations relates to itself depends on the organism's ability to analyze the constituent elements. Effective analysis depends on the organism's ability to perceive the situation as a whole. In a natural process of holistic perception, the organism instinctively attempts to recognize relationships between the different elements of the new situation as a whole and then attempts to understand each element by itself. Increasing familiarity with an environment or situation - a place, picture, text or kowledge area - increases the ability of the organism to pay close attention to details.
... controlled by natural emotional tendencies Holistic perception is a kind of scientific method which is controlled by the natural emotional tendencies - interest and feeling or 'sensibility'. Holistic perception involves the fusion of sensibilities with the object being perceived. As the fusion of sensibilities with perception, holistic perception is equivalent to 'global representation' or 'globalisation'.
Globalisation is a scientific approach to observation which involves the fusion of objective significance with the individual's emotional subjective significance i.e. 'consciousness state'.
Integrated functioning of the cerebral hemispheres Holistic perception is a function of the global functioning of the human brain... Holistic perception is a 'emergent property' of the global functioning of the human brain. The global functioning of the brain - its naturally holistic perception - is based on the biological functioning of the two cerebral hemispheres. The biological basis for the brain's natural holistic functioning is the interactivity of the two hemispheres.
Brain functioning ... processing of information The brain functions at the unconscious level in the instinctive effort to make meaning of enviromental stimuli. In a process of holistic perception, immediate sensations are first translated into a global representation of the environmental reality. Subsequently in a process of analysis and synthesis - deduction and induction the global picture is broken down to its parts and put together in a logical order. The global mental activity of holistic perception is closely connected with instinctive and unconscious affective tendencies - the sensibilities (role of unconscious in the learning process).... 'brain functions'.
Holistic perception is of survival value and involves the brain's unconscious.
For this reason intellectual development is effectively based on interest and motivation.
Intellectual development involves interest... motivation 'intrinsic motivation'...The analytical mental activity is also connected with interest. There is no fundamental difference betweeen the interest which stimulates global mental activity and analytical or 'intellectual' activity. The only difference is that the interest which stimulates intellectual effort is generally less pressing, less immediate, less urgent than that which stimulates global mental activity. Interest which naturally stimulates global mental activity is the instinctive interest connected with instincts for adaptation and survival of the organism - instincts for nourishment, protection and defense, socialisation and productivity or 'work'.
Holistic perception required for understanding of human nature The human capacity for holistic perception allows for an understanding of many aspects of human development and human nature - psychological development of personality, moral development of conscience, cognitive development of intelligence. The human organism is an indivisible whole, a whole being with reason and sensitivity. Human sensitivity or moral consciousness... 'conscience', 'spirit', 'soul'... develops normally in a sane social environment or 'civilisation'. A sane civilisation is a progressive civilization. Sensitivity as a projection of the human' soul' and impregnates the individual's efforts to understand the world intellectually... understanding of the significance of human sensitivity and its incorporation into pedagogical methods allows for the progression of human civilization i.e. 'progressive education'.
As the fusion of sensibilities with perception, holistic perception is equivalent to 'global representation' or 'globalisation' - Ovide Decroly
Implications for education The natural mechanisms of learning constitute a rational foundation for the formulation of effective pedagogical methods and a 'scientifc pedagogy'. It is important that pedagogical methods comply with principles of child psychology... that they effectively utilize the child's spontaneous holistic perception.
The term 'global' implies the involvement of the whole person as a being of body, soul and spirit. The 'global method' involves the whole person as a whole being. With increased emphasis on the integrating factor of a holistic perception ('global perspective'), the different branches of school subject matter are perceived in terms of their interrelationships, increasing the effectiveness of the learning process. The learner's naturally holistic perception is taken into account in the design of presentation.
Holistic perception is dominated by the innate 'tendencies' of involvement and interest. Interest is a dynamic factor in the learning process. The cultivation of natural interest stimulates the awakening of the affective capacity, the spontanaeous tendency for activity. Stimulation of the instinctive tendency for activity leads to the realization of possibilities for self-discovery and achievement. Pedagogy which depends on stimulation of both interest and sensitivity is based on easygoing respect for the individual's spontaneity and freedom. Pedagogical methods which are based on observation and experience have as their most powerful ally - fact. Consequently they are open to innovation and modification and do not have to be identified with doctrines or dogmas..
Holistic perception is the natural most effective means to providing for effective learning which is the fundamental aim of education
One word which represents a useful concept for the elimination of the 'teacher/learner' dichotomy is 'embeddedness.' Teaching is 'embedded' in learning. The two are not separate. The teacher and the student are not separate. Art, science, literature and music are 'embedded' in history. Each discipline can be understood in terms of the others. Human beings must not be considered in isolation. They are embedded in the environment and nature. Work is embedded in play and so on. Perceived in terms of the metaphor of 'embeddedness' opposites and dualisms disappear. Supposedly illogical paradoxes can be resolved when considered in the framework of this emerging worldview.
COMPREHENDING THE WORLD DEPENDS ON perception of the whole... natural 'holistic perception' involves love and reason
Understanding as a Function of the Inseparable Powers of 'Unconditional Love' and 'Reason' Love embodies reason and reason embodies love...
Love... Man comprehends the world, mentally and emotionally, through love and through reason. Although the expression of the two different powers of emotion and thinking, 'love' and reason are two inseparable forms for comprehending the world. 'Love' meaning 'productive love' is inseparable from 'labor' meaning 'to cultivate' or 'make something grow.' 'Love' in this sense is unconditional and cannot be divorced from care and 'responsibility' meaning 'readiness to respond.' To love productively means to care and feel responsible for another's growth and human development. To love one person productively means to be related to his human core, to him as representing mankind.To love is an expression of one's power to love, and to love someone is the actualization and concentration of this power with regard to one person. An emotion resulting from the natural mutual interdependence of human beings, love represents human solidarity which is a necessary condition for the unfolding of each individual's human powers or 'humaness'. Love without 'respect'and knowledge can degenerate into domination and possessiveness.
'Reason' as a human faculty for understanding reality is the comprehension of all conceivable perspectives and dimensions, and not only those which are of practical relevance. Love in this sense is unconditional and cannot be divorced from care and responsibility meaning 'to be ready to respond'. To love productively means to care and feel responsible for another's growth and human development. To love one person productively means to be related to his human core, to him as representing mankind. Intensely interested in a subject, an individual is affected emotionally and intellectually stimulated. With respect he perceives the subject objectively in its uniqueness and totality, and is motivated to think about it productively....
What is the nature of man, what are the special conditions of human existence, and what are the needs which are rooted in these conditions? ...NEED FOR UNCONDITIONAL LIVE ...FOR OPTIMAL PSYCHOLOGICAL GROWTH... FOR DEVELOPMENT OF CONSCIENCE...
The human organism depends for survival on accurate perception of reality... With intense interest in reality, the human organism is affected and stimulated emotionally as well as intellectually. Perception is objective...HOLISTIC.... The object is perceived simultaneously in its uniqueness and totality... comprehension understanding of the world ...mentally and emotionally, through love and through reason... 'Love' meaning 'productive love'.. Love is the power by which the individual human being relates to the world through his fellow man ...connect with dialogical knowledge...Love is an act of courage, an act of freedom, an act of humility, an act of dialogue (dialogical) requiring an intense faith in man... faith in his vocation to be more fully human the human organism is able to comprehend... The human organism understands the world through the natural p
owers of love and reason.... mentally and emotionally through the natural intellectual and emotional powers which are inseparable... through love and through reason... Love is the power of emotion...
The human faculty for understanding reality is based on a combination of love and reason. . the power of emotion is 'love' which implies respect, knowledge, care and responsibilty. Reason is the power of thinking or 'cognition'.comprehension through both powers.... the power of thinking or 'cognition' is 'reason' which implies an understanding of all dimensions...Love is inseparable from reason. The power of love combined with the power of reason results in understanding. ....the expression of the two different powers of emotion and thinking, Love and reason are two inseparable forms for comprehending the world. The intellectual and emotional powers for comprehending the world are 'love' and 'reason'. The powers of emotion and cognition are expressed in different ways. The difference in expression depends on knowledge and respect Love without 'respect'and knowledge - immature love - can degenerate into domination and possessiveness. Immature love is destructive. Love with knowledge and respect - mature love - is productive love....develops into understanding and promotes growth. It is not enough to have more, or even to know more, but to live more, and if we want to live more, we must love more. Love is the 'treasure hid in a field' and this field according to the Gita is our own 'soul'...in the law of love, the more one gives, the more one has." 'Reason' as a human faculty for understanding reality is the comprehension of all conceivable perspectives and dimensions, and not only those which are of practical relevance. Love in this sense is unconditional and cannot be divorced from care and responsibility meaning 'to be ready to respond'. With respect he perceives the subject objectively in its uniqueness and totality, and is motivated to think about it productively. An emotion resulting from the natural mutual interdependence of human beings, love represents human solidarity which is a necessary condition for the unfolding of each individual's human powers and humaness. ...natural faculty for understanding through love and reason - Reason is a human faculty for understanding reality. It leads to the comprehenion of all conceivable perspectives and dimensions. With intense interest in reality, the human organism is affected and stimulated emotionally as well as intellectually. Perception is objective. The object is perceived simultaneously in its uniqueness and totality. ... With the natural faculty for understanding through love and reason - natural wholistic perception - the human organism is able to comprehend all conceivable perspectives and dimensions, and not only those which are of practical significance. ..Although the expression of the two different powers of emotion and thinking, 'love' and reason are two inseparable forms for comprehending the world. Love is a power of emotion. Reason is a power of thinking...cognition. Productive love is a 'meta value' . Love in this sense is unconditional and cannot be divorced from care and responsibility meaning 'to be ready to respond'. With respect he perceives the subject objectively in its uniqueness and totality, and is motivated to think about it productively. ..mentally and emotionally through the natural intellectual and emotional powers which are inseparable... Love is the power of emotion... Reason is the power of thinking or 'cognition'...comprehension through both powers... the power of emotion is 'love' which implies respect, knowledge, care and responsibilty.. the power of thinking or 'cognition' is 'reason' which implies an understanding of all dimensions...Love is inseparable from reason. The human faculty for understanding reality is based on a combination of love and reason. ..The human organism understands the world through the natural powers of love and reason..the expression of the two different powers of emotion and thinking, Love and reason are two inseparable forms for comprehending the world. The inseparable intellectual and emotional powers for comprehending the world are 'love' and 'reason'. An emotion resulting from the natural mutual interdependence of human beings, love represents human solidarity which is a necessary condition for the unfolding of each individual's human powers and humaness.
Dichotomies disappear with increased mental health... If the individuals in a society remain attached to that level of consciousness dealing with gratification of physical and emotional needs, then they would perceive a dichotomy between personal freedom 'to pursue happiness' and their responsibility to the society. If the level of consciousness of those same individuals is raised to a healthier state then they are motivated by so-called 'higher needs' causing the dichotomous perception to dissappear so that the individual lives from the higher level of consciousness in which personal freedom and responsibility to the society become one and the same … in which personal freedom means being responsible to one's conscience (completely developed social intelligence) and therefore being responsible to the society.
Gnostics… from the Greek term gnosis, meaning ‘knowing’…
Elaine Pagels wrote the Gnostic Gospels after working as part of an international team dedicated to studying and translating into English the ancient Gnostic Books found in Nag Hammadi, Egypt. These texts date back to A.D. 120 to 150. The discovery is considered by experts to be as important as the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls. The gnostics were early Christians whose beliefs and practices put them at odds with Orthodox Christianity. In fact, orthodox Christian leaders considered the gnostics to be heretics and after the second century made a concerted effort to destroy their writings.
Pagels argues in her 1979 book that the primary dispute between the orthodox Christians and the Gnostics was not necessarily theological but centered on the Gnostics' refusal to accept the hierarchy and authority of the church as an institution. Gnostics emphasized an individual's relationship with God and believed that self-knowledge was the key to understanding God. This concept undermined the authority and power of the orthodox church. The Gnostics also rejected the literal death and resurrection of Jesus, through which, Pagels argues, the orthodox church found its authority. As well, the orthodox church embraced nearly anyone who would profess faith in Christ, participate in the church's rituals, and recognize the church's authority; the Gnostics required a member to display signs of spiritual maturity and holiness, and, often, to undergo difficult and time-consuming initiations.
The hierarchical structure and wide-spread acceptance of the orthodox church helped it to surpass Gnosticism and remain a powerful force for many centuries. Many of the controversies of early Christianity are still relevant for discussions today.
1945, Egyptian Muhammad 'Ali al-Samman accidentally discovered an earthenware jar containing thirteen papyrus books. These texts were later found to include four gospels that offer accounts of Jesus and his times that are strikingly different from the stories in the New Testament. Included in the discovery at Nag Hammadi are texts purportedly written by Jesus' followers, such as the Gospel of Philip, the Gospel of Thomas, and the Gospel of Truth.
The books express ideas about Christianity that were considered heretical in the middle of the second century. The texts were hidden… the possession of heretical books was considered a crime in the second century, and the orthodox authorities destroyed any texts they found. While the books refer to the Old and New Testaments and include many of the same key figures as the New Testament, the Gnostic Christians who wrote and followed the teachings in these books believed in a religion dramatically different from the orthodox Christianity and Judaism of that period. For example, orthodox believers believed that "a chasm separates humanity from its creator.’’ Gnostics, on the other hand, understood that "self-knowledge is knowledge of God; the self and the divine are identical.’’ Jesus speaks of sin and repentance, while the Gnostic Jesus speaks of ‘‘illusion and enlightenment’.
Christ's Resurrection: Historical Event or Symbol? The orthodox Christian authorities adopted the literal view of the resurrection, while the Gnostic texts reveal a symbolic interpretation…. "doctrine of body resurrection serves an essential political function" in that only those men who claimed to have witnessed Christ's bodily resurrection ‘‘exercise exclusive leadership over the churches as the successors of the apostle Peter.'' Orthodox teaching on the resurrection gave ecclesiastic authority to a limited group of men through whose leadership successive leaders would emerge, limiting the routes and approaches to God. The Politics of Monotheism … the orthodox Christian doctrine of monotheism set the stage for the adoption of church hierarchy, in which the laity is at the bottom and a ‘‘sole leader’’ rules and makes final judgments.
poet and Gnostic teacher Valentinus wrote of a God of "oneness." Privately, though, Valentinus's followers asserted that God was more than the image of a creator, master, and ruler—he was "understood as the ultimate source of all being”